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Kathryn D. Sullivan

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Kathryn D. Sullivan
Kathryn Sullivan, PCAST Member (cropped).jpg
Born
Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan

(1951-10-03) October 3, 1951 (age 71)
StatusRetired
Space career
NASA astronaut
RankCaptain, USN
Time in space
22 days 04 hours 49 minutes
Selection1978 NASA Group
Total EVAs
1
Total EVA time
3 hours 29 minutes
MissionsSTS-41-G, STS-31, STS-45
Mission insignia
STS-41-G patch.png Sts31 flight insignia.png Sts-45-patch.png
In office
March 1, 2013 – January 20, 2017
Acting: March 1, 2013 – March 6, 2014
PresidentBarack Obama
Preceded byJane Lubchenco
Succeeded byBenjamin Friedman (acting)
Personal details
Education
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions
ThesisThe Structure and Evolution of the Newfoundland Basin, Offshore Eastern Canada (1978)
Doctoral advisorMichael John Keen

Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan (born October 3, 1951) is an American geologist, oceanographer, and a former NASA astronaut and US Navy officer. She was a crew member on three Space Shuttle missions.

A graduate of University of California, Santa Cruz, in the United States, and Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, Canada—where she earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree in geology in 1978—Sullivan was selected as one of the six women among the 35 astronaut candidate in NASA Astronaut Group 8, the first group to include women. During her training, she became the first woman to be certified to wear a United States Air Force pressure suit, and on July 1, 1979, she set an unofficial sustained American aviation altitude record for women. During her first mission, STS-41-G, Sullivan performed the first extra-vehicular activity (EVA) by an American woman. On her second, STS-31, she helped deploy the Hubble Space Telescope. On the third, STS-45, she served as Payload Commander on the first Spacelab mission dedicated to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

Sullivan was Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) after being confirmed by the US Senate on March 6, 2014. Her tenure ended on January 20, 2017, after which she was designated as the 2017 Charles A. Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace History at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, and also served as a Senior Fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. On June 7, 2020, Sullivan became the first woman to dive into the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the Earth's oceans. In September 2021, President Joe Biden appointed her to the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.

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Geologist

Geologist

A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists usually study geology, earth science, or geophysics, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences are also useful. Field research is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory and digitalized work. Geologists can be classified in a larger group of scientists, called geoscientists.

Dalhousie University

Dalhousie University

Dalhousie University is a large public research university in Nova Scotia, Canada, with three campuses in Halifax, a fourth in Bible Hill, and a second medical school campus in Saint John, New Brunswick. Dalhousie offers more than 4,000 courses, and over 200 degree programs in 13 undergraduate, graduate, and professional faculties. The university is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland".

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a dissertation, and defend their work before a panel of other experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.

NASA Astronaut Group 8

NASA Astronaut Group 8

NASA Astronaut Group 8 was a group of 35 astronauts announced on January 16, 1978. It was the first NASA selection since Group 6 in 1967, and was the largest group to that date. The class was the first to include female and minority astronauts; of the 35 selected, six were women, one of them being Jewish American, three were African American, and one was Asian American. Due to the long delay between the last Apollo lunar mission in 1972 and the first flight of the Space Shuttle in 1981, few astronauts from the older groups remained, and they were outnumbered by the newcomers, who became known as the Thirty-Five New Guys (TFNG). Since then, a new group of candidates has been selected roughly every two years.

Hubble Space Telescope

Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation. It was not the first space telescope, but it is one of the largest and most versatile, renowned both as a vital research tool and as a public relations boon for astronomy. The Hubble telescope is named after astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) selects Hubble's targets and processes the resulting data, while the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) controls the spacecraft.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific and regulatory agency within the United States Department of Commerce that forecasts weather, monitors oceanic and atmospheric conditions, charts the seas, conducts deep sea exploration, and manages fishing and protection of marine mammals and endangered species in the U.S. exclusive economic zone.

National Air and Space Museum

National Air and Space Museum

The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the Air and Space Museum, is a museum in Washington, D.C., US. It was established in 1946 as the National Air Museum and opened its main building on the National Mall near L'Enfant Plaza in 1976. In 2018, the museum saw approximately 6.2 million visitors, making it the fifth most visited museum in the world, and the second most visited museum in the United States. In 2020, due to long closures and a drop in foreign tourism caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, museum attendance dropped to 267,000. The museum contains the Apollo 11 Command Module Columbia, the Friendship 7 capsule which was flown by John Glenn, Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, the Bell X-1 which broke the sound barrier, the model of the starship Enterprise used in the science fiction television show Star Trek: The Original Series, and the Wright brothers' Wright Flyer airplane near the entrance.

Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies is an independent, 501(c)(3), not-for-profit public policy research institute located in Arlington, Virginia. The institute was founded in 1994, shortly after the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was disbanded, with the intent to assume some of the functions formerly performed by OTA.

Challenger Deep

Challenger Deep

The Challenger Deep is the deepest-known point of the seabed of Earth, with a depth of 10,902–10,929 m (35,768–35,856 ft) by direct measurement from deep-diving submersibles, remotely operated underwater vehicles and benthic landers, and (sometimes) slightly more by sonar bathymetry.

Mariana Trench

Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Mariana Islands; it is the deepest oceanic trench on Earth. It is crescent-shaped and measures about 2,550 km (1,580 mi) in length and 69 km (43 mi) in width. The maximum known depth is 10,984 ± 25 metres at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep. If Mount Everest were hypothetically placed into the trench at this point, its peak would still be underwater by more than 2 kilometres (1.2 mi).

Joe Biden

Joe Biden

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 47th vice president from 2009 to 2017 under President Barack Obama, and represented Delaware in the United States Senate from 1973 to 2009.

Early life and education

Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan was born in Paterson, New Jersey, on October 3, 1951, the daughter of Donald Paul Sullivan and his wife Barbara, née Kelly.[1][2] She had a brother, Grant.[3] In 1958 the family moved to the San Fernando Valley in California, where her father worked in the aerospace industry for Marquardt Corporation.[4] She was in the first grade at Havenhurst Elementary School, where Sally Ride was a classmate, but the school closed in 1958 to make way for Van Nuys Airport, and neither woman could recall meeting the other.[5] During her school years she was a girl scout.[4][6]

Sullivan graduated from William Howard Taft High School in the Woodland Hills district of Los Angeles, California, in 1969.[1] She took both French and German in high school, and resolved to have a career in the foreign service. She chose to enter the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), on account of its excellent Russian language program. The university required that humanities students take three science classes and vice versa.[7] She chose to take courses in marine biology, topology and oceanography. She enjoyed these, and altered her course to take in more science subjects. She was an exchange student at the University of Bergen in Norway for the 1971–1972 school year and the two summers around it, and decided to change her major to oceanography.[4] She was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree in Earth Sciences from UCSC in 1973, and a Doctor of Philosophy in geology from Dalhousie University and the Bedford Institute of Oceanography in Nova Scotia, Canada, in 1978,[1][7] writing her doctoral thesis on The structure and evolution of the Newfoundland Basin under the supervision of Michael John Keen.[8] While at Dalhousie, she participated in several oceanographic expeditions that studied the floors of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.[9]

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Paterson, New Jersey

Paterson, New Jersey

Paterson is the largest city in and the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2020 United States census, its population was 159,732, rendering it New Jersey's third-most-populous city.

San Fernando Valley

San Fernando Valley

The San Fernando Valley, known locally as the Valley, is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California. Located to the north of the Los Angeles Basin, it contains a large portion of the City of Los Angeles, as well as unincorporated areas and the incorporated cities of Burbank, Calabasas, Glendale, Hidden Hills, and San Fernando. The valley is well known for its iconic film studios such as Warner Bros. Studio and Walt Disney Studios. In addition, it is home to the Universal Studios Hollywood theme park.

Marquardt Corporation

Marquardt Corporation

Marquardt Corporation was an aeronautical engineering firm started in 1944 as ‘’’Marquardt Aircraft Company’’’ and initially dedicated almost entirely to the development of the ramjet engine. Marquardt designs were developed from the mid-1940s into the early 1960s, but as the ramjet disappeared from military usage, the company turned to other fields.

Sally Ride

Sally Ride

Sally Kristen Ride was an American astronaut and physicist. Born in Los Angeles, she joined NASA in 1978, and in 1983 became the first American woman and the third woman to fly in space, after cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova in 1963 and Svetlana Savitskaya in 1982. She was the youngest American astronaut to have flown in space, having done so at the age of 32.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, often referred to by its initials L.A., is the largest city in the state of California and the second most populous city in the United States after New York City, as well as one of the world's most populous megacities. Los Angeles is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Southern California. With a population of roughly 3.9 million as of 2020, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic and cultural diversity, Hollywood film industry, and sprawling metropolitan area. The city of Los Angeles lies in a basin in Southern California adjacent to the Pacific Ocean extending through the Santa Monica Mountains and into the San Fernando Valley. It covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km2), and is the seat of Los Angeles County, which is the most populous county in the United States with an estimated 9.86 million as of 2022.

Marine biology

Marine biology

Marine biology is the scientific study of the biology of marine life, organisms in the sea. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy.

Topology

Topology

In mathematics, topology is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself.

Oceanography

Oceanography

Oceanography, also known as oceanology and ocean science, is the scientific study of the oceans. It is an important Earth science, which covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers utilize to glean further knowledge of the world ocean, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past. An oceanographer is a person who studies many matters concerned with oceans, including marine geology, physics, chemistry and biology.

Bachelor of Science

Bachelor of Science

A Bachelor of Science is a bachelor's degree awarded for programs that generally last three to five years.

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a dissertation, and defend their work before a panel of other experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.

Geology

Geology

Geology is a branch of natural science concerned with Earth and other astronomical objects, the features or rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other Earth sciences, including hydrology, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated Earth system science and planetary science.

Dalhousie University

Dalhousie University

Dalhousie University is a large public research university in Nova Scotia, Canada, with three campuses in Halifax, a fourth in Bible Hill, and a second medical school campus in Saint John, New Brunswick. Dalhousie offers more than 4,000 courses, and over 200 degree programs in 13 undergraduate, graduate, and professional faculties. The university is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada.

NASA career

Selection and training

When Sullivan visited her family for Christmas in 1976, her brother Grant, an aerospace engineer and corporate jet pilot, told her that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had issued a call for applications for a new group of astronauts. NASA had made it known that it was interested in recruiting women, and Grant encouraged her to apply. He had applied for both pilot and mission specialist positions. After she returned to Nova Scotia she saw a NASA ad in a science journal, and decided to apply. She reasoned that the Space Shuttle was a kind of research vessel, but her dream was still to descend to the ocean floor in a submersible. That prospect came closer when she received an offer from William B. F. Ryan from the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University to join his team exploring the ocean in the submersible DSV Alvin. Ryan had been an unsuccessful finalist for NASA Astronaut Group 6 in 1967, and he counseled her to wait for NASA to call. They both felt that the odds on being accepted were long, but Sullivan did not join Ryan's team while she waited to hear about her selection.[10]

Grant's application was unsuccessful, but Kathryn was invited to come to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) for a week of interviews and physical examinations commencing on November 14, 1977. She was the only woman in this group of twenty-five finalists.[11] Over the course of a week she was given physical and psychological examinations, and was interviewed by a selection panel chaired by George Abbey. She was successful, and her selection as one of the six women among the 35 members of NASA Astronaut Group 8 was publicly announced on January 16, 1978.[12] It was the first astronaut group to include women. Sullivan was one of the three members of the group (the others being Sally Ride and Steve Hawley) for whom NASA astronaut would be their first full-time paid job since leaving university.[13]

Using binoculars to view the Earth during STS-41-G
Using binoculars to view the Earth during STS-41-G

On August 31, 1979, NASA announced that the 35 astronaut candidates had completed their training and evaluation, and were now officially astronauts, qualified for selection on space flight crews.[14] To mark the occasion the Chief of the Astronaut Office, John Young, presented each of them with a silver NASA astronaut pin; they would become eligible for a gold one after they had flown in space.[15] Like other astronaut groups before them, each was given a particular assignment.[16] Sullivan helped develop systems management checklists for the first Space Shuttle flights. To give the newcomers more experience, they were periodically rotated to different jobs, so after nine months she became a mission manager at NASA's High Altitude Research Project, based at nearby Ellington Air Force Base. She became the first woman to be certified to wear a United States Air Force pressure suit,[15] and on July 1, 1979, she set an unofficial sustained American aviation altitude record for women of 19,000 metres (63,000 ft) during a four-hour flight in a NASA WB-57F reconnaissance aircraft.[17]

For the first Space Shuttle mission, STS-1, Sullivan was assigned to media support, working with Vic Ratner and Bob Walker on ABC News Radio. For the STS-2 mission she flew in the back seat of a NASA Northrop T-38 Talon chase plane piloted by fellow astronaut Hoot Gibson, photographing the Space Shuttle tiles to verify that none had been damaged. She was then assigned to the support crew at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), along with fellow astronauts Steve Hawley, Loren Shriver and Don Williams, for the next four Space Shuttle missions.[18]

STS-41-G

Checking the SIR-B antenna during STS-41-G
Checking the SIR-B antenna during STS-41-G

In July 1983 Sullivan joined the Mission Development group, which organised and supervised the development of payloads for future missions that did not yet have a crew assigned to them. She was assigned the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications' OSTA-3 satellite and the Orbital Refueling System (ORS). The objective of the latter was to demonstrate that the Space Shuttle could be used to refuel a satellite in orbit, thereby extending its useful life. For this the aging Landsat 4 satellite was chosen. In September 1983 she was officially assigned to this mission, which was designated STS-41-G.[19]

Sally Ride was also assigned to this mission, so it became the first time that two women were in space together. The mission lifted off from the KSC in the Space Shuttle Challenger on October 5, 1984.[20] Sullivan performed the first extra-vehicular activity (EVA) by an American woman on October 11, 1984. With fellow mission specialist David Leestma, she performed a 3.5-hour spacewalk in which they operated the ORS to show that a satellite could be refueled in orbit.[20] They installed a valve into a satellite propulsion system that mimicked that of Landsat 4 and transferred 59 kilograms (130 lb) of hydrazine to it using the ORS. This demonstrated that the procedure could be performed with a real satellite.[21]

During the eight-day mission, the crew also deployed the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, conducted scientific observations of the Earth with the OSTA-3 pallet (including the SIR-B radar, FILE, and MAPS experiments) and large format camera (LFC), and conducted several in-cabin experiments as well as activating eight "Getaway Special" canisters. STS-41G completed 132 orbits of the Earth in 197.5 hours, before landing back at the KSC on October 13, 1984.[20]

STS-61-J

With Sally Ride on STS-41-G
With Sally Ride on STS-41-G

In September 1985 Sullivan was assigned to the STS-61-J mission, which was scheduled to deploy the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in August 1986.[22] The original intention was that the HST would be periodically retrieved by the Space Shuttle and returned to Earth for maintenance, although some components were designed for servicing in-orbit. In 1984 NASA management decided this would be too dangerous and too costly, and that the HST would instead be maintained in-orbit by periodic servicing missions for up to fifteen years.[23] Convinced that NASA would attempt to fix any component that jeopardized the HST's mission whether it had been designated as serviceable or not, Sullivan pressed for as many components as possible to be replaceable or amenable to in-orbit servicing. Working with fellow astronaut Bruce McCandless II and NASA and Lockheed Corporation engineers, she ensured that there would be a complete set of tools and procedures for as many HST maintenance missions as possible.[24]

The STS-61-J mission was cancelled after the January 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, but the crew continued to work on the mission objectives. At this point, just fourteen systems were designated as "on-orbit maintainable". There were up to twelve units in each one, so forty-three were designated as Block I "on-orbit replaceable units" (ORUs). Lockheed produced two lists of additional units that could be modified to be serviceable; there were twenty-six systems and fifty-one units in Block II and eight systems and sixteen units in Block III. With more time available, an attempt was now made to work through these.[25] Meanwhile Sullivan served as capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for STS-26, the Space Shuttle's October 1988 return-to-flight mission.[26] She chose the wakeup music, including a contribution from Robin Williams, who provided a pastiche of his Good Morning, Vietnam radio greeting. She continued working as CAPCOM on the STS-27 and STS-29 missions.[27]

STS-31

Sullivan dons her space suit in case an EVA was required to support the Hubble Space Telescope deployment on STS-31.
Sullivan dons her space suit in case an EVA was required to support the Hubble Space Telescope deployment on STS-31.

At the end of March 1989, Sullivan returned to working on the HST mission, which was now designated STS-31. The crew was the same, except that Loren Shriver replaced Young as mission commander.[28] STS-31 was launched from KSC, on April 24, 1990. During this five-day mission, crew members aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery deployed the HST, and conducted middeck experiments involving the study of protein crystal growth, polymer membrane processing, and the effects of weightlessness and magnetic fields on an ion arc. They also operated several cameras, including the IMAX cargo bay camera, for Earth observations. Their apogee of 617 kilometers (333 nmi) above the Earth was the highest yet achieved by a Space Shuttle orbiter. (It was later exceeded by the STS-82 HST servicing mission.)[29][30]

The HST was deployed on the second day using Discovery's Canadarm with the Shuttle doors opened towards the ground. In case McCandless and Sullivan had to perform an EVA, the Shuttle's cabin pressure was lowered from 101 kilopascals (14.7 psi) to 28 kilopascals (4.1 psi).[31] At one point McCandless and Sullivan donned their space suits and entered the airlock to perform an emergency EVA to help deploy the Hubble's solar arrays, but this was not required, as the engineers were able to deploy them with a series of commands from Earth.[32] Discovery followed the HST for the next two days in case intervention was required.[33] After making 76 orbits of the Earth in 121 hours, Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on April 29, 1990.[29]

STS-45

Sullivan served as Payload Commander on STS-45, the first Spacelab mission dedicated to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. It lifted off in the Discovery on March 24, 1992. During this nine-day mission, the crew operated the twelve experiments that constituted the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science cargo.[34] This was the first of several flights designed to study the composition of the mid-atmosphere and its variations over an eleven-year solar cycle, the regular period of energetic activity by the Sun. The mission also included the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) to measure the ozone layer in concert with other measurements taken by satellites.[35] The mission also carried the Oscar statuette for the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award that film maker George Lucas received on March 30, the presentation being made by the STS-45 crew from Earth orbit.[36] Sullivan had special responsibility for a dose-response experiment that involved firing an electron pulse into the upper atmosphere and recording the luminosity induced with a special camera.[37] Discovery landed at the Kennedy Space Center on April 2, 1992.[34]

Sullivan left NASA in 1993 having flown on three Space Shuttle missions and logged 532 hours in space.[1][38]

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Mission specialist

Mission specialist

Mission specialist (MS) was a position held by certain NASA astronauts. Mission specialists were generally assigned from the astronaut office pool to a limited field of a specific mission, such as those related to medical or engineering experiments.

Space Shuttle

Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program. Its official program name was Space Transportation System (STS), taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft where it was the only item funded for development. The first (STS-1) of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights (STS-5) beginning in 1982. Five complete Space Shuttle orbiter vehicles were built and flown on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted science experiments in orbit, participated in the Shuttle-Mir program with Russia, and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station (ISS). The Space Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 1,323 days.

Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory

Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory

The Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) is the scientific research center of the Columbia Climate School, and a unit of The Earth Institute at Columbia University. It focuses on climate and earth sciences and is located on a 189-acre campus in Palisades, New York, 18 miles (29 km) north of Manhattan on the Hudson River.

Columbia University

Columbia University

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. Columbia is ranked among the top universities in the world.

DSV Alvin

DSV Alvin

Alvin (DSV-2) is a crewed deep-ocean research submersible owned by the United States Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The vehicle was built by General Mills' Electronics Group in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Named to honor the prime mover and creative inspiration for the vehicle, Allyn Vine, Alvin was commissioned on 5 June 1964. The submersible is launched from the deep submergence support vessel RV Atlantis (AGOR-25), which is also owned by the U.S. Navy and operated by WHOI. The submersible has made more than 5,000 dives, carrying two scientists and a pilot, to observe the lifeforms that must cope with super-pressures and move about in total darkness, as well as exploring the wreck of Titanic. Research conducted by Alvin has been featured in nearly 2,000 scientific papers.

NASA Astronaut Group 6

NASA Astronaut Group 6

NASA Astronaut Group 6 was a group of eleven astronauts announced by NASA on August 11, 1967, the second group of scientist-astronauts. Although Director of Flight Crew Operations Deke Slayton planned to hire 20 to 30 new scientist-astronauts, he did not expect any to fly because of a surplus of astronauts amid the looming dearth of post-Apollo program funding, exemplified by the concomitant devolution of the Apollo Applications Program into the Skylab Program. NASA found that only 11 of the 923 applicants were qualified, and hired all.

Johnson Space Center

Johnson Space Center

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is NASA's center for human spaceflight, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted. It was renamed in honor of the late US president and Texas native, Lyndon B. Johnson, by an act of the United States Senate on February 19, 1973.

George Abbey (NASA)

George Abbey (NASA)

George William Samuel Abbey is a former director of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Fellow in Space Policy at the Baker Institute of Rice University.

NASA Astronaut Group 8

NASA Astronaut Group 8

NASA Astronaut Group 8 was a group of 35 astronauts announced on January 16, 1978. It was the first NASA selection since Group 6 in 1967, and was the largest group to that date. The class was the first to include female and minority astronauts; of the 35 selected, six were women, one of them being Jewish American, three were African American, and one was Asian American. Due to the long delay between the last Apollo lunar mission in 1972 and the first flight of the Space Shuttle in 1981, few astronauts from the older groups remained, and they were outnumbered by the newcomers, who became known as the Thirty-Five New Guys (TFNG). Since then, a new group of candidates has been selected roughly every two years.

Chief of the Astronaut Office

Chief of the Astronaut Office

The Chief of the Astronaut Office is the most senior leadership position for active astronauts at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Chief Astronaut serves as head of the NASA Astronaut Corps and is the principal advisor to the NASA Administrator on astronaut training and operations.

John Young (astronaut)

John Young (astronaut)

John Watts Young was an American astronaut, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and aeronautical engineer. He became the ninth person to walk on the Moon as commander of the Apollo 16 mission in 1972. He is the only astronaut to fly on four different classes of spacecraft: Gemini, the Apollo command and service module, the Apollo Lunar Module and the Space Shuttle.

Pressure suit

Pressure suit

A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure is too low for an unprotected person to survive, even breathing pure oxygen at positive pressure. Such suits may be either full-pressure or partial-pressure. Partial-pressure suits work by providing mechanical counter-pressure to assist breathing at altitude.

Military career

Sullivan in her Navy uniform for the STS-31 crew photo
Sullivan in her Navy uniform for the STS-31 crew photo

Sullivan became an adjunct professor of geology at Rice University in Houston in 1985.[39] In this role she joined an oceanographic research cruise in 1988, where she met Andreas Rechnitzer, a US Navy oceanographer, and she started thinking about joining the US Naval Reserve (USNR) as an oceanography officer. She spoke to McCandless about it; he said he was having lunch with the Secretary of the Navy and would raise the matter. Later that year, Sullivan became a direct commission officer in the USNR with the rank of lieutenant commander.[26]

In October 1990 she assumed command of a small specialized unit of oceanographers and meteorologists. Based at Naval Air Station Dallas, it provided support to the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command center on Guam. The unit was sent to Guam on January 13, 1991, four days before the start of Operation Desert Storm, and stayed for thirty days to augment the regular component responsible for the Western Pacific to free it to concentrate on the Persian Gulf.[40] She retired from the USNR with the rank of captain in 2006.[41]

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STS-31

STS-31

STS-31 was the 35th mission of the NASA Space Shuttle program. The primary purpose of this mission was the deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into low Earth orbit. The mission used the Space Shuttle Discovery, which lifted off from Launch Complex 39B on April 24, 1990, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

Rice University

Rice University

William Marsh Rice University is a private research university in Houston, Texas. It is on a 300-acre campus near the Houston Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. Rice is often ranked among the most prestigious institutions in the United States by major institutional publications.

Andreas Rechnitzer

Andreas Rechnitzer

Andreas Buchwald Rechnitzer was an American oceanographer. With Carl Hubbs, he discovered the striped yellow butterfly fish that served as the logo of the Birch Aquarium. He helped develop the first SCUBA diving training program for ocean scientists, which included such innovations as ditch-and-don, buddy breathing, and the buddy system. He was a member of the US Navy Office of Naval Research team that negotiated the purchase of the bathyscape Trieste, and was the scientist in charge of Project Nekton in 1960, during which the Trieste entered the Challenger Deep, the deepest surveyed point in the world's oceans. For this he received the Navy Distinguished Civilian Service Award. He joined the scientific staff of the Chief of Naval Operations, where he was the Oceanographer of the Navy from 1970 to 1984, and was the Senior Scientist at Science Applications International Corporation from 1985 to 1998.

Direct commission officer

Direct commission officer

A direct commission officer (DCO) is a United States uniformed officer who has received an appointed commission without the typical prerequisites for achieving a commission, such as attending a four-year service academy, a four-year or two-year college ROTC program, or one of the officer candidate school or officer training school programs, the latter OCS/OTS programs typically slightly over three months in length.

Lieutenant commander (United States)

Lieutenant commander (United States)

Lieutenant Commander (LCDR) is a senior officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps, with the pay grade of O-4 and NATO rank code OF-3. Lieutenant commanders rank above lieutenants and below commanders. The rank is also used in the United States Maritime Service. The rank is equivalent to a major in the United States Army, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, and United States Space Force.

Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command

Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command

The Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command (COMNAVMETOCCOM) or CNMOC, serves as the operational arm of the Naval Oceanography Program. Headquartered at the Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, CNMOC is an echelon three command reporting to United States Fleet Forces Command (USFLTFORCOM). CNMOC's clemency is globally distributed, with assets on larger ships, shore facilities at fleet concentration areas, and larger production centers in the US.

Guam

Guam

Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia subregion of the western Pacific Ocean. It is the westernmost point and territory of the United States ; its capital Hagåtña (144°45'00"E) lies further west than Melbourne, Australia (144°57'47"E). In Oceania, Guam is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is Hagåtña, and the most populous village is Dededo.

Persian Gulf

Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf, sometimes called the Arabian Gulf, is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Arabian Sea located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. It is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.

Captain (naval)

Captain (naval)

Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The rank is equal to the army rank of colonel and air force rank of group captain.

Civilian career

NOAA Chief Scientist

While she was still working on preparations for STS-45, Sullivan received a call from Sylvia Earle, the chief scientist of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).[42] In 1981 Earle and Sullivan had been part of the first group of women admitted to the Explorers Club.[43] Earle was stepping down from the role at the NOAA, and asked Sullivan if she was interested in taking over. With the permission of her STS-45 mission commander, Charles Bolden, Sullivan flew to Washington, DC, where she was interviewed by the Administrator of the NOAA, John A. Knauss.[42] Her nomination was forwarded to the US Senate for confirmation, and she arranged to be seconded from NASA to NOAA as acting chief scientist from August 17, 1992.[44]

Before she could be confirmed, President George H. W. Bush lost the 1992 United States presidential election and was succeeded by Bill Clinton, and the nomination was withdrawn. Sullivan still wanted the job, so she lobbied for it, enlisting the help of the outgoing Secretary of Commerce, Barbara Franklin, and senators Barbara Mikulski and Bill Nelson. The incoming Secretary of Commerce, Ronald H. Brown, forwarded her nomination to the Senate again in April, and she was confirmed on May 28, 1993.[45] As chief scientist at NOAA, she oversaw a diverse portfolio which included ranging research into climate change, the use of satellites for oceanography, and marine biodiversity.[1]

Career 1996 to 2011

Sullivan was president and CEO of the COSI Columbus, an interactive science center in Columbus, Ohio, from 1996 to 2006.[1] From 2006 to 2011 she was Director for Ohio State University's Battelle Center for Mathematics and Science Education Policy while remaining a volunteer science advisor to COSI.[1] She was appointed as vice chair of the National Science Board by President George W. Bush in 2004.[46] In 2009 Sullivan was elected to a three-year term as the chair of the Section on General Interest in Science and Engineering for the American Association for the Advancement of Science.[47]

Assistant Secretary of Commerce

Interviewed on television after the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) in 2011
Interviewed on television after the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) in 2011

In January 2011 President Barack Obama sent the Senate his nomination of Sullivan to be an Assistant Secretary of Commerce. Sullivan was first nominated in December 2010, but because the Senate did not approve her nomination before the session ended, the White House renewed the nomination. On May 4, 2011, Sullivan was confirmed by unanimous consent of the Senate and appointed by President Obama to serve as Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Environmental Observation and Prediction and Deputy Administrator for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.[48] Sullivan became Acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and Acting NOAA Administrator on February 28, 2013, following the resignation of Jane Lubchenco.[49] President Obama nominated Sullivan to serve as the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA Administrator on August 1, 2013, and she was confirmed by the Senate on March 6, 2014.[50][49] Her term ended on January 20, 2017.[51]

At the White House Leadership Summit on Women, Climate and Energy in May 2013
At the White House Leadership Summit on Women, Climate and Energy in May 2013

Positions since 2017

Sullivan was named the 2017 Charles A. Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace History, a competitive twelve-month fellowship at the National Air and Space Museum. During her residence in the museum, Sullivan's research focused on the Hubble Space Telescope.[52] She has also served as a Senior Fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.[53] Her book Handprints on Hubble: An Astronaut's Story of Invention was released from MIT Press in November 2019. It recounted her experience as part of the team that launched, rescued, repaired, and maintained the Hubble Space Telescope.[54][55]

In June 2020 Sullivan traveled on an expedition aboard the Triton Submarines DSV Limiting Factor to the bottom of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, becoming the first woman and eighth person to reach the deepest known point in Earth's oceans,[56][57][58] and the first person to travel both to Challenger Deep and into space.[59] In November 2020 Sullivan was named a volunteer member of Joe Biden's presidential transition Agency Review Team to support transition efforts related to the Department of Commerce,[60] and he appointed her to the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology in September 2021.[61]

Discover more about Civilian career related topics

Charles Bolden

Charles Bolden

Charles Frank Bolden Jr. is a former Administrator of NASA, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General, and a former astronaut who flew on four Space Shuttle missions.

John A. Knauss

John A. Knauss

John Atkinson Knauss was an American oceanographer, meteorologist and administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) from 1989 to 1993.

George H. W. Bush

George H. W. Bush

George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician, diplomat, and businessman who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as the 43rd vice president from 1981 to 1989 under President Ronald Reagan, in the U.S. House of Representatives, as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, and as Director of Central Intelligence.

1992 United States presidential election

1992 United States presidential election

The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and a number of minor candidates. The election marked the end of a period of Republican dominance in American presidential politics that began in 1968, and also marked the end of 12 years of Republican rule of the White House, as well as the end of the Greatest Generation's 32-year American rule and the beginning of the Baby boomers 28-year dominance until 2020. It was the last time the incumbent president failed to win a second term until 2020, when Donald Trump lost the election to Joe Biden; it was the first such occurrence since 1980.

Bill Clinton

Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. He previously served as governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and again from 1983 to 1992, and as attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton became known as a New Democrat, as many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. He is the husband of Hillary Clinton, who was a senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, secretary of state from 2009 to 2013 and the Democratic nominee for president in the 2016 presidential election.

Barbara Franklin

Barbara Franklin

Barbara Hackman Franklin is an American government official, corporate director, and business executive. She served as the 29th U.S. Secretary of Commerce from 1992–1993 to President George H. W. Bush, during which she led a presidential mission to China.

Barbara Mikulski

Barbara Mikulski

Barbara Ann Mikulski is an American politician and social worker who served as a United States senator from Maryland from 1987 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, she also served in the United States House of Representatives from 1977 to 1987. Mikulski is the longest-serving woman in the history of the United States Congress, the second-longest-serving female United States Senator, and the longest-serving U.S. Senator in Maryland history.

Bill Nelson

Bill Nelson

Clarence William Nelson II is an American politician and attorney serving as the administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Nelson previously served as a United States Senator from Florida from 2001 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served in the Florida House of Representatives from 1972 to 1978 and in the United States House of Representatives from 1979 to 1991. In January 1986, Nelson became the second sitting member of U.S. Congress to fly in space, after Senator Jake Garn, when he served as a payload specialist on mission STS-61-C aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Before entering politics he served in the U.S. Army Reserve during the Vietnam War.

Climate change

Climate change

In common usage, climate change describes global warming—the ongoing increase in global average temperature—and its effects on Earth's climate system. Climate change in a broader sense also includes previous long-term changes to Earth's climate. The current rise in global average temperature is more rapid than previous changes, and is primarily caused by humans burning fossil fuels. Fossil fuel use, deforestation, and some agricultural and industrial practices increase greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide and methane. Greenhouse gases absorb some of the heat that the Earth radiates after it warms from sunlight. Larger amounts of these gases trap more heat in Earth's lower atmosphere, causing global warming.

Columbus, Ohio

Columbus, Ohio

Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio. With a 2020 census population of 905,748, it is the 14th-most populous city in the U.S., the second-most populous city in the Midwest, after Chicago, and the third-most populous state capital. Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County; it also extends into Delaware and Fairfield counties. It is the core city of the Columbus metropolitan area, which encompasses 10 counties in central Ohio. The metropolitan area had a population of 2,138,926 in 2020, making it the largest entirely in Ohio and 32nd-largest in the U.S.

Ohio State University

Ohio State University

The Ohio State University, commonly called Ohio State or OSU, is a public land-grant research university in Columbus, Ohio. A member of the University System of Ohio, it has been ranked by major institutional rankings among the best public universities in the United States. Founded in 1870 as the state's land-grant university and the ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862, Ohio State was originally known as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College and focused on various agricultural and mechanical disciplines, but it developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of then-Governor and later U.S. president Rutherford B. Hayes, and in 1878, the Ohio General Assembly passed a law changing the name to "the Ohio State University" and broadening the scope of the university. Admission standards tightened and became greatly more selective throughout the 2000s and 2010s.

Battelle Memorial Institute

Battelle Memorial Institute

Battelle Memorial Institute is a private nonprofit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio. Battelle is a charitable trust organized as a nonprofit corporation under the laws of the State of Ohio and is exempt from taxation under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code because it is organized for charitable, scientific and education purposes.

Awards and recognition

Sullivan's awards from NASA included the NASA Space Flight Medal in 1984, 1990 and 1992; the NASA Exceptional Service Medal in 1988 and 1991, the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal in 1992, and a Certificate of Appreciation in 1996.[62] She received the Haley Space Flight Award in 1991,[63] the Gold Medal of the Society of Woman Geographers in 1993,[64][65] the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement in 1994,[66] and the Adler Planetarium Women in Space Science Award in 2004.[67]

At the 2019 BookExpo America signing autographs for Handprints on Hubble
At the 2019 BookExpo America signing autographs for Handprints on Hubble

In 2014 Sullivan was named in the Time 100 list, an annual list of the world's most influential people. John Glenn wrote in her blurb:

Kathy is not just an ivory-tower scientist. She was part of NASA's first class of female astronauts, selected in 1978, and went on to fly three shuttle missions. She is the first American woman to walk in space and served aboard the mission that deployed the Hubble Space Telescope. That role in helping humanity look outward has not prevented her from looking homeward. The planet is suffering increasingly severe upheavals, at least partly a result of climate change—droughts, floods, typhoons, tornadoes. I believe my good friend Kathy is the right person for the right job at the right time.[68]

Sullivan received honorary Doctor of Science degrees from Willamette University in 2013 in conjunction with her presentation of a commencement address,[69] and from Brown University in May 2015, for her "abundant contributions to science, education and the public good, and her ongoing commitment to improving the state of our planet for future generations".[47][70] In September 2015 she presented the John H. Glenn Lecture in Space History Series at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Titled "Looking at Earth: An Astronaut's Journey", Sullivan discussed her life of exploration and discovery, what it is like to fulfill her childhood dreams, and how NOAA's study of our planet helps us understand today's environmental challenges.[71]

Sullivan was inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2004,[72] elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2016,[73] and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2017.[74] In 2020 the American Association of Geographers named her Honorary Geographer.[75] She was on the list of the BBC's 100 Women announced on November 23, 2020.[76]

Discover more about Awards and recognition related topics

NASA Space Flight Medal

NASA Space Flight Medal

The NASA Space Flight Medal is a decoration of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. According to its statutes, it is awarded "for significant achievement or service during individual participation as a civilian or military astronaut, pilot, mission specialist, payload specialist, or other space flight participant in a space flight mission." In practice, the medal is bestowed upon any astronaut who flies aboard a United States space mission, and typically every subsequent flight is honored with an additional award.

NASA Exceptional Service Medal

NASA Exceptional Service Medal

The NASA Exceptional Service Medal is an award granted to U.S. government employees for significant sustained performance characterized by unusual initiative or creative ability that clearly demonstrates substantial improvement in engineering, aeronautics, space flight, administration, support, or space-related endeavors which contribute to NASA programs.

NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal

NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal

The NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal is awarded to US government employees only for notably outstanding leadership which affects technical or administrative programs of NASA. The leadership award may be given for an act of leadership, for sustained contributions based on a leader's effectiveness, for the productivity of the leader's program, or for the leader's demonstrated ability in developing the administrative or technical talents of other employees.

Academy of Achievement

Academy of Achievement

The American Academy of Achievement, colloquially known as the Academy of Achievement, is a non-profit educational organization that recognizes some of the highest achieving individuals in diverse fields and gives them the opportunity to meet one another. The academy also brings together the leaders with promising graduate students for mentorship. The academy hosts an International Achievement Summit, which ends with an awards ceremony, during which new members are inducted into the academy.

Adler Planetarium

Adler Planetarium

The Adler Planetarium is a public museum in Chicago, Illinois, dedicated to astronomy and astrophysics. It was founded in 1930 by local businessman Max Adler. Located on the northeastern tip of Northerly Island on Lake Michigan in the city, the Adler Planetarium was the first planetarium in the United States. It is part of Chicago's Museum Campus, which includes the John G. Shedd Aquarium and The Field Museum. The Planetarium's mission is to inspire exploration and understanding of the universe.

BookExpo America

BookExpo America

BookExpo America was an annual book trade fair in the United States. BEA is almost always held in a major city over four days in late May and/or early June. Nearly all significant book publishers in the United States, and many from abroad, have booths and exhibits at BEA, and use the fair as an opportunity to showcase upcoming titles, sell current books, socialize with colleagues from other publishing houses, and sell and buy subsidiary rights and international rights. Authors, librarians, and buyers for book retailers also attend the event.

John Glenn

John Glenn

John Herschel Glenn Jr. was an American Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, businessman, and politician. He was the third American in space, and the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times in 1962. Following his retirement from NASA, he served from 1974 to 1999 as a Democratic United States Senator from Ohio; in 1998, he flew into space again at age 77.

Doctor of Science

Doctor of Science

Doctor of Science, usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world. In some countries, "Doctor of Science" is the degree used for the standard doctorate in the sciences; elsewhere the Sc.D. is a "higher doctorate" awarded in recognition of a substantial and sustained contribution to scientific knowledge beyond that required for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).

Brown University

Brown University

Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Brown is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Brown is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. It is among the most prestigious universities in the world.

National Academy of Engineering

National Academy of Engineering

The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization. The National Academy of Engineering is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. It was founded in 1780 during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, Andrew Oliver, and other Founding Fathers of the United States. It is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

BBC

BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the national broadcaster of the United Kingdom, based at Broadcasting House in London, England. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, employing over 22,000 staff in total, of whom approximately 19,000 are in public-sector broadcasting.

Source: "Kathryn D. Sullivan", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathryn_D._Sullivan.

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See also
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Kathryn D. Sullivan (Ph.D.), NASA Astronaut (Former)" (PDF). NASA. April 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  2. ^ "Barbara Kelly Married; Bride of Donald Paul Sullivan, Graduate Assistant at N. N. U." The New York Times. August 21, 1949. p. 63. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
  3. ^ Sullivan 2019, p. 16.
  4. ^ a b c Sullivan, Kathryn D. (May 10, 2007). "Oral History" (Interview). Interviewed by Ross-Nazzal, Jennifer. Columbus, Ohio: NASA. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
  5. ^ "Astronauts Sally Ride and Kathy Sullivan, who have spent ..." UPI Archives. October 12, 1984. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
  6. ^ Sullivan 2019, p. 12.
  7. ^ a b Sullivan 2019, pp. 12–13.
  8. ^ Sullivan, Kathryn D. (1978). The structure and evolution of the Newfoundland Basin (PhD thesis). Dalhousie University. ProQuest 302930700. Retrieved February 13, 2022 – via ProQuest.
  9. ^ Shayler & Burgess 2020, p. 120.
  10. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 14–18.
  11. ^ Reim, Milton (November 11, 1977). "Tenth Group of 20 Astronaut Applicants Report to JSC on November 14" (PDF) (Press release). NASA. 77-75. Retrieved January 15, 2022.
  12. ^ Reim, Milton (January 16, 1978). "NASA Selects 35 Astronaut Candidates" (PDF) (Press release). NASA. 78-03. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  13. ^ Sullivan 2019, p. 23.
  14. ^ Reim, Milton (August 31, 1979). "35 Astronaut Candidates Complete Training and Evaluation Period" (PDF) (Press release). NASA. 79-53. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  15. ^ a b Sullivan 2019, pp. 30–34.
  16. ^ Shayler & Burgess 2020, pp. 196–198.
  17. ^ "Kathryn Sullivan Sets Altitude Record". NASA. July 1, 1979. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  18. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 39–48.
  19. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 53–56.
  20. ^ a b c "STS-41G". NASA. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  21. ^ Jenkins 2016, p. 52.
  22. ^ Nesbitt, Steve (September 19, 1985). "NASA Names Crews for Upcoming Space Shuttle Flights" (PDF) (Press release). 85-035. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
  23. ^ Gainor 2020, pp. 32–34.
  24. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 117–121.
  25. ^ Sullivan 2019, p. 139.
  26. ^ a b Sullivan 2019, pp. 153–155.
  27. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 170–173.
  28. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 168–169.
  29. ^ a b "STS-31". NASA. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  30. ^ Legler, Robert D.; Bennett, Floyd V. (September 2011). "Space Shuttle Missions Summary" (PDF). NASA. NASA/TM–2011–216142. Retrieved August 24, 2022.
  31. ^ Chaisson 1994, pp. 41–42.
  32. ^ Chaisson 1994, pp. 48–49.
  33. ^ Sullivan 2019, p. 218.
  34. ^ a b "STS-45". NASA. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  35. ^ "LSDA Mission – STS-45". NASA. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  36. ^ "An Oscar ..." NASA magazine. Summer 1992. p. 3. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  37. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 232–233.
  38. ^ "STS-43". NASA. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  39. ^ "Kathryn D. Sullivan". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  40. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 226–227.
  41. ^ "Kathryn D. Sullivan Papers". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  42. ^ a b Sullivan 2019, pp. 229–230.
  43. ^ "The First Women of the Explorers Club". Discovery. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  44. ^ Schwartz, Barbara (August 14, 1992). "Astronaut Sullivan to Become Chief Scientist at NOAA" (PDF) (Press release). 92-046. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
  45. ^ Sullivan 2019, pp. 234–236.
  46. ^ "National Science Board Elects Physician and Former Astronaut to be New Officers" (Press release). May 11, 2006. 06-081. Retrieved February 16, 2022.
  47. ^ a b "Brown confers six honorary degrees". Brown University. April 28, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
  48. ^ "Kathryn D. Sullivan appointed as assistant secretary of commerce for environmental observation and prediction for NOAA". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. May 4, 2011. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
  49. ^ a b Morello, Lauren (August 5, 2013). "Former Astronaut Picked to Lead NOAA". Scientific American. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  50. ^ Clayton, Ciaran (March 6, 2014). "Kathryn Sullivan confirmed as NOAA administrator". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  51. ^ "AccuWeather's CEO Barry Myers Nominated to Lead NOAA". Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association. October 17, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  52. ^ "Former Astronaut and NOAA Administrator Kathy D. Sullivan Named National Air and Space Museum's Lindbergh Fellow". National Air and Space Museum. January 26, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  53. ^ "Dr. Kathryn Sullivan, Senior Fellow". Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  54. ^ Presenter: Jane Garvey; Producer: Anna Lacey; Guest: Kathryn Sullivan (March 3, 2020). "Hubble astronaut Kathryn Sullivan; Romy Gill cooks spicy chickpeas; Reducing domestic violence". Woman's Hour. 0:40 minutes in. BBC. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  55. ^ "Handprints on Hubble". Royal Institution. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  56. ^ Murphy, Heather (June 8, 2020). "First American Woman to Walk in Space Reaches Deepest Spot in the Ocean". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  57. ^ McGreevy, Nora (June 10, 2020). "Astronaut Kathy Sullivan Becomes First Woman to Reach Deepest Part of the Ocean". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  58. ^ "Former NASA astronaut Kathy Sullivan becomes first person to travel to space and ocean's deepest point". ABC News. June 9, 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  59. ^ Cooper, Kelly-Leigh (June 14, 2020). "The woman making history in sea and space". BBC News. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  60. ^ "Agency Review Teams". President-Elect Joe Biden. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  61. ^ Hopkins, Earl (September 23, 2021). "Former COSI CEO Kathryn Sullivan handpicked for President's Council of Advisers on Science & Technology". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
  62. ^ "Historical Recipient List" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved April 24, 2021.
  63. ^ "American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics". Archived from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
  64. ^ "SWG Gold Medalists". Society of Woman Geographers. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  65. ^ "Pennant, Society of Woman Geographers, STS 41-G, Sullivan". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  66. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  67. ^ "Women in Space Science Award" (PDF). Adler Planetarium. May 11, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  68. ^ "The 100 Most Influential People". Time. April 23, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
  69. ^ "2013 Honorary Degrees". Willamette University. Archived from the original on May 4, 2020. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  70. ^ "Brown awards six honorary doctorates | News from Brown". Brown University. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  71. ^ "Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum: John H. Glenn Lecture in Space History Series". July 30, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  72. ^ Mathews, Melissa; Farmer, Andrea (April 30, 2004). "Hall Of Fame Honors NASA Deputy Administrator" (Press release). NASA. 04-146. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  73. ^ "Members" (PDF). National Academy of Engineering. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  74. ^ "Kathryn D. Sullivan". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  75. ^ "Honorary Geographer". American Association of Geographers. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
  76. ^ "BBC 100 Women 2020: Who is on the list this year?". BBC News. November 23, 2020. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
References

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (PDF).

External links
Government offices
Preceded by Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
2014–2017
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Benjamin Friedman
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