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Kundavai Pirāttiyār

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Kundavai
Princess of Tanjore
Ilaiya Piratti Kundavai.png
Kundavai as portrayed in Kalki's Ponniyin Selvan.
BornĀlvār Sri Parāntakan Sri Kundavai Nachiyar
945 CE
Tirukoilur, Chola Empire
(modern-day Tamil Nadu, India)
DiedPazhaiyarai, Chola Empire
(modern-day Tamil Nadu, India)
SpouseVallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan
DynastyChola (by birth)
Bana (by marriage)
FatherParantaka II
MotherVanavan mahadevi
ReligionHinduism (Shaivism sect)

Kundavai Pirattiyar, commonly known mononymously as Kundavai, was a princess of the Chola empire who lived in the tenth century in South India.[1] She was the daughter of Parantaka II and Vanavan Mahadevi.[2][3][4] She was born in Tirukoilur and was the elder sister of Chola emperor Rajaraja I. She had title as Ilaiyapirātti Kundavai Nachiyar.

However when her husband Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan was crowned king in his hometown Bana Kingdom, she did not accept the offer to become queen of the kingdom and remained as the princess of Tanjore.[5]

Discover more about Kundavai Pirāttiyār related topics

South India

South India

South India, also known as Peninsular India, consists of the peninsular southern part of India. It encompasses the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana, as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, comprising 19.31% of India's area and 20% of India's population. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges – the Western and Eastern Ghats – bordering the plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Periyar, Bharathappuzha, Pamba, Thamirabarani, Palar, and Vaigai rivers are important perennial rivers.

Tirukoilur

Tirukoilur

Tirukoilur also spelt as Tirukkoyilur or Tirukovilur is a city and the headquarters of Tirukoilur taluk in Kallakurichi District, Tamil Nadu, India. The town is located on the southern bank of Thenpennai River and famous for Ulagalantha Perumal TempleTirukoilur is located on the highway connecting cities of Tiruvannamalai and Vellore with Southern Tamil Nadu. The town is served by Tirukoilur railway station.

Rajaraja I

Rajaraja I

Rajaraja I, often described as Rajaraja the Great, or Mummudi Chola as was a Chola emperor who reigned from 985 CE to 1014 CE. He was the most powerful Tamil king in South India during his reign and is remembered for reinstating the Chola influence and ensuring its supremacy across the Indian Ocean.

Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan

Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan

Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan was a commander of the Chola Army. He was one among the famous chieftains of the Chola emperors Rajaraja I and Rajendra I and chief of the Samanthas of North Arcot and also the husband of Rajaraja's elder sister Kunthavai Pirattiyar. He was also the chieftain of the Sri Lanka Front Army of Rajaraja l and Rajendra I. Territory under his authority was known as Vallavaraiyanadu. He ruled Brahmadesam. Vandiyathevan is idealized in Kalki Krishnamurthy's (Kalki) famous novel Ponniyin Selvan and also in many other novels like Vandiyadevan Vaal, Vandiyadevan Senai Thalaivan.

Bana Kingdom

Bana Kingdom

The Bana was a dynasty based in South India, who claimed descent from king Mahabali. The dynasty takes its name from Bana, the son of Mahabali. The Banas faced opposition from several neighbouring dynasties and served some major dynasties such as the Chalukyas Cholas and Pandyas as feudatories, sometimes after they were subjugated by them. They also served as Samantas to some dynasties. The Banas had their capital at various places at different times, including Kolar and Gudimallam.The Banas were a native Kannada ruling dynasty.

Life

Kundavai (also transliterated as Kundhavai or Kunthavai) was born in 945 CE. She was the only daughter of the Chola king Parantaka II and queen Vanavan Mahadevi. She had an elder brother – Aditha Chola II, and a younger brother – Raja Raja cholan I.

Kundavai married Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan, a member of the Bana Dynasty, a feudatory of the Cholas mentioned in the Tanjore inscriptions.[5] He was also the commander of the Chola infantry that fought in Sri Lanka in the days of Rajaraja l. The territory under his authority was known as 'Vallavaraiyanadu', and occasionally 'Brahmadesam'.

Along with her great-aunt Sembiyan Mahadevi, Kundavai brought up her nephew, Rajendra I, who was the son of Rajaraja I and Thiripuvana Madeviyar, princess of Kodumbalur. Rajendra I spent most of his childhood in Pazhaiyarai with Kundavai and Sembiyan Mahadevi.

Discover more about Life related topics

Parantaka II

Parantaka II

Parantaka Chola II was a Chola emperor. He is also known as Sundara Chola as he was considered an epitome of male beauty. He was the son of Arinjaya Chola and queen Kalyani, a princess of Vaidumba family. Parantaka II ascended the Chola throne despite the fact that his cousin Madurantaka Uttama Chola, the son of Gandaraditya Chola(the elder brother of Arinjaya Chola) was alive and he had equal if not more claim to the Chola throne. During his reign, Parantaka Sundara Chola defeated the Pandyas and Ceylon and then recaptured the Tondaimandalam from Rashtrakutas.

Rajaraja I

Rajaraja I

Rajaraja I, often described as Rajaraja the Great, or Mummudi Chola as was a Chola emperor who reigned from 985 CE to 1014 CE. He was the most powerful Tamil king in South India during his reign and is remembered for reinstating the Chola influence and ensuring its supremacy across the Indian Ocean.

Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan

Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan

Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan was a commander of the Chola Army. He was one among the famous chieftains of the Chola emperors Rajaraja I and Rajendra I and chief of the Samanthas of North Arcot and also the husband of Rajaraja's elder sister Kunthavai Pirattiyar. He was also the chieftain of the Sri Lanka Front Army of Rajaraja l and Rajendra I. Territory under his authority was known as Vallavaraiyanadu. He ruled Brahmadesam. Vandiyathevan is idealized in Kalki Krishnamurthy's (Kalki) famous novel Ponniyin Selvan and also in many other novels like Vandiyadevan Vaal, Vandiyadevan Senai Thalaivan.

Bana Kingdom

Bana Kingdom

The Bana was a dynasty based in South India, who claimed descent from king Mahabali. The dynasty takes its name from Bana, the son of Mahabali. The Banas faced opposition from several neighbouring dynasties and served some major dynasties such as the Chalukyas Cholas and Pandyas as feudatories, sometimes after they were subjugated by them. They also served as Samantas to some dynasties. The Banas had their capital at various places at different times, including Kolar and Gudimallam.The Banas were a native Kannada ruling dynasty.

Thanjavur

Thanjavur

Thanjavur, also Tanjore, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is the 11th biggest city in Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, built by the Chola emperor Rajaraja I, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia. It lies in the Indian Ocean, southwest of the Bay of Bengal, separated from the Indian peninsula by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. Sri Lanka shares a maritime border with the Maldives in the south-west and India in the north-west.

Sembiyan Mahadevi

Sembiyan Mahadevi

Sembiyan Mahadevi was Queen regnant and empress of the Chola Empire from 949 CE - 957 CE as the wife of Gandaraditya Chola. She is the mother of Uttama Chola. She was one of the most powerful empresses of the Chola empire who over a period of sixty years constructed numerous temples and gave generous gifts to many temples in South India. She figures as early as, if not before, Saka 901 during the reign of her son. According to an inscription dated 941, Sembiyan Mahadevi is said to have made an endowment so that a lamp may be kept permanently lit in front of the Shiva deity.

Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra Chola I (/rɑːdʒeɪndrə/; Middle Tamil: Rājēntira Cōḻaṉ; Classical Sanskrit: Rājēndradēva Cōla; Old Malay: Raja Chulan; c. 971 CE – 1044 CE), often referred to as Rajendra the Great, and also known as Gangaikonda Cholan, and Kadaram Kondan was a Chola Emperor who reigned between 1014 and 1044 CE. He is considered the most significant ruler in early eleventh-century South Asia for his role in patronising the arts, encouraging trade and expanding the Chola Empire to its greatest extent.

Kodumbalur

Kodumbalur

Kodumbalur is a village in Tamil Nadu, India. It is the site of the Moovar Koil temple complex.

Pazhayarai

Pazhayarai

Pazhayarai or Pazhaiyarai or Palayarai was an ancient capital of the medieval Chola dynasty in Tamil Nadu. The place is located around 7 km (4.3 mi) from Kumbakonam, a city in Thanjavur district, in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on the banks of T.Patnam river, one of the tributaries of the river Cauvery. There are a number of villages within the area of historic Pazhaiyarai. The place was called Ayiratalli, meaning a land of thousand temples. The place is referred under various names like Ayiratalli, Pazhayar, Ahavamallakulakalapuram and Minavanaivenkadasolapuram.

In popular culture

Kundavai is celebrated as mentor to Rajaraja I. Her influence continued into the next generation as she helped rear Rajendra Chola. Uniquely for her era, where royal women were used to forge alliances, Kundavai's father allowed her to exercise her free will, whereupon the princess resolved to stay in the Chola kingdom all her life. Esteemed throughout the Chola realm for her taste and learning, Kundavai was requested to look after the daughters of other royal clans, tutoring them in art, music, and literature.

Life and works

The temple that Kundavai built in memorial of The Great Rajaraja I at Rajarajapuram (Dhadhapuram)
The temple that Kundavai built in memorial of The Great Rajaraja I at Rajarajapuram (Dhadhapuram)

Kundavai commissioned many temples for Jain, Vishnu and Siva .[6][5] She features in Chola inscriptions.[7][8]

A Jain temple commissioned by Kundavai at Tirumalai (Jain complex) in Tiruvannamalai.
A Jain temple commissioned by Kundavai at Tirumalai (Jain complex) in Tiruvannamalai.

..vessels and ornaments made of gold, silver and pearl and presented to the temples of Kundavai-Vinnagar-Alvar, Iravikulamanikka-Iswara and Kundavai Jinalaya, built by the princess Parantakan Kundavai Pirattiyar, daughter of Ponmaligaittunjiyadevar(Parantaka Sundara Chola).[9]

She built at least two Jain temples, one at Rajarajeswaram later known as Darasuram and the other at Tirumalai.[8] She built a hospital after her father named Vinnagar athura salai at Thanjavur and donated extensive lands for its maintenance.[10][11] She made lavish donations to the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur during the reign of her younger brother Rajaraja Chola I and her nephew Rajendra Chola I.

One of the inscriptions reads:

Records gift of sheep for lamps to the temple of Kundavai-Vinnagar-Alvar by princess Pirantakan-Kundavai-Pirattiyar. Also mentioned is the senapati, Mummudi-Chola Brahmamarayar who was in charge of the management of the temple[12]

[13] Some of the images or idols set up by princess Kundavai include:[14]

Here is an excerpt from the 29th year of Rajaraja that lists some of her gifts to Brihadeeswarar Temple:

Hail! Prosperity! Until the twenty-ninth year (of the reign) of Ko-Rajakesarivarman alias Sri-Rajarajadeva who..-
Arvar Parantakan Kundavaiyar, (who was) the venerable elder sister of the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva and the great queen of Vallavaraiyar Vandyadevar
..gave three thousand five hundred karanju of gold, which was a quarter superior in fineness to the (gold standard called) dandavani, and one thousand five hundred karanju of gold, which was one (degree) inferior in fineness to the dandavani, – altogether, five thousand karanju of gold.
[15]

Hail ! Prosperity! Until the third year (of the reign) of Ko-Parakesarivarman, alias the lord Sri-Rajendra-Soradeva,-
Arvar Parantakan Kundavaiyar, (who was) the venerable elder sister of the lord Sri-Rajarajadeva (and) the great queen of Vallavaraiyar Vandyadevar gave-

..One sacred girdle (tiruppattigai), (containing) ninety-seven karanju and a half, four manjadi and nine-tenths of gold. Six hundred and sixty-seven large and small diamonds with smooth edges, set (into it), – including such as had spots, cracks, red dots, black dots, and marks as of burning, – weighed two karanju and a quarter and six-tenths (of a manjadi). Eighty-three large and small rubies, viz., twenty-two halahalam of superior quality, twenty halahalam, twenty smooth rubies, nine bluish rubies, two sattam and ten unpolished rubies, – including such as had cavities, cuts, holes, white specks, flaws, and such as still adhered to the ore, – weighed ten karanju and three-quarters, three manjadi and two-tenths. Two hundred and twelve pearls, strung or sewn on, – including round pearls, roundish pearls, polished pearls, small pearls, nimbolam, ambumudu, (pearls) of brilliant water and of red water, such as had been polished while still adhering to the shall, (and pearls with) lines, stains, red dots, white specks and wrinkles, – weighed eighteen karanju and two manjadi. Altogether, (the girdle) weighed one hundred and twenty-nine karanju and seven-tenths (of a manadi), corresponding to a value of four thousand and five hundred kasu..

One ring for the foot of the goddess, (containing) seventy-one karanju and a half and two manjadi of gold. Four hundred and fifty-nine diamonds, set (into it), viz., four hundred and fifty diamonds with smooth edges, and nine small square diamonds with smooth edges, including such as had spots, cracks, red dots, black dots, and marks as of burning, – weighed (one) karanju and a half, three manjadi and nine-tenths. Thirty-nine large and small rubies, viz., ten halahalam of superior quality, eight halahalam, nine smooth rubies, three bluish rubies and nine unpolished rubies, – including such as had cavities, cuts, holes, white speeks, flaws, and such as still adhered to the ore, – weighed three karanju and three-quarters, three manjadi and six-tenths. Altogether, (the ring) weighed seventy-seventy-seven karanju, four manjadi and (one) kunri, corresponding to a value of a five hundred kasu.
[15]

Kundavai spent the last days of her life with her nephew Rajendra I at the palace in Pazhaiyarai.[11][16][17]

..run-tiru-amudu sëd-arulavaum ăga nellu padin kalam-āga ōrādaikku nellu nūrru irubadin kalamum udaiyār sri-Rājarājadēvarkku mun pirand-arulina sri ālvār sri-Kundavai Pirāttiyār pirand-arulina avitta-tirunālāl tingal oru nāl tiru-vilā elund-arulavu.[18]

Discover more about Life and works related topics

Rajaraja I

Rajaraja I

Rajaraja I, often described as Rajaraja the Great, or Mummudi Chola as was a Chola emperor who reigned from 985 CE to 1014 CE. He was the most powerful Tamil king in South India during his reign and is remembered for reinstating the Chola influence and ensuring its supremacy across the Indian Ocean.

Jainism

Jainism

Jainism, also known as Jain Dharma, is an Indian religion. Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four tirthankaras, with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to the 9th century BCE, and the twenty-fourth tirthankara Mahavira, around 600 BCE. Jainism is considered to be an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every time cycle of the cosmology. The three main pillars of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (asceticism).

Vishnu

Vishnu

Vishnu, also known as Narayana and Hari, is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme being within Vaishnavism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.

Shiva

Shiva

Shiva , also known as Mahadeva, or Hara, is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the Supreme Being in Shaivism, one of the major traditions within Hinduism.

Tiruvannamalai

Tiruvannamalai

Tiruvannamalai is a city, a spiritual, cultural, economic hub and also the administrative headquarters of Tiruvannamalai District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The city is home to the renowned Annamalaiyar temple, Annamalai hill, Girivalam and the Karthigai deepam festival. Being a prominent tourist destination which attracts considerable foreign visitors. The city is one of the cities featured in lonely planet. the city has a thriving service sector industry including retail, resorts and recreation activities. Apart from the service sector, the city is also the hub for many industrial setups including SIDCO, spinning mills and premier educational institutions. The city is administered by the Tiruvanamalai Municipality, originally constituted in the year 1886. The city has a good network of roadways and railways and a popular getaway to the Megacities of Chennai and Bengaluru. The Union Ministry of Civil Aviation is considering setting up a new airport at Tiruvannamalai.

Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur

Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur

Brihadishvara Temple, called Rajarajesvaram by its builder, and known locally as Thanjai Periya Kovil and Peruvudaiyar Kovil, is a Shaivite Hindu temple built in a Chola architectural style located on the south bank of the Cauvery river in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the largest Hindu temples and an exemplar of Tamil architecture. It is also called Dakshina Meru. Built by Chola emperor Rajaraja I between 1003 and 1010 CE, the temple is a part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the "Great Living Chola Temples", along with the hola-era Gangaikonda Cholapuram temple and Airavatesvara temple, which are about 70 kilometres (43 mi) and 40 kilometres (25 mi) to its northeast respectively.

Darasuram

Darasuram

Darasuram or Dharasuram is a locality in Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India. The area is known for the Airavateswara temple constructed by the Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century CE. The temple is a recognised UNESCO World Heritage monument.

Tirumalai (Tamil Nadu)

Tirumalai (Tamil Nadu)

Tirumalai (lit. "the holy mountain"; also later Arhasugiri, lit. "the excellent mountain of the Arha[t]"; Tamil Engunavirai-Tirumalai, lit. "the holy mountain of the Arhar" is a Jain temple and cave complex dating from at least the 9th century CE that is located northwest of Polur in Tamil Nadu, southeast India. The complex includes 3 Jain caves, 2 Jain temples and a 16.25-foot-high sculpture of Tirthankara Neminatha thought to date from the 12th century CE that is the tallest Jain image in Tamil Nadu. Arahanthgiri Jain Math is also present near Tirumalai complex.

Thanjavur

Thanjavur

Thanjavur, also Tanjore, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is the 11th biggest city in Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, built by the Chola emperor Rajaraja I, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region.

Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra Chola I (/rɑːdʒeɪndrə/; Middle Tamil: Rājēntira Cōḻaṉ; Classical Sanskrit: Rājēndradēva Cōla; Old Malay: Raja Chulan; c. 971 CE – 1044 CE), often referred to as Rajendra the Great, and also known as Gangaikonda Cholan, and Kadaram Kondan was a Chola Emperor who reigned between 1014 and 1044 CE. He is considered the most significant ruler in early eleventh-century South Asia for his role in patronising the arts, encouraging trade and expanding the Chola Empire to its greatest extent.

Pazhayarai

Pazhayarai

Pazhayarai or Pazhaiyarai or Palayarai was an ancient capital of the medieval Chola dynasty in Tamil Nadu. The place is located around 7 km (4.3 mi) from Kumbakonam, a city in Thanjavur district, in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on the banks of T.Patnam river, one of the tributaries of the river Cauvery. There are a number of villages within the area of historic Pazhaiyarai. The place was called Ayiratalli, meaning a land of thousand temples. The place is referred under various names like Ayiratalli, Pazhayar, Ahavamallakulakalapuram and Minavanaivenkadasolapuram.

In popular culture

Discover more about In popular culture related topics

Ponniyin Selvan

Ponniyin Selvan

Ponniyin Selvan is a historical fiction novel by Indian author Kalki Krishnamurthy, written in Tamil. It was first serialized in the weekly editions of Kalki, a Tamil magazine, from 29 October 1950 to 16 May 1954 and later integrated into five volumes in 1955. In about 2,210 pages, it tells the story of early days of Chola prince Arulmozhivarman. Kalki visited Sri Lanka three times to gather information and for inspiration.

Kalki Krishnamurthy

Kalki Krishnamurthy

Ramaswamy Krishnamurthy, better known by his pen name Kalki, was an Indian writer, journalist, poet, critic and Indian independence activist who wrote in Tamil. He chose the pen-name "Kalki", the future incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu. He founded a magazine, which was also named Kalki, with T Sadasivam being the co-founder, in 1941. Krishnamurthy‘s writings include over 120 short stories, 10 novellas, 5 novels, 3 historical romances, editorial and political writings and hundreds of film and music reviews.

Rajaraja I

Rajaraja I

Rajaraja I, often described as Rajaraja the Great, or Mummudi Chola as was a Chola emperor who reigned from 985 CE to 1014 CE. He was the most powerful Tamil king in South India during his reign and is remembered for reinstating the Chola influence and ensuring its supremacy across the Indian Ocean.

Aditya Chola II

Aditya Chola II

Aditya II, also known as Aditya Chola, was a Chola prince who lived in the 10th century in India. He was born in Tirukoilur and was the eldest son of Parantaka Chola II. He was the elder brother of Rajaraja Chola I and Kundavai. He was called as Virapandiyan Thalai Konda Koparakesari Varman Karikalan.

Uttama (Chola dynasty)

Uttama (Chola dynasty)

Uttama Chola also known as Madhurantaka, was a Chola Emperor who ruled from 980 CE to 985 CE in present-day Tamil Nadu, India. According to Tiruvalangadu plates of Rajendra Chola, Madhurantaka Uttama Chola's reign is placed after Aditya II. The latter may have been a co-regent of Parantaka II and seems to have died before he could formally ascend the throne. Uttama was the cousin of Parantaka II and was the son of the illustrious Sembiyan Mahadevi and Gandaraditya.

Chola dynasty

Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty was a Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India and one of the longest-ruling dynasty in the world history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are from inscriptions dated to the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territories until the 13th century CE. The Chola Empire was at its peak and achieved imperialism under the Medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE.

Trisha (actress)

Trisha (actress)

Trisha Krishnan is an Indian actress and model, who appears in films of 5 languages, predominantly in Tamil and Telugu. She gained prominence after winning the 1999 Miss Chennai pageant, which marked her entry into the film industry.

Mani Ratnam

Mani Ratnam

Gopala Ratnam Subramaniam, known professionally as Mani Ratnam, is an Indian film director, screenwriter, and producer who predominantly works in Tamil cinema and few Hindi, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada films. Ratnam has won six National Film Awards, four Filmfare Awards, six Filmfare Awards South, and numerous awards at various film festivals across the world. In 2002, the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri, acknowledging his contributions to film.

Ponniyin Selvan: I

Ponniyin Selvan: I

Ponniyin Selvan I is a 2022 Indian Tamil-language epic historical action adventure film directed by Mani Ratnam, who co-wrote it with Elango Kumaravel and B. Jeyamohan. Produced by Ratnam and Subaskaran Allirajah under Madras Talkies and Lyca Productions, it is the first of two cinematic parts based on Kalki Krishnamurthy's 1955 novel, Ponniyin Selvan. The film stars an ensemble cast including Vikram, Karthi, Jayam Ravi, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, Trisha, Jayaram, Aishwarya Lekshmi, Sobhita Dhulipala, Prabhu, R. Sarathkumar, Vikram Prabhu, Prakash Raj, Rahman, R. Parthiban and Lal. The music was composed by A. R. Rahman, with cinematography by Ravi Varman, editing by A. Sreekar Prasad, and production design by Thota Tharani. Ponniyin Selvan: I dramatizes the early life of Chola prince Arulmozhi Varman, who would become the renowned emperor Rajaraja I (947–1014). In the film, Vandiyathevan sets out to cross the Chola land to deliver a message from the crown prince Aditha Karikalan. Meanwhile, Kundavai attempts to establish political peace as vassals and petty chieftains plot against the throne.

Source: "Kundavai Pirāttiyār", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kundavai_Pirāttiyār.

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References
  1. ^ Lalit kalā, Issue 15, page 34
  2. ^ Early Chola art, page 183
  3. ^ A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States: Thanjavur District, page 180
  4. ^ Worshiping Śiva in medieval India: ritual in an oscillating universe, page 5
  5. ^ a b c South Indian Inscriptions – Vol II-Part 1 (Tanjore temple Inscriptions)
  6. ^ Women in Indian life and society, page 49
  7. ^ Śrīnidhiḥ: perspectives in Indian archaeology, art, and culture, page 364
  8. ^ a b Encyclopaedia of Jainism, page 1000
  9. ^ A topographical list of inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala states, Volume 2, page 206
  10. ^ Ancient system of oriental medicine, page 96
  11. ^ a b Great women of India, page 306
  12. ^ A topographical list of inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala states, Volume 2, page 207
  13. ^ Portrait sculpture in south India, page 34
  14. ^ Middle Chola temples:Rajaraja I to Kulottunga I (A.D. 985–1070), page 42
  15. ^ a b South Indian inscriptions: Volume 2, Parts 1–2
  16. ^ Encyclopaedia of Status and Empowerment of Women in India: Status and position of women in ancient, medieval and modern India, page 176
  17. ^ Middle Chola temples: Rajaraja I to Kulottunga I (A.D. 985–1070), page 381
  18. ^ Śāṅkaram: recent researches on Indian culture, page 97
Further reading
  • Great women of India By Madhavananda (Swami.), Ramesh Chandra Majumdar
  • Lalit kalā, Issue 15, Lalit Kalā Akademi., 1972
  • Middle Chola temples: Rajaraja I to Kulottunga I (A.D. 985–1070) By S. R. Balasubrahmanyam, Oriental Press, 1977
  • Śrīnidhiḥ: perspectives in Indian archaeology, art, and culture By K. R. Srinivasan, K. V. Raman
  • Encyclopaedia of Jainism, Volume 1 By Indo-European Jain Research Foundation
  • Portrait sculpture in south India By T. G. Aravamuthan
  • Ancient system of oriental medicine By S.P. Verma
  • Worshiping Śiva in medieval India: ritual in an oscillating universe By Richard H. Davis
  • Women in Indian life and society By Amitābha Mukhopādhyāẏa
  • A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States, Volume 7, T. V. Mahalingam, Indian Council of Historical Research, 1985
  • Śāṅkaram: recent researches on Indian culture By S. Sankaranarayanan, S. S. Ramachandra Murthy, B. Rajendra Prasad, D. Kiran Kranth Choudary
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  • Encyclopaedia of Status and Empowerment of Women in India: Status and position of women in ancient, medieval and modern India By Raj Pruthi, Rameshwari Devi, Romila Pruthi

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