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Lafayette G. Pool

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Lafayette Green Pool
Lafayette G. Pool, 1949.jpg
Lafayette G. Pool in 1949
Birth nameLafayette Green Pool
Nickname(s)War Daddy
Born(1919-07-23)July 23, 1919
Odem, Texas, U.S.
DiedMay 30, 1991(1991-05-30) (aged 71)
Killeen, Texas, U.S.
Buried
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service1941–1946
1948–1960
RankChief Warrant Officer 2
Service number38032791[1]
Unit3rd Platoon, Company I, 3rd Battalion, 32nd Armored Regiment, 3rd Armored Division
Battles/wars
  • World War II
Awards
Spouse(s)
Evelyn Wright
(m. 1942)
Children8

Lafayette Green Pool (July 23, 1919 – May 30, 1991) was an American tank-crew and tank-platoon commander in World War II and is widely recognized as the US tank ace of aces,[2] credited with 12 confirmed tank kills and 258 total armored vehicle and self-propelled gun kills, over 1,000 German soldiers killed and 250 more taken as prisoners of war,[3] accomplished in only 81 days of action from June 27 to September 19, 1944, using three different Shermans.[4] He received many medals, including the Distinguished Service Cross, the Legion of Merit, the Silver Star, the Purple Heart, the Belgian fourragère, and the French Legion of Honour.[5]

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World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

List of aces of aces

List of aces of aces

Ace of aces is a title accorded to the top active ace within a branch of service in a nation's military in time of war. The title is most closely associated with fighter aces, though there are other types, such as tank aces and submarine aces.

M4 Sherman

M4 Sherman

The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II. The M4 Sherman proved to be reliable, relatively cheap to produce, and available in great numbers. It was also the basis of several other armored fighting vehicles including self-propelled artillery, tank destroyers, and armored recovery vehicles. Tens of thousands were distributed through the Lend-Lease program to the British Commonwealth and Soviet Union. The tank was named by the British after the American Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman.

Distinguished Service Cross (United States)

Distinguished Service Cross (United States)

The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the United States Army's second highest military decoration for soldiers who display extraordinary heroism in combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree that they are above those required for all other U.S. combat decorations, but which do not meet the criteria for the Medal of Honor. The Army Distinguished Service Cross is equivalent to the Navy and Marine Corps' Navy Cross, the Air Force and Space Force's Air Force Cross, and the Coast Guard Cross. Prior to the creation of the Air Force Cross in 1960, airmen were awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

Legion of Merit

Legion of Merit

The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. The decoration is issued to members of the eight uniformed services of the United States as well as to military and political figures of foreign governments.

Silver Star

Silver Star

The Silver Star Medal (SSM) is the United States Armed Forces' third-highest military decoration for valor in combat. The Silver Star Medal is awarded primarily to members of the United States Armed Forces for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States.

Purple Heart

Purple Heart

The Purple Heart (PH) is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those wounded or killed while serving, on or after 5 April 1917, with the U.S. military. With its forerunner, the Badge of Military Merit, which took the form of a heart made of purple cloth, the Purple Heart is the oldest military award still given to U.S. military members. The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located in New Windsor, New York.

Legion of Honour

Legion of Honour

The National Order of the Legion of Honour, formerly the Royal Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit, both military and civil. Established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte, it has been retained by all later French governments and regimes.

Early life

Lafayette Green Pool was born in Odem, Texas, on July 23, 1919, to John K. (1894–1979) and Mary Lee (née Laycock) Pool (1899–1950)[6] He had a twin brother, John Thomas, (who served in the Navy during World War II)[7] and a sister, Tennie Mae (1915–1994).[8] Lafayette attended high school in Taft, Texas, graduating in 1938; he later attended Texas College of Arts and Industries in Kingsville, Texas, studying engineering and participating very successfully[9] in amateur boxing. Pool left college after one year when he was inducted into military service in the summer of 1941.[10]

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Odem, Texas

Odem, Texas

Odem is a city in San Patricio County, Texas, United States. Its population was 2,389 at the 2010 census.

Texas A&M University–Kingsville

Texas A&M University–Kingsville

Texas A&M University–Kingsville is a public research university in Kingsville, Texas. It is the southernmost campus of the Texas A&M University System. The university developed the nation's first doctoral degree in bilingual education. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity".

Kingsville, Texas

Kingsville, Texas

Kingsville is a city in the southern region of the U.S. state of Texas and the county seat of Kleberg County. Located on the U.S. Route 77 corridor between Corpus Christi and Harlingen, Kingsville is the principal city of the Kingsville Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of the larger Corpus Christi-Kingsville Combined Statistical Area. The population was 26,213 at the 2010 census, and in 2019 the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population at 25,315.

Engineering

Engineering

Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application. See glossary of engineering.

Amateur boxing

Amateur boxing

Amateur boxing is a variant of boxing practiced at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games, Pan American Games and Commonwealth Games, as well as many associations.

World War II service

Pool was drafted into the United States Army on June 14, 1941, from Fort Sam Houston in his native Texas[11] and assigned to the new 3rd Armored Division. Pool married Evelyn Wright while on leave in December 1942. While undergoing training at the Desert Training Center and Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania, Pool was noted as a very aggressive sergeant, always wanting the best from his men; he even refused a commission as an officer so he could remain close to the front. Pool was promoted to staff sergeant and deployed overseas with the 3rd Armored Division in September 1943.

An M4A1 Sherman tank, similar to the types commanded by Pool in 1944
An M4A1 Sherman tank, similar to the types commanded by Pool in 1944

Pool served with the 3rd Platoon of Company I, 32nd Armored Regiment, 3rd Armored Division, in France between June and September 1944. He successively commanded three Sherman tanks; an M4A1, and two M4A1(76)Ws, all of which bore the nickname "IN THE MOOD" (they were not suffixed with a letter or Roman numeral). He kept the same crew throughout the majority of the war. Corporal Wilbert "Red" Richards was the driver, Private First Class Bertrand "School Boy" Close the assistant driver and bow gunner, Corporal Willis "Ground Hog" Oller the gunner, and Technician Fifth Grade Delbert "Jailbird" Boggs the loader.[12]

Pool's first tank, an M4A1, lasted from June 23 until June 29, when Combat Command A (CCA) attacked for the first time at Villiers-Fossard. It was hit by a Panzerfaust, forcing Pool and his crew to bail out of the stricken tank. His second tank, his first M4A1(76)W, lasted from around July 1 to August 17, when he was leading CCA in clearing remaining German forces from the village of Fromental.[13] This tank was knocked out by friendly fire from a Lockheed P-38 Lightning. His third and last tank, another M4A1(76)W, was destroyed on the night of September 19, 1944, while CCA was attempting to penetrate the Siegfried Line at Münsterbusch, southeast of Aachen, Germany. The tank was hit by an ambushing Panther, and while Pool's driver was trying to back his damaged Sherman up, the Panther hit it a second time. Positioned precariously on the edge of a ditch, the tank was tipped over by the second round. The round killed Pool's replacement gunner, Private First Class Paul Kenneth King, (Corporal Oller had been temporarily transferred back to the United States) and threw Pool out of the commander's hatch, severely injuring him in the leg with shrapnel. The leg was so badly mangled that it later had to be amputated eight inches (20 cm) above the knee. As a result, Pool would not return to amateur boxing after the war.[4]

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Fort Sam Houston

Fort Sam Houston

Fort Sam Houston is a U.S. Army post in San Antonio, Texas. Known colloquially as "Fort Sam," it is named for the U.S. Senator from Texas, U.S. Representative from Tennessee, Tennessee and Texas governor, and first president of the Republic of Texas, Sam Houston.

3rd Armored Division (United States)

3rd Armored Division (United States)

The 3rd Armored Division was an armored division of the United States Army. Unofficially nicknamed the "Third Herd," the division was first activated in 1941 and was active in the European Theater of World War II. The division was stationed in West Germany for much of the Cold War and also participated in the Persian Gulf War. On 17 January 1992, still in Germany, the division ceased operations. In October 1992, it was formally inactivated as part of a general drawing down of U.S. military forces at the end of the Cold War.

Desert Training Center

Desert Training Center

The Desert Training Center (DTC), also known as California–Arizona Maneuver Area (CAMA), was a World War II training facility established in the Mojave Desert and Sonoran Desert, largely in Southern California and Western Arizona in 1942.

Fort Indiantown Gap

Fort Indiantown Gap

Fort Indiantown Gap, also referred to as "The Gap" or "FIG", is a census-designated place and National Guard Training Center primarily located in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania. A portion of the installation is located in eastern Dauphin County. It is located adjacent to Interstate 81, 23 miles (37 km) northeast of Harrisburg, just north of the northern terminus of Pennsylvania Route 934 at I-81's Exit 85.

32nd Cavalry Regiment

32nd Cavalry Regiment

The 32nd Cavalry Regiment is a cavalry formation of the United States Army. From 1941 to 2000, it was an armor formation.

Villiers-Fossard

Villiers-Fossard

Villiers-Fossard is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.

Panzerfaust

Panzerfaust

The Panzerfaust was a development family of single-shot man-portable anti-tank systems developed by Nazi Germany during World War II. The weapons were the first single-use light anti-tank weapons based on a pre-loaded disposable launch tube, a weapon configuration which is still used today.

Fromental

Fromental

Fromental is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in west-central France.

Lockheed P-38 Lightning

Lockheed P-38 Lightning

The Lockheed P-38 Lightning is an American single-seat, twin piston-engined fighter aircraft that was used during World War II. Developed for the United States Army Air Corps by the Lockheed Corporation, the P-38 incorporated a distinctive twin-boom design with a central nacelle containing the cockpit and armament. Along with its use as a general fighter, the P-38 was used in various aerial combat roles, including as a highly effective fighter-bomber, a night fighter, and a long-range escort fighter when equipped with drop tanks. The P-38 was also used as a bomber-pathfinder, guiding streams of medium and heavy bombers, or even other P-38s equipped with bombs, to their targets. Used in the aerial reconnaissance role, the P-38 accounted for 90 percent of the aerial film captured over Europe.

Siegfried Line

Siegfried Line

The Siegfried Line, known in German as the Westwall, was a German defensive line built during the 1930s opposite the French Maginot Line. It stretched more than 630 km (390 mi); from Kleve on the border with the Netherlands, along the western border of Nazi Germany, to the town of Weil am Rhein on the border with Switzerland – and featured more than 18,000 bunkers, tunnels and tank traps.

Aachen

Aachen

Aachen is, with around 249,000 inhabitants, the 13th-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia, and the 28th-largest city of Germany.

Panther tank

Panther tank

The Panther tank, officially Panzerkampfwagen V Panther with ordnance inventory designation: Sd.Kfz. 171, is a German medium tank of World War II. It was used on the Eastern and Western Fronts from mid-1943 to the end of the war in May 1945.

Honors and awards

Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze Order of Saint George Medallion Belgian fourragère
Distinguished Service Cross Silver Star Medal Legion of Merit
Purple Heart Army Good Conduct Medal American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
with two 316" bronze stars
World War II Victory Medal
National Defense Service Medal French Legion of Honour
grade of chevalier
French Croix de Guerre
with bronze star

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Saint George Award

Saint George Award

The Order of Saint George Medallion is the top award given to members of the Army's mounted force by the United States Armor Association of the United States Army. The award is issued as a black, bronze, silver, or gold medallion, depending on the recipient's eligibility. As of June 2017, a total of 76 Gold OSGs and 4 Gold NPAs had been awarded, and a total of just over 10,000 medallions of all types.

Distinguished Service Cross (United States)

Distinguished Service Cross (United States)

The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the United States Army's second highest military decoration for soldiers who display extraordinary heroism in combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree that they are above those required for all other U.S. combat decorations, but which do not meet the criteria for the Medal of Honor. The Army Distinguished Service Cross is equivalent to the Navy and Marine Corps' Navy Cross, the Air Force and Space Force's Air Force Cross, and the Coast Guard Cross. Prior to the creation of the Air Force Cross in 1960, airmen were awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

Legion of Merit

Legion of Merit

The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. The decoration is issued to members of the eight uniformed services of the United States as well as to military and political figures of foreign governments.

Purple Heart

Purple Heart

The Purple Heart (PH) is a United States military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those wounded or killed while serving, on or after 5 April 1917, with the U.S. military. With its forerunner, the Badge of Military Merit, which took the form of a heart made of purple cloth, the Purple Heart is the oldest military award still given to U.S. military members. The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located in New Windsor, New York.

American Defense Service Medal

American Defense Service Medal

The American Defense Service Medal was a military award of the United States Armed Forces, established by Executive Order 8808, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on June 28, 1941. The medal was intended to recognize those military service members who had served on active duty between September 8, 1939, and December 7, 1941.

American Campaign Medal

American Campaign Medal

The American Campaign Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces which was first created on November 6, 1942, by Executive Order 9265 issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The medal was intended to recognize those military members who had performed military service in the American Theater of Operations during World War II. A similar medal, known as the American Defense Service Medal was awarded for active duty service before the United States' entry into World War II.

Service star

Service star

A service star is a miniature bronze or silver five-pointed star 3⁄16 inch in diameter that is authorized to be worn by members of the eight uniformed services of the United States on medals and ribbons to denote an additional award or service period. The service star may also be referred to as a campaign star or battle star depending on which award the star is authorized for and the manner in which the device is used for the award.

World War II Victory Medal

World War II Victory Medal

The World War II Victory Medal is a service medal of the United States military which was established by an Act of Congress on 6 July 1945 and promulgated by Section V, War Department Bulletin 12, 1945.

National Defense Service Medal

National Defense Service Medal

The National Defense Service Medal (NDSM) is a service award of the United States Armed Forces established by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953. It is awarded to every member of the US Armed Forces who has served during any one of four specified periods of armed conflict or national emergency from June 27, 1950 through December 31, 2022. Combat or "in theater" service is not a requirement for the award.

Legion of Honour

Legion of Honour

The National Order of the Legion of Honour, formerly the Royal Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit, both military and civil. Established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte, it has been retained by all later French governments and regimes.

Later life and death

After 22 months of rehabilitation and being fitted with a prosthesis, Pool opened a filling station and garage at his home in Sinton, Texas, followed by several other businesses, before he re-enlisted in the Army and went into the Transportation Corps. With the intervention of General Roderick R. Allen, he finally managed to "come home" to the 3rd Armored Division in 1948, where he became an instructor in automotive mechanics.[14]

He retired from the U.S. Army on September 19, 1960, with the rank of Chief Warrant Officer Two at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Afterwards he went to business college, followed by a job as a preacher for $25.00 a week. He also coached Little League Baseball.[9]

Pool died in his sleep on May 30, 1991, in Killeen, Texas, at the age of 71. He is interred at Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery in San Antonio, Texas. He was survived by his wife Evelyn, four sons and four daughters.

His son, Captain Jerry Lynn Pool, Sr., was declared missing in action during the Vietnam War in 1970. According to the U.S. Army, on March 24, 1970, Captain Pool was a team leader in the 5th Special Forces Group, and was being extracted by Bell UH-1 Iroquois helicopter from 14 miles inside Ratanakiri province in Cambodia. As the helicopter began its ascent, it was hit by enemy fire, exploded, and crashed, killing Pool and six other soldiers instantly. Pool's remains were recovered on April 12, 1995, and identified on June 20, 2001. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

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Prosthesis

Prosthesis

In medicine, a prosthesis, or a prosthetic implant, is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or a condition present at birth. Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. Amputee rehabilitation is primarily coordinated by a physiatrist as part of an inter-disciplinary team consisting of physiatrists, prosthetists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Prostheses can be created by hand or with computer-aided design (CAD), a software interface that helps creators design and analyze the creation with computer-generated 2-D and 3-D graphics as well as analysis and optimization tools.

Sinton, Texas

Sinton, Texas

Sinton is a city in and the county seat of San Patricio County, Texas, United States. The population was 5,665 at the 2010 census. It was founded in 1886 and was named in honor of David Sinton, a influential business owner and rancher.

Roderick R. Allen

Roderick R. Allen

Major General Roderick Random Allen was a senior United States Army officer, who commanded the 20th and 12th Armored Divisions during World War II. Under his command of the 12th AD, the division defended Strasbourg from recapture against overwhelming odds; it provided the armored contingent in the closure of the Colmar Pocket and the liberation of Colmar; it spearheaded General George Patton's drive to the Rhine; captured intact the remaining bridge over the Danube River and broke the German defense line, making it the first time in recorded history that the Danube had failed to stop an invading army; and played a major part in blocking the Brenner Pass, thereby trapping over a million German soldiers in Italy as the war ended. En route to the Brenner Pass it overran eleven concentration camps at Landsberg, Germany.

Little League Baseball

Little League Baseball

Little League Baseball and Softball is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization based in South Williamsport, Pennsylvania, United States, that organizes local youth baseball and softball leagues throughout the United States and the rest of the world.

Killeen, Texas

Killeen, Texas

Killeen is a city in Bell County, Texas, United States. According to the 2020 census, its population was 153,095, making it the 19th-most populous city in Texas and the largest of the three principal cities of Bell County. It is the principal city of the Killeen–Temple–Fort Hood Metropolitan Statistical Area. Killeen is 55 miles (89 km) north of Austin, 125 miles (201 km) southwest of Dallas, and 125 miles (201 km) northeast of San Antonio.

Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery

Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery

Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery in the city of San Antonio in Bexar County, Texas. Administered by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, it encompasses 154.7 acres (62.6 ha), and as of 2014, had over 144,000 interments. The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016.

Missing in action

Missing in action

Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire. They may have been killed, wounded, captured, executed, or deserted. If deceased, neither their remains nor grave has been positively identified. Becoming MIA has been an occupational risk for as long as there has been warfare.

5th Special Forces Group (United States)

5th Special Forces Group (United States)

The 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) is one of the most decorated active duty United States Army Special Forces groups in the U.S. armed forces. The 5th SFG (A) saw extensive action in the Vietnam War and played a pivotal role in the early months of Operation Enduring Freedom. 5th Group—as it is sometime called—is designed to deploy and execute nine doctrinal missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct action, counter-insurgency, special reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, information operations, counterproliferation of weapon of mass destruction, and security force assistance. As of 2016, the 5th SFG(A) is primarily responsible for operations within the CENTCOM area of responsibility as part of the Special Operations Command, Central (SOCCENT). The 5th SFG (A) specializes in operations in the Middle East, Persian Gulf, Central Asia, and the Horn of Africa (HOA). The 5th SFG (A) and two of its battalions spend roughly six months out of every twelve deployed to Iraq as Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force – Arabian Peninsula.

Bell UH-1 Iroquois

Bell UH-1 Iroquois

The Bell UH-1 Iroquois is a utility military helicopter designed and produced by the American aerospace company Bell Helicopter. It is the first member of the prolific Huey family, as well as the first turbine-powered helicopter in service with the United States military.

Ratanakiri province

Ratanakiri province

Ratanakiri is a province of northeast Cambodia. It borders the provinces of Mondulkiri to the south and Stung Treng to the west and the countries of Laos (Attapeu) and Vietnam to the north and east, respectively. The province extends from the mountains of the Annamite Range in the north, across a hilly plateau between the Tonlé San and Tonlé Srepok rivers, to tropical deciduous forests in the south. In recent years, logging and mining have scarred Ratanakiri's environment, long known for its beauty.

Cambodia

Cambodia

Cambodia, officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese Peninsula in Southeast Asia, spanning an area of 181,035 square kilometres, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the north, Vietnam to the east, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest. The capital and largest city is Phnom Penh.

Arlington National Cemetery

Arlington National Cemetery

Arlington National Cemetery is one of two national cemeteries run by the United States Army. Nearly 400,000 people are buried in its 639 acres in Arlington, Virginia. There are about 30 funerals conducted on weekdays and 7 held on Saturday. The other Army cemetery is in Washington, D.C. and is called the U.S. Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery. All other national cemeteries are run by the National Cemetery System of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Source: "Lafayette G. Pool", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lafayette_G._Pool.

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See also
References
  1. ^ "NARA - AAD - Display Full Records - Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File, ca. 1938 - 1946 (Enlistment Records)". aad.archives.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  2. ^ Forty, George (1997). Tank Aces: From Blitzkrieg to the Gulf War. Motorbooks Intl. ISBN 0750914475.
  3. ^ Woolner, Frank (September 22, 1944). "THE TEXAS TANKER". YANK Magazine. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  4. ^ a b Sewell, Stephen. "DETECTIVE WORK: LAFAYETTE POOL'S THREE TANKS". 3AD.com. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  5. ^ "Lafayette Pool - Introduction". 3rd Armored Division History Foundation. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  6. ^ "Lafayette Green "War Daddy" Pool (1919-1991) -..." www.findagrave.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  7. ^ Fong, Dan. "SSgt Lafayette Pool with brother John Thomas Pool". 3AD.com. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  8. ^ "Tennie Mae Pool Gold (1915-1994) - Find A Grave..." www.findagrave.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  9. ^ a b Kleffman, Dean; Kleffman, Nan (1998). "THE FORGOTTEN TANK ACE: Staff Sergeant Latayette G. Pool, an American to Remember". Journal of Military Ordnance (March 1998). Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Lafayette G. Pool Hero In WWII « Association of 3d Armored Division Veterans". www.3ad.org. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  11. ^ "NARA - AAD - Display Full Records - Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File, ca. 1938 - 1946 (Enlistment Records)". aad.archives.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  12. ^ Sewell, Stephen. "EXPLODING A FEW MYTHS ABOUT WORLD WAR II ARMOR". 3AD.com. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  13. ^ "33rd map". Archived from the original on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
  14. ^ Porter, Marion (September 25, 1949). "Tank Hero of World War II, Minus A Leg, Returns to Duty With 3rd Armored". Louisville Courier-Journal.

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