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Jiang Dengxuan

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Jiang Dengxuan
姜登选
Jiang Dengxuan2.jpg
Jiang Dengxuan, c. 1925
Personal details
Born1880 or 1881[a]
Nangong or Ji County,[b] Zhili, Qing Empire
DiedNovember 25, 1925(1925-11-25) (aged 44–45)
Military service
Allegiance Fengtian Clique
Years of service1903-1925
RankMajor General

Jiang Dengxuan (Chinese: 姜登选; pinyin: Jiāng Dēngxuǎn; Wade–Giles: Chiang Teng-sien; 1880 – 25 November, 1925), courtesy name Chao Liu (Chinese: 超六|p=Chāo liù) was a Chinese general and politician during the Warlord Era, most famous for his service in Zhang Zuolin's Fengtian Army.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters used in mainland China, Malaysia and Singapore, as prescribed by the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and Singapore, while traditional Chinese characters still remain in common use in Hong Kong, Macau, ROC/Taiwan and Japan to a certain extent.

Pinyin

Pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin, often shortened to just pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Mandarin Chinese in China, and to some extent, in Singapore and Malaysia. It is often used to teach Mandarin, normally written in Chinese form, to learners already familiar with the Latin alphabet. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, but pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written in the Latin script, and is also used in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The word Hànyǔ literally means "Han language", while Pīnyīn (拼音) means "spelled sounds".

Wade–Giles

Wade–Giles

Wade–Giles is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.

Courtesy name

Courtesy name

A courtesy name, also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

China

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India. China spans the equivalent of five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. China also has a narrow maritime boundary with the disputed Taiwan. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two Special Administrative Regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and financial center is Shanghai.

Warlord Era

Warlord Era

The Warlord Era was a period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928.

Zhang Zuolin

Zhang Zuolin

Zhang Zuolin, courtesy name Yuting (雨亭), nicknamed Zhang Laogang (張老疙瘩), was an influential Chinese bandit, soldier, and warlord during the Warlord Era in China. The warlord of Manchuria from 1916 to 1928, and the military dictator of the Republic of China in 1927 and 1928, he rose from banditry to power and influence.

Northeastern Army

Northeastern Army

The Northeastern Army, was the Chinese army of the Fengtien clique until the unification of China in 1928. From 1931 to 1933 it faced the Japanese forces in northeast China, Jehol and Hebei, in the early years of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Early life and education

Jiang was born into a wealthy family of landlords and businessmen. He did well in the early stages of the imperial examination system, but China's defeat in the Boxer Rebellion motivated him to become a soldier.[1] In 1903, he went to Japan to study military science. During this period, he was influenced by early Chinese nationalists Huang Xing and Song Jiaoren, and joined Sun Yat-sen's Tongmenghui the year it was founded. In 1908, he graduated from the Artillery Department of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.

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Imperial examination

Imperial examination

The imperial examination, or keju was a civil-service examination system in Imperial China, administered for the purpose of selecting candidates for the state bureaucracy. The concept of choosing bureaucrats by merit rather than by birth started early in Chinese history, but using written examinations as a tool of selection started in earnest during the Sui dynasty (581–618) then into the Tang dynasty of 618–907. The system became dominant during the Song dynasty (960–1279) and lasted for almost a millennium until its abolition in the late Qing dynasty reforms in 1905. Aspects of the imperial examination still exist for entry into the civil service of contemporary China, in both the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC).

Boxer Rebellion

Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion, also known as the Boxer Uprising, the Boxer Insurrection, or the Yihetuan Movement, was an anti-foreign, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty, by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, known as the "Boxers" in English because many of its members had practiced Chinese martial arts, which at the time were referred to as "Chinese boxing".

Military science

Military science

Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is mainly focused on theory, method, and practice of producing military capability in a manner consistent with national defense policy. Military science serves to identify the strategic, political, economic, psychological, social, operational, technological, and tactical elements necessary to sustain relative advantage of military force; and to increase the likelihood and favorable outcomes of victory in peace or during a war. Military scientists include theorists, researchers, experimental scientists, applied scientists, designers, engineers, test technicians, and other military personnel.

Chinese nationalism

Chinese nationalism

Chinese nationalism is a form of nationalism in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of all Chinese people. It is often equated with Han nationalism, although these two concepts are different. According to Sun Yat-sen's philosophy in the Three Principles of the People, Chinese nationalism should be a form of civic nationalism constructed on top of a united value, however this has not been fully recognized or applied in practice by successors.

Huang Xing

Huang Xing

Huang Xing or Huang Hsing was a Chinese revolutionary leader and politician, and the first commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Republic of China, his position was second only to Sun Yat-sen. Together they were known as Sun-Huang during the Xinhai Revolution. He was also known as the "Eight Fingered General" because of wounds sustained during war. His tomb is on Mount Yuelu, in Changsha, Hunan, China.

Song Jiaoren

Song Jiaoren

Song Jiaoren was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang (KMT). Song Jiaoren led the KMT to electoral victories in China's first democratic election. He based his appeal on the upper class gentry, landowners, and merchants. Historians have concluded that provisional president, Yuan Shikai, was responsible for his assassination on March 20, 1913.

Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese statesman, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang. He is called the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China, and the "Forerunner of the Revolution" in the People's Republic of China for his instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun is unique among 20th-century Chinese leaders for being widely revered in both Mainland China and Taiwan.

Tongmenghui

Tongmenghui

The Tongmenghui of China was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905, with the goal of overthrowing China's Qing dynasty. It was formed from the merger of multiple late-Qing dynasty Chinese revolutionary groups.

Imperial Japanese Army Academy

Imperial Japanese Army Academy

The Imperial Japanese Army Academy was the principal officer's training school for the Imperial Japanese Army. The programme consisted of a junior course for graduates of local army cadet schools and for those who had completed four years of middle school, and a senior course for officer candidates.

Career

Zhu Qinglan's right-hand man

Upon returning to China, he served in a military patrol under Zhu Qinglan in Fengtian province. Zhu appreciated his talent, and took him with him when he was transferred to Sichuan. There, Jiang served as a second-class staff officer in the 33rd Mixed Combination Association of the Army and in the general office of the Sichuan Army Preparatory School.[5] In 1911, the Sichuan Railway Protection Movement broke out on the eve of the Wuchang Uprising, and Governor Zhao Erfeng was forced to step down. Zhu was appointed deputy governor in a military government with Jiang as his chief of staff.[6] Zhu's troops mutinied and both men left the province.

In 1912 Jiang served as an instructor at the Baoding Military Academy, and the next year was made chief of staff for the 1st Division of the Guizhou Army. In November 1913, Zhu Qinglan became Governor of Heilongjiang and once again made Jiang his chief of staff.[5][6] In December, Jiang was awarded the rank of Major General. In May 1914, Yuan Shikai loyalist Xu Lanzhou used his superior military force to make Zhu resign, and Jiang followed suit. In 1916, Zhu served as the governor of Guangdong, and Jiang served as his assistant.[5] There, Jiang helped settle the fighting between local warlords Long Jiguang and Lu Rongting.[6] In 1917, Zhu Qinglan resigned as governor of Guangdong.[5] Jiang Dengxuan was recalled by the Beiyang government and served as a military advisor to the presidential palace.

Fengtian general

In 1922, Jiang Dengxuan became a commander in the Fengtian Army. During the army's retreat from its defeat in the First Zhili-Fengtian War, Jiang personally went into battle and oversaw the construction of a defensive line that saved the army from further destruction. This won him praise from Zhang Zuolin and Jiang was placed in charge of reorganizing and re-equipping the army. Jiang played a major role in the rebuilding of the Fengtian Army that took place between the First and Second Zhili-Fengtian Wars.[6]

During the Second Zhili-Fengtian War in 1924, Jiang served as the commander of the 1st Fengtian Army. Along with the Third Army under Zhang Xueliang, Jiang was tasked with taking the Shanhai Pass on the road to Beijing. Here the Fengtian forces faced Zhili's First, Second, and Third Route Armies encamped behind strong defensive lines.[7] From when fighting began on September 29th until the end of the first week of October, Jiang and Zhang's attacks were repulsed.[8] However, Jiang's second-in-command Han Lichun was able to break through the Jiumenkou passes to the north and the Zhili flank was turned.[9] In the subsequent fighting for the railway near Shimenzhai, Jiang and Han led from the front. The close-quarters combat was brutal and the Zhili forces slowly began to push the Fengtian Army back on the 18th and 19th of October.[10] During the battle, Han attempted to dismiss an artillery officer serving under Guo Songling. Incensed, Guo withdrew his eight regiments from the battle lines at Jiumenkou, threatening the entire Fengtian position. It was only Zhang Xueliang's speedy intervention which soothed Guo and convinced him to return to the front before the Zhili forces could discover the opening.[11]

After the end of the war, Jiang and Guo both agreed that the warlord armies should be disarmed in order to bring peace to China. They suggested this to the parties negotiating at the Tianjin Conference, but their proposals were not adopted.

In August 1925, Jiang was appointed as the commander of the suppression of bandits in Jiangsu and Anhui, and the supervisor of military affairs in Anhui.[6] He was attacked by the Zhili-aligned warlord Sun Chuanfang and retreated to Shandong, where he joined forces with Zhang Zongchang. However, Sun Chuanfang defeated both of them solidly. Jiang subsequently returned to Manchuria to serve as the commander of the Fengtian 4th Front Army.

Death and legacy

On 22 November 1925, Jiang's fellow officer Guo Songling launched an anti-Zhang Zuolin mutiny. Jiang Dengxuan drove through Luanzhou Station, intending to negotiate with Guo, but was detained after entering the city. Guo Li tried to persuade Jiang to join him and oppose Zhang, but Jiang instead scolded him for insubordination. Guo ordered him executed, and he was shot on November 26 at the age of 46.

Today, the Jiang Dengxuan stele is a city-level protected cultural site in Xingtai.[2]

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Liaoning

Liaoning

Liaoning is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

Sichuan

Sichuan

Sichuan is a province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 83 million. Sichuan neighbors Qinghai to the northwest, Gansu to the north, Shaanxi to the northeast, Chongqing to the east, Guizhou to the southeast, Yunnan to the south, and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the west.

Railway Protection Movement

Railway Protection Movement

The Railway Protection Movement, also known as the "Railway Rights Protection Movement", was a political protest movement that erupted in 1911 in late Qing China against the Qing government's plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks. The movement, centered in Sichuan province, expressed mass discontent with Qing rule, galvanized anti-Qing groups and contributed to the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution. The mobilization of imperial troops from neighboring Hubei Province to suppress the Railway Protection Movement created the opportunity for revolutionaries in Wuhan to launch the Wuchang Uprising, which triggered the revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.

Baoding Military Academy

Baoding Military Academy

Baoding Military Academy or Paoting Military Academy was a military academy based in Baoding, during the late Qing dynasty and early Republic of China, in the first two decades of the 20th century. For a time, it was the most important military academy in China, and its cadets played prominent roles in the political and military history of the Republic of China. The Baoding Military Academy closed in 1923, but served as a model for the Whampoa Military Academy, which was founded in Guangzhou in 1924. It, along with the Yunnan Military Academy and the Whampoa Military Academy, was one of the “three major strategist cradles in modern China”. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, half of 300 divisions in China's armed forces were commanded by Whampoa graduates and one-third were Baoding cadets.

Guizhou

Guizhou

Guizhou is a landlocked province in the southwest region of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the center of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of Guangxi to the south, Yunnan to the west, Sichuan to the northwest, the municipality of Chongqing to the north, and Hunan to the east. The population of Guizhou stands at 38.5 million, ranking 18th among the provinces in China.

Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province in northeast China. It is the northernmost and easternmost province of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area, the 15th-most populous, and the second-poorest by GDP per capita.

Guangdong

Guangdong

Guangdong, alternatively romanized as Canton or Kwangtung, is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 126.01 million across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area as well as the second-most populous country subdivision in the world. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the third largest sub-national economy in the world with a GDP (nominal) of 1.95 trillion USD in 2021. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone are two of the four top Chinese cities and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities and leading financial centres in the Asia-Pacific region.

Long Jiguang

Long Jiguang

Long Jiguang (龍濟光) (1867–1925) was an ethnic Hani Chinese general of the late Qing and early Republican period of China.

Lu Rongting

Lu Rongting

Lu Rongting, also spelled as Lu Yung-ting and Lu Jung-t'ing, was a late Qing/early Republican military and political leader from Wuming, Guangxi. Lu belonged to the Zhuang ethnic group.

Beiyang government

Beiyang government

The Beiyang government, officially the Republic of China, sometimes spelled Peiyang Government and also known as the First Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China which sat in its capital Peking (Beijing) between 1912 and 1928. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Chinese government during that time.

Northeastern Army

Northeastern Army

The Northeastern Army, was the Chinese army of the Fengtien clique until the unification of China in 1928. From 1931 to 1933 it faced the Japanese forces in northeast China, Jehol and Hebei, in the early years of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass

Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China, being the easternmost stronghold along the Ming Great Wall, and commands the narrowest choke point in the Liaoxi Corridor. It is located in Shanhaiguan District, Qinhuangdao, Hebei province, on the east bank of the Shi River between the Yan Mountains and the Liaodong Bay coast.

Source: "Jiang Dengxuan", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiang_Dengxuan.

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Notes
  1. ^ Sources disagree on his exact birth year. Powell and the Nangong City Chronicles place it at 1880, while Xu records 1881.[1][2][3]
  2. ^ As with his birth year, his exact birthplace is disputed. Powell and the Nangong Chronicles agree that he was born there, but Lai and Xu place his birth in Ji County.[1][2][3][4]
References
  1. ^ a b c Powell 1925, p. 969.
  2. ^ a b c Nangong City Local Chronicles Compilation Committee 1995, p. 768.
  3. ^ a b Xu 2007.
  4. ^ Lai 200.
  5. ^ a b c d Liu 1995.
  6. ^ a b c d e Powell 1925, p. 970.
  7. ^ Waldron 1995, pp. 94–95.
  8. ^ Waldron 1995, p. 104.
  9. ^ Waldron 1995, pp. 108–109.
  10. ^ Waldron 1995, pp. 114–115.
  11. ^ Waldron 1995, pp. 116–117.
Bibliography
  • Waldron, Arthur (1995). From War to Nationalism: China's Turning Point, 1924-1925. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521472385.
  • Powell, John Benjamin (1925). Who's who in China; containing the pictures and biographies of China's best known political, financial, business and professional men. Shanghai: The China Weekly Review.
  • Liu, Shoulin (1995). Republic of China Official Chronology. Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 9787101013207.
  • Xu, Youchun (2007). The Great Dictionary of the Republic of China (Enlarged ed.). Shijiazhuang: Hebei People's Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-202-03014-1.
  • Nangong City Local Chronicles Compilation Committee, ed. (1995). Nangong City Chronicles (in Chinese). Nangong, China: Hebei People's Publishing House. ISBN 7202017148.
  • Lai, Xinxia (2000). The History of The Northern Warlords (in Chinese). Tianjin: Nankai University Press. ISBN 7547309615.

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