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Latinx

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Latinx is a neologism in American English which is used to refer to people of Latin American cultural or ethnic identity in the United States. The gender-neutral ⟨-x⟩ suffix replaces the ⟨-o/-a⟩ ending of Latino and Latina that are typical of grammatical gender in Spanish. Its plural is Latinxs. Words used for similar purposes include [email protected] and Latine. Related gender-neutral neologisms include Chicanx and Xicanx.

The term was first seen online around 2004.[1] It has since been used in social media by activists, students, and academics who seek to advocate for non-binary and genderqueer individuals. Surveys of Hispanic and Latino Americans have found that the vast majority prefer other terms such as Hispanic and Latina/Latino to describe themselves, and that only 2–3% use Latinx.[2][3] A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that roughly three-quarters of U.S. Latinos were not aware of the term Latinx; of those aware of it, 33% said it should be used to describe their racial or ethnic group, while 65% said it should not.[4][3]

Critics say the term does not follow traditional grammar, is difficult to pronounce, and is disrespectful toward conventional Spanish;[5] the Royal Spanish Academy style guide does not recognize the suffix -x.[6] Both supporters and opponents have cited linguistic imperialism as a reason for supporting or opposing the use of the term.[5]

Discover more about Latinx related topics

Neologism

Neologism

A neologism is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not been fully accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often driven by changes in culture and technology. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologisms. A word whose development stage is between that of the protologism and neologism is a prelogism.

American English

American English

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and in most circumstances is the de facto common language used in government, education and commerce. Since the 20th century, American English has become the most influential form of English worldwide.

Gender-neutral language

Gender-neutral language

Gender-neutral language or gender-inclusive language is language that avoids bias towards a particular sex or gender. In English, this includes use of nouns that are not gender-specific to refer to roles or professions, formation of phrases in a coequal manner, and discontinuing the blanket use of male or female terms. For example, the words policeman and stewardess are gender-specific job titles; the corresponding gender-neutral terms are police officer and flight attendant. Other gender-specific terms, such as actor and actress, may be replaced by the originally male term; for example, actor used regardless of gender. Some terms, such as chairman, that contain the component -man but have traditionally been used to refer to persons regardless of sex are now seen by some as gender-specific. An example of forming phrases in a coequal manner would be using husband and wife instead of man and wife. Examples of discontinuing the blanket use of male terms in English are referring to those with unknown or indeterminate gender as singular they, and using humans, people, or humankind, instead of man or mankind.

Latino (demonym)

Latino (demonym)

The masculine term Latino, along with its feminine form Latina, is a noun and adjective, often used in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, that most commonly refers to United States inhabitants who have cultural ties to Latin America.

Grammatical gender in Spanish

Grammatical gender in Spanish

Grammatical gender in Spanish affects several types of words which have inflection in the Spanish language according to grammatical gender: nouns, adjectives, determiners, and pronouns. All Spanish nouns have lexical gender, either masculine or feminine, and most nouns referring to male humans or animals are grammatically masculine, while most referring to females are feminine. In terms of markedness, the masculine is unmarked and the feminine is marked in Spanish.

Xicanx

Xicanx

Xicanx is an English-language gender-neutral neologism and identity referring to people of Mexican descent in the United States. The ⟨-x⟩ suffix replaces the ⟨-o/-a⟩ ending of Chicano and Chicana that are typical of grammatical gender in Spanish. The term references a connection to Indigeneity, decolonial consciousness, inclusion of genders outside the Western gender binary imposed through colonialism, and transnationality. In contrast, most Latinos tend to define themselves in nationalist terms, such as by a Latin American country of origin.

Social media

Social media

Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks. While challenges to the definition of social media arise due to the variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available, there are some common features:Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications. User-generated content—such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions—is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization. Social media helps the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups.

Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Spanish and/ or Latin American ancestry. More broadly, these demographics include all Americans who identify as Hispanic or Latino regardless of ancestry. As of 2020, the Census Bureau estimated that there were almost 65.3 million Hispanics and Latinos living in the United States and its territories.

Hispanic

Hispanic

The term Hispanic refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Spanish language, or Hispanidad.

Pew Research Center

Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C.

Royal Spanish Academy

Royal Spanish Academy

The Royal Spanish Academy is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, and is affiliated with national language academies in 22 other Hispanophone nations through the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language. The RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is Limpia, fija y da esplendor.

Linguistic imperialism

Linguistic imperialism

Linguistic imperialism or language imperialism is occasionally defined as "the transfer of a dominant language to other people". This language "transfer" comes about because of imperialism. The transfer is considered to be a sign of power; traditionally military power but also, in the modern world, economic power. Aspects of the dominant culture are usually transferred along with the language. In spatial terms, indigenous languages are employed in the function of official (state) languages in Eurasia, while only non-indigenous imperial (European) languages in the "Rest of the World". In the modern world, linguistic imperialism may also be considered in the context of international development, affecting the standard by which organizations like the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank evaluate the trustworthiness and value of structural adjustment loans.

Usage and pronunciation

Latinx is a term for a group identity used to describe individuals in the United States who have Latin American roots.[7][8] Other names for this social category include Hispanic, Latino, Latina/o, Latine, and [email protected].[9] Latinx is used as an alternative to the gender binary inherent to formulations such as Latina/o and [email protected],[10][11][12] and is used by and for anyone of Latin-American descent who do not identify as either male or female, or more broadly as a gender-neutral term for such.[13][11][14]

Pronunciations of Latinx documented in dictionaries include /ləˈtnɛks, læ-, lɑː-, -nəks, ˈlætɪnɛks/ lə-TEE-neks, la(h)-, -⁠nəks, LAT-in-eks.[15][16][17][18] Other variants respelled ad hoc as "Latins", "La-tinks", or "Latin-equis" have also been reported.[19][20] Editors at Merriam-Webster write that "more than likely, there was little consideration for how [Latinx] was supposed to be pronounced when it was created."[11]

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Hispanic

Hispanic

The term Hispanic refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Spanish language, or Hispanidad.

Latino (demonym)

Latino (demonym)

The masculine term Latino, along with its feminine form Latina, is a noun and adjective, often used in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, that most commonly refers to United States inhabitants who have cultural ties to Latin America.

Gender binary

Gender binary

The gender binary is the classification of gender into two distinct, opposite forms of masculine and feminine, whether by social system, cultural belief, or both simultaneously. Most cultures use a gender binary, having two genders.

Non-binary gender

Non-binary gender

Non-binary and genderqueer are umbrella terms for gender identities that are not solely male or female‍—‌identities that are outside the gender binary. Non-binary identities fall under the transgender umbrella, since non-binary people typically identify with a gender that is different from their assigned sex, though some non-binary people do not consider themselves transgender.

Pronunciation respelling for English

Pronunciation respelling for English

A pronunciation respelling for English is a notation used to convey the pronunciation of words in the English language, which does not have a phonemic orthography.

Merriam-Webster

Merriam-Webster

Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books and is especially known for its dictionaries. It is the oldest dictionary publisher in the United States.

History

Origins

The first records of the term Latinx appear in the 21st century,[21] but there is no certainty as to its first occurrence.[22] According to Google Trends, it was first seen online in 2004,[10][23][24] and first appeared in academic literature around 2013 "in a Puerto Rican psychological periodical to challenge the gender binaries encoded in the Spanish language."[22][25] Contrarily, it has been claimed that usage of the term "started in online chat rooms and listservs in the 1990s" and that its first appearance in academic literature was in the Fall 2004 volume of the journal Feministas Unidas.[26][27] In the U.S. it was first used in activist and LGBT circles as a way to expand on earlier attempts at gender-inclusive forms of the grammatically masculine Latino, such as Latino/a and [email protected][23] Between 2004 and 2014, Latinx did not attain broad usage or attention.[10]

Use of x to expand language can be traced to the word Chicano, which had an x added to the front of the word, making it Xicano. Scholars have identified this shift as part of the movement to empower people of Mexican origin in the U.S. and also as a means of emphasizing that the origins of the letter X and term Chicano are linked to the Indigenous Nahuatl language.[22][28] The x has also been added to the end of the term Chicano, making it Chicanx. An example of this occurred at Columbia University where students changed their student group name from "Chicano Caucus" to "Chicanx Caucus". Later Columbia University changed the name of Latino Heritage Month to Latinx Hispanic Heritage Month.[22] Salinas and Lozano (2017) state that the term is influenced by Mexican indigenous communities that have a third gender role, such as Juchitán de Zaragoza, Oaxaca (see also: Gender system § Juchitán, Oaxaca, Mexico).[29] The term often refers specifically to LGBT people or to young people. Brian Latimer, a producer at MSNBC who identifies as nonbinary, says that the application of the term "shows a generational divide in the Hispanic community".[10]: 60  In 2016, a student newspaper described the term as "sweeping across college campuses in the nation with the intent of creating inclusion while inadvertently pitting members of the Latino community into a cultural war".[30] It received wider use after the 2016 Pulse nightclub shooting.[31]

Public awareness and use

As of 2018, the term Latinx was used nearly exclusively in the United States.[32] Manuel Vargas writes that people from Latin America ordinarily would not think of themselves using the term unless they reside in the United States.[32] The term was added to the Merriam-Webster English dictionary[33] in 2018, as it continued to grow in popularity in the United States,[34] and to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2019.[13]

Jeffrey Herlihy-Mera writes that in Puerto Rico, the "shift toward x in reference to people has already occurred" in limited academic settings and "for many faculty [in the humanities department at the University of Puerto Rico] hermanx and niñx and their equivalents have been the standard ... for years. It is clear that the inclusive approach to nouns and adjectives is becoming more common, and while it may at some point become the prevailing tendency, presently there is no prescriptive control toward either syntax".[35]

Many people became more aware of the term in the month following the Orlando nightclub shooting of June 2016; Google Trends shows that searches for this term rose greatly in this period.[10]: 60  A similar use of 'x' in the term Mx. may have been an influence or model for the development of Latinx.[11]

At Princeton University the Latinx Perspective Organization was founded in 2016 to "unify Princeton's diverse Latinx community"[36] and several student-run organizations at other institutions have used the word in their title.[37]

The term appears in the titles of academic books in the context of LGBT studies,[38] rhetoric and composition studies,[39] and comics studies.[40]

On June 26, 2019, during the first 2020 Democratic Party presidential debate, the word was used by the presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren, who is not Hispanic or Latina,[41] which USA Today called "one of the highest profile uses of the term since its conception".[34]

A 2019 poll (with a 5% margin of error) found that 2% of US residents of Latin American descent in the US use Latinx, including 3% of 18–34-year-olds; the rest preferred other terms. "No respondents over [age] 50 selected the term", while overall "3% of women and 1% of men selected the term as their preferred ethnic identifier".[2][42]

A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that only 23% of US adults who self-identified as Hispanic or Latino had heard of the term Latinx. Of those, 65% said that the term Latinx should not be used to describe them, with most preferring terms such as Hispanic or Latino.[3] While the remaining 33% of US Hispanic adults who have heard the term Latinx said it could be used to describe the community, only 10% of that subgroup preferred it to the terms Hispanic or Latino.[3] The preferred term both among Hispanics who have heard the term and among those who have not was Hispanic, garnering 50% and 64% respectively.[3] Latino was second in preference with 31% and 29% respectively.[3] Only 3% self identified as Latinx in that survey.[3]

A 2020 study based on interviews with 34 Latinx/a/o students from the US found that they "perceive higher education as a privileged space where they use the term Latinx. Once they return to their communities, they do not use the term".[22]

A 2021 Gallup poll asked Hispanic Americans about their preference among the terms "Hispanic," "Latino" and "Latinx". 57% said it did not matter, and 4% chose Latinx. In a follow-up question where they were asked which term they lean toward, 5% chose Latinx.[43]

A 2021 poll by Democratic Hispanic outreach firm Bendixen & Amandi International found that only 2 percent of those polled refer to themselves as Latinx, while 68 percent call themselves “Hispanic” and 21 percent favored “Latino” or “Latina” to describe their ethnic background. In addition, 40 percent of those polled said Latinx bothers or offends them to some degree and 30 percent said they would be less likely to support a politician or organization that uses the term.[44][45]

The League of United Latin American Citizens decided to drop the term from its official communication in 2021.[46]

In literature and academia

Latinx has become commonly used by activists in higher education and the popular media who seek to advocate for individuals on the borderlines of gender identity.[29] Herlihy-Mera calls Latinx "a recognition of the exclusionary nature of our institutions, of the deficiencies in existent linguistic structures, and of language as an agent of social change", saying, "The gesture toward linguistic intersectionality stems from a suffix endowed with a literal intersection—x."[35] Some commentators, such as Ed Morales, a lecturer at Columbia University and author of the 2018 book Latinx: The New Force in American Politics and Culture, associate the term with the ideas of Gloria Anzaldúa, a Chicana feminist. Morales writes that "refusal to conform to male/female gender binaries" parallels "the refusal to conform to a racial binary".[10]: 61 

Scharrón-del Río and Aja (2015) have traced the use of Latinx by authors Beatriz Llenín Figueroa, Jaime Géliga Quiñones, Yuderkys Espinosa Miñoso, and Adriana Gallegos Dextre.[47] The term has also been discussed in scholarly research by cultural theorist Ilan Stavans on Spanglish[48] and by Frederick Luis Aldama and Christopher Gonzalez on Latinx super heroes in mainstream comics and Latinx graphic novels such as United States of Banana.[49][50][51] The term and concept of Latinx is also explored by Antonio Pastrana Jr, Juan Battle and Angelique Harris on LBGTQ+ issues.[38] Valdes also uses the term in research on black perspectives on Latinx.[52][53]

A 2020 analysis found "that community college professional organizations have by and large not adopted the term Latinx, even by organizations with a Latinx/a/o centered mission", although some academic journals and dissertations about community colleges were using it.[54]

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Google Trends

Google Trends

Google Trends is a website by Google that analyzes the popularity of top search queries in Google Search across various regions and languages. The website uses graphs to compare the search volume of different queries over time.

Nahuatl

Nahuatl

Nahuatl, Aztec, or Mexicano is a language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live mainly in Central Mexico and have smaller populations in the United States.

Columbia University

Columbia University

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, and a member of the Ivy League. Columbia is ranked among the top universities in the world.

Indigenous peoples of Mexico

Indigenous peoples of Mexico

Indigenous peoples of Mexico, Native Mexicans or Mexican Native Americans, are those who are part of communities that trace their roots back to populations and communities that existed in what is now Mexico before the arrival of the Spanish people.

Juchitán de Zaragoza

Juchitán de Zaragoza

Juchitán de Zaragoza is an indigenous town in the southeast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is part of the Juchitán District in the west of the Istmo de Tehuantepec region. With a 2005 census population of 74,714 inhabitants, it is the fourth-largest city in the state. The majority of the indigenous inhabitants are Zapotecs and Huaves. The town also serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality, with which it shares a name. The municipality has an area of 414.64 km² and a population of 85,869, the state's third-largest in population.

Oaxaca

Oaxaca

Oaxaca, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca, is one of the 32 states that compose the Federative Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 are governed by the system of usos y costumbres with recognized local forms of self-governance. Its capital city is Oaxaca de Juárez.

LGBT

LGBT

LGBT is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender. In use since the 1990s, the initialism, as well as some of its common variants, functions as an umbrella term for sexuality and gender identity.

Orlando nightclub shooting

Orlando nightclub shooting

On June 12, 2016, Omar Mateen, a 29-year-old man, killed 49 people and wounded 53 more in a mass shooting at Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, United States. Orlando Police officers shot and killed him after a three-hour standoff.

Merriam-Webster

Merriam-Webster

Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books and is especially known for its dictionaries. It is the oldest dictionary publisher in the United States.

Oxford English Dictionary

Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.

Princeton University

Princeton University

Princeton University is a private research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. It is one of the highest-ranked universities in the world. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, and then to the current site nine years later. It officially became a university in 1896 and was subsequently renamed Princeton University. It is a member of the Ivy League.

Composition studies

Composition studies

Composition studies is the professional field of writing, research, and instruction, focusing especially on writing at the college level in the United States. The flagship national organization for this field is the Conference on College Composition and Communication.

Reception

Sign at the Women's March on Washington. The sign reads, "women's, LGBTQIA, immigrant's, black, Latinx, Muslim, & disability rights are human rights".
Sign at the Women's March on Washington. The sign reads, "women's, LGBTQIA, immigrant's, black, Latinx, Muslim, & disability rights are human rights".

Latinx has been the subject of controversy.[8] Linguistic imperialism has been used as a basis of both criticism and support.

In 2018, the Royal Spanish Academy rejected the use of -x and -e as gender-neutral alternatives to the collective masculine -o ending, in a style manual published together with the Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (ASALE).[34][6] Regarding this decision, Darío Villanueva, RAE's director said, "The problem is we're confusing grammar with machismo."[55] According to HuffPost, some refuse to use the term on the grounds that Latinx is difficult to pronounce in the Spanish language.[5]

Linguists Janet M. Fuller and Jennifer Leeman state that some people reject the use of Latinx to refer to people regardless of gender because they see it as a one-size-fits-all term that erases diversity, preferring to switch between -o/-a/-x when referring to specific individuals.[56] Those who oppose the term in its entirety have argued that the -x is artificial, unpronounceable, an imposition of English norms on Spanish, or overly faddish.[56]

Some non-binary Latinos whose first language is not English have also criticized the term on the basis that it caters more to Latin Americans who are fluent in English and can pronounce the -x ending easily while ignoring gender neutral alternatives already employed by Latin American activists, such as -e.[57]

Cultural Strategist Henry Cadena mentions in an article published by Manomagazine[58] that numbers are now showing that the term Latinx has evolved to be an offensive term and that some even call it a racial slur.

Linguist John McWhorter argues that, in contrast to other neologisms such as African American, Latinx has not become mainstream as of 2019 because the problem of implied gender it aims to solve is more a concern of the intelligentsia than the "proverbial person on the street".[42]

Matthew Yglesias of Vox, discussing Donald Trump's gains among Hispanic voters in the 2020 United States presidential election, stated that for Democrats, while other factors played a larger role, the term "is, if nothing else, a symptom of the problem, which is a tendency to privilege academic concepts and linguistic innovations in addressing social justice concerns." He says that "[t]he message of the term ... is that the entire grammatical system of the Spanish language is problematic, which in any other context progressives would recognize as an alienating and insensitive message." Democratic congressman Ruben Gallego, who represents a heavily working-class Hispanic district in Arizona, advises Democrats not to use the term.[59] Members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus are hesitant to use the term until after usage continues to evolve to make it more common, according to California representative Raul Ruiz.[31]

According to HuffPost, "Many opponents of the term have suggested that using an un-gendered noun like Latinx is disrespectful to the Spanish language and some have even called the term 'a blatant form of linguistic imperialism'".[5] Defending usage of the term against critics arguing linguistic imperialism, Brooklyn College professors María R. Scharrón-del Río and Alan A. Aja argue that the Spanish language itself is a form of linguistic imperialism for Latin Americans.[47][5]

Another argument against Latinx is that "it erases feminist movements in the 1970s" that fought for use of the word Latina to represent women, according to George Cadava, Director of the Latina and Latino Studies program at Northwestern University.[34]

Writing for Latino Rebels, Hector Luis Alamo describes the term as a "bulldozing of Spanish".[10] In a 2015 article published by the outlet as part of a debate on the term, Alamo wrote: "If we dump Latino for Latinx because it offends some people, then we should go on dumping words forever since there will always be some people who find some words offensive."[60]

Wayne State University professor Nicole Trujillo-Pagán has argued that patriarchal bias is reproduced in ostensibly "gender neutral" language[61][62][63] and stated, "Less clear in the debate (as it has developed since then) is how the replacement silences and erases long-standing struggles to recognize the significance of gender difference and sexual violence."[64]

A 2019 National Survey of Latinos found that only 3% of Hispanic-Latinos have ever used "Latinx" to describe themselves.[65] The League of United Latin American Citizens announced in 2021 that it would stop using the term in its official communications, calling it "very unliked" by nearly all Latinos.[66]

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2017 Women's March

2017 Women's March

The Women's March was a worldwide protest on January 21, 2017, the day after the inauguration of Donald Trump as US president. It was prompted by Trump's policy positions and rhetoric, which protesters called misogynistic or otherwise threatening to the rights of women. It was the largest single-day protest in U.S. history. The goal of the annual marches is to advocate legislation and policies regarding human rights and other issues, including women's rights, immigration reform, healthcare reform, disability justice, reproductive rights, the environment, LGBTQ rights, racial equality, freedom of religion, workers' rights and tolerance. According to organizers, the goal was to "send a bold message to our new administration on their first day in office, and to the world that women's rights are human rights".

Association of Academies of the Spanish Language

Association of Academies of the Spanish Language

The Association of Academies of the Spanish Language is an entity whose end is to work for the unity, integrity, and growth of the Spanish language. It was created in Mexico in 1951 and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish-speaking world. The association publishes reference works on the Spanish language and commemorative editions of Hispanic literature, among other publications.

Grammatical gender in Spanish

Grammatical gender in Spanish

Grammatical gender in Spanish affects several types of words which have inflection in the Spanish language according to grammatical gender: nouns, adjectives, determiners, and pronouns. All Spanish nouns have lexical gender, either masculine or feminine, and most nouns referring to male humans or animals are grammatically masculine, while most referring to females are feminine. In terms of markedness, the masculine is unmarked and the feminine is marked in Spanish.

Fad

Fad

A fad or trend is any form of collective behavior that develops within a culture, a generation or social group in which a group of people enthusiastically follow an impulse for a short period.

John McWhorter

John McWhorter

John Hamilton McWhorter V is an American linguist with a specialty in creole languages, sociolects, and Black English. He is currently an associate professor of linguistics at Columbia University, where he also teaches American studies and music history. McWhorter is the author of a variety of books on race relations and African-American culture.

Intelligentsia

Intelligentsia

The intelligentsia is a status class composed of the university-educated people of a society who engage in the complex mental labours by which they critique, shape, and lead in the politics, policies, and culture of their society; as such, the intelligentsia consists of scholars, academics, teachers, journalists, and literary writers.

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald John Trump is an American businessman, media personality, and politician who served as the 45th president of the United States from 2017 to 2021.

2020 United States presidential election

2020 United States presidential election

The 2020 United States presidential election was the 59th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 2020. The Democratic ticket of former vice president Joe Biden and the junior U.S. senator from California Kamala Harris defeated the incumbent Republican president Donald Trump and incumbent vice president Mike Pence. The election took place against the backdrop of the global COVID-19 pandemic and related recession. It was the first election since 1992 in which the incumbent president failed to win a second term. The election saw the highest voter turnout by percentage since 1900, with each of the two main tickets receiving more than 74 million votes, surpassing Barack Obama's record of 69.5 million votes from 2008. Biden received more than 81 million votes, the most votes ever cast for a candidate in a U.S. presidential election.

Democratic Party (United States)

Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Founded in 1828, it was predominantly built by Martin Van Buren, who assembled a wide cadre of politicians in every state behind war hero Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party. Its main political rival has been the Republican Party since the 1850s. The party is a big tent, and is less ideologically uniform than the Republican Party due to the broader list of unique voting blocs that compose it, though modern liberalism is the majority ideology in the party.

Arizona

Arizona

Arizona is a state in the Southwestern United States. It is the 6th-largest and the 14th-most-populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is part of the Four Corners region with Utah to the north, Colorado to the northeast, and New Mexico to the east; its other neighboring states are Nevada to the northwest, California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

Congressional Hispanic Caucus

Congressional Hispanic Caucus

The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC) is an organization of 38 Democratic members of the United States Congress of Hispanic and Latino descent. The Caucus focuses on issues affecting Hispanics and Latinos in the United States. The CHC was founded in December 1976 as a legislative service organization of the United States House of Representatives. The CHC is organized as a Congressional Member organization, governed under the Rules of the U.S. House of Representatives.

HuffPost

HuffPost

HuffPost is an American progressive news website, with localized and international editions. The site offers news, satire, blogs, and original content, and covers politics, business, entertainment, environment, technology, popular media, lifestyle, culture, comedy, healthy living, women's interests, and local news featuring columnists. It was created to provide a progressive alternative to the conservative news websites such as the Drudge Report. The site offers content posted directly on the site as well as user-generated content via video blogging, audio, and photo. In 2012, the website became the first commercially run United States digital media enterprise to win a Pulitzer Prize.

Similar terms

Similar gender-neutral forms have also arisen. One such term is [email protected],[67][47] which combines the written form of the ⟨-a⟩ and ⟨-o⟩ endings.[68] Similar terms include Chicanx[69] and the variant spelling Xicanx.[70]

Latine (plural: Latines) as a gender-neutral term is less prevalent than Latinx within the U.S.,[67] although the opposite is true throughout the Spanish-speaking world. In the U.S., "Latine" arose out of genderqueer speakers' use of the ending ⟨-e⟩; similar forms include amigue ('friend') and elle (singular 'they').[71] In Argentina, efforts to increase gender neutrality in Spanish have utilized both grammatical genders together, as well as [email protected] and ⟨-x⟩ endings. According to The New York Times, the ⟨-e⟩ ending has been more widely adopted because it is easier to pronounce.[72]

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Gender neutrality in Spanish

Gender neutrality in Spanish

Feminist language reform has proposed gender neutrality in languages with grammatical gender, such as Spanish. Grammatical gender in Spanish refers to how Spanish nouns are categorized as either masculine or feminine. As in other Romance languages—such as Portuguese, to which Spanish is very similar—a group of both men and women, or someone of unknown gender, is usually referred to by the masculine form of a noun and/or pronoun. Advocates of gender-neutral language modification consider this to be sexist, and exclusive of gender non-conforming people. They also stress the underlying sexism of words whose feminine form has a different, often less prestigious meaning. Some argue that a gender neutral Spanish can reduce gender stereotyping, deconstructing sexist gender roles and discrimination in the workplace.

Xicanx

Xicanx

Xicanx is an English-language gender-neutral neologism and identity referring to people of Mexican descent in the United States. The ⟨-x⟩ suffix replaces the ⟨-o/-a⟩ ending of Chicano and Chicana that are typical of grammatical gender in Spanish. The term references a connection to Indigeneity, decolonial consciousness, inclusion of genders outside the Western gender binary imposed through colonialism, and transnationality. In contrast, most Latinos tend to define themselves in nationalist terms, such as by a Latin American country of origin.

Elle (Spanish pronoun)

Elle (Spanish pronoun)

Elle is a neopronoun in Spanish intended as an alternative to the third-person gender-specific pronouns él ("he") and ella ("she"). It is supposed to be used when the gender of a person is not known or when it is not desirable to specify the person as either "he" or "she". It is not endorsed by any Spanish-language academy or institution. It is an equivalent of the singular they pronoun when used for gendering purposes.

Singular they

Singular they

Singular they, along with its inflected or derivative forms, them, their, theirs and themselves, is a gender-neutral third-person pronoun. It typically occurs with an unspecified antecedent, in sentences such as:"Somebody left their umbrella in the office. Could you please let them know where they can get it?" "The patient should be told at the outset how much they will be required to pay." "But a journalist should not be forced to reveal their sources."

Source: "Latinx", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latinx.

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See also
Notes
  1. ^ Yarin, Sophie (October 7, 2022). "If Hispanics Hate the Term 'Latinx', Why is it Still Used?". BU Today. Boston University. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  2. ^ a b McGirt, Ellen (November 5, 2019). "What's the Deal With 'Latinx'?". Fortune. Mario Carrasco, the co-founder and principal of ThinkNow Research says, [...] 'Despite its usage by academics and cultural influencers, 98% of Latinos prefer other terms to describe their ethnicity. Only 2% of our respondents said the label accurately describes them, making it the least popular ethnic label among Latinos'.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Noe-Bustamante, Luis; Mora, Lauren; Lopez, Mark Hugo (August 11, 2020). "About One-in-Four U.S. Hispanics Have Heard of Latinx, but Just 3% Use It". Hispanic Trends. Pew Research Center. Retrieved August 21, 2020. However, for the population it is meant to describe, only 23% of U.S. adults who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino have heard of the term Latinx, and just 3% say they use it to describe themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual survey of U.S. Hispanic adults conducted in December 2019 by Pew Research Center.
  4. ^ Hernandez, Daniel (August 11, 2020). "Pew poll finds most Latinos haven't heard of 'Latinx.' Only 3% use the term". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e Ramirez, Tanisha Love; Blay, Zeba (July 5, 2016). "Why People Are Using The Term 'Latinx'". HuffPost. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  6. ^ a b Cataño, Adriana (November 28, 2018). "The RAE Has Made Its Decision About Latinx and Latine in Its First Style Manual". Remezcla.
  7. ^ Santos, Carlos E. (2017). "The History, Struggles, and Potential of the Term Latinx". Latina/o Psychology Today. 4 (2): 7–14.
  8. ^ a b Reyes, Raul A. (November 6, 2017). "To be Latinx or not to be Latinx? For some Hispanics that is the question". NBC News. Retrieved July 14, 2020.
  9. ^ Vargas 2018, 1.1 Group Identity.
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  11. ^ a b c d "'Latinx' And Gender Inclusivity How do you pronounce this more inclusive word?". Merriam Webster. 2017. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. A similar use of 'x' is in Mx., a gender-neutral title of courtesy that is used in place of gendered titles, such as Mr. and Ms. It has been suggested that the use of 'x' in Mx. influenced Latinx.
  12. ^ Simón, Yara (September 14, 2018). "Hispanic vs. Latino vs. Latinx: A Brief History of How These Words Originated". Remezcla. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
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  41. ^ Weinberg, Abigail (June 26, 2019). "The First Question of the Democratic Debate was a Challenge to Elizabeth Warren. She Didn't Back Down". Mother Jones. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  42. ^ a b McWhorter, John (December 23, 2019). "Why Latinx Can't Catch On". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  43. ^ McCarthy, Justin; DuPreé, Whitney (August 4, 2021). "No Preferred Racial Term Among Most Black, Hispanic Adults". Gallup. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  44. ^ Caputo, Marc; Rodriguez, Sabrina (December 6, 2021). "Democrats fall flat with 'Latinx' language". Politico.
  45. ^ "The use of 'LatinX' among Hispanic Voters: Bendixen & Amandi International". Politico. November 21, 2021.
  46. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (December 9, 2021). "Latino civil rights organization drops 'Latinx' from official communication". NBC News.
  47. ^ a b c Scharrón-del Río, María R.; Aja, Alan A. (December 5, 2015). "The Case for 'Latinx': Why Intersectionality Is Not a Choice". Latino Rebels.
  48. ^ "Ilan Stavans". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  49. ^ Aldama, Frederick Luis, 1969- (October 10, 2017). Latinx superheroes in mainstream comics. Jennings, John, 1970-, Hernandez, Javier, 1966-. Tucson, Arizona. ISBN 978-0-8165-3708-2. OCLC 983824443.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  50. ^ Aldama, Frederick; González, Christopher (December 7, 2018). Latinx Studies: The Key Concepts. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-61435-1.
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  55. ^ "The RAE Has Made Its Decision About Latinx and Latine in Its First Style Manual". November 28, 2018.
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  63. ^ Prewitt-Freilino, Jennifer L.; Caswell, T. Andrew; Laakso, Emmi K. (February 2012). "The gendering of language: A comparison of gender equality in countries with gendered, natural gender, and genderless languages". Sex Roles. 66 (3–4): 268–281. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-0083-5. S2CID 145066913.
  64. ^ Trujillo-Pagán, Nicole (February 27, 2018). "No Shock or Awe About 'Acting' Latinx". Latino Rebels. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  65. ^ "Who identifies as "Latinx"? An examination of the determinants of the use of Latinx among Hispanic-Latinos in the United States". osf.io. 2021. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
  66. ^ Falcon, Russell (December 15, 2021). "'Latinx' dropped from LULAC official usage, deemed 'very unliked' by Latinos". Austin, Texas: KXAN-TV. Retrieved July 4, 2022.
  67. ^ a b Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Martínez, Juliana (2018). "Latinx thoughts: Latinidad with an X". Latino Studies. 16 (3): 384–395. doi:10.1057/s41276-018-0137-8. S2CID 149742570 – via ResearchGate. Terms like [email protected], Latine, and LatinU have been deployed—with less traction—to mobilize Latina/o communities
  68. ^ Demby, Gene. "'[email protected]' Offers A Gender-Neutral Choice; But How To Pronounce It?". NPR.org. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  69. ^ Cashman, Holly (2018). Queer, Latinx, and Bilingual: Narrative Resources in the Negotiation of Identities. Routledge. Introduction; Note 1. ISBN 978-0-415-73909-2. Similarly, Latinx, Chicanx [...] along with many other terms, are all used to describe the ethnolinguistic community.
  70. ^ Noriega, Christine (February 16, 2017). "'We Are Still Here' is a Gorgeous Book Capturing the Queer-Inclusive Evolution of East LA's Chicanx Identity". Remezcla. [T]he Xicanx identity [is] a relatively new term some Mexican-Americans have claimed that stems from the grassroots and working-class roots of the 1960s Chicano movement, but also incorporates indigenous consciousness, feminism, and queer theory in its politics.
  71. ^ Papadopoulos, Benjamin (2019). Morphological Gender Innovations in Spanish of Genderqueer Speakers (Thesis). University of California, Berkeley. p. 3.
  72. ^ Politi, Daniel (April 15, 2020). "In Argentina, a Bid to Make Language Gender Neutral Gains Traction". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
References
Further reading

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