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Jeddah

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Jeddah
جِدَّة
Jeddah Corniche 36.jpg
Traditional architecture in old Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (34) (50702710283).jpg
BSM 2571.jpg
Al-Mimar Mosque, 1824-25, old Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (1) (50703575237).jpg
Balad , Jeddah 10.jpg
Al-Naseef House (6573572949).jpg
From top, left to right:
Jeddah Corniche, Traditional architecture in Historic Jeddah, King Fahd's Fountain, Al-Mimar Mosque, Historic Jeddah City Center, Nasseef House
Flag of Jeddah
Official seal of Jeddah
Nickname: 
The Mermaid of the Red Sea
Motto: 
Jeddah Is Different
Jeddah is located in Saudi Arabia
Jeddah
Jeddah
Location of Jeddah within Saudi Arabia
Coordinates: 21°32′36″N 39°10′22″E / 21.54333°N 39.17278°E / 21.54333; 39.17278Coordinates: 21°32′36″N 39°10′22″E / 21.54333°N 39.17278°E / 21.54333; 39.17278
Country Saudi Arabia
RegionMecca
Established6th century BC
Government
 • Governorate MayorSaleh Al-Turki[1]
Area
 • City1,600 km2 (600 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,686 km2 (651 sq mi)
 • Metro
47 km2 (18 sq mi)
Elevation
12 m (39 ft)
Population
 (2021)[2]
 • City4,697,000
 • Density2,900/km2 (7,600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (Arabia Standard Time)
Postal Code
5 digit codes beginning with 21 (e.g. 21577)
Area code+966-12
Websitejeddah.gov.sa
Official nameHistoric Jeddah, the Gate to Makkah
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv, vi
Reference1361
Inscription2014 (38th Session)
Area17.92 ha
Buffer zone113.58 ha

Jeddah (English: /ˈɛdə/ JED), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda (/ˈɪdə/ JID; Arabic: جِدَّة, romanizedJidda, Hejazi pronunciation: [ˈdʒɪd.da]), is a city in the Hejaz region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the country's commercial center. Established in the 6th century BC as a fishing village, Jeddah's prominence grew in 647 when the Caliph Osman made it a major port for Indian Ocean trade routes, channelling goods to Mecca, and to serve Muslim travelers for Islamic pilgrimage. Since those times, Jeddah has served as the gateway for millions of pilgrims who have arrived in Saudi Arabia, traditionally by sea and recently by air.[3][4] With a population of about 4,697,000 people as of 2021, Jeddah is the largest city in Makkah Province,[5] the largest city in Hejaz, the second-largest city in the Saudi Arabia (after the capital Riyadh), and the ninth-largest in the Middle East. Jeddah Islamic Port, on the Red Sea, is the thirty-sixth largest seaport in the world[6] and the second-largest and second-busiest seaport in the Middle East (after Dubai's Port of Jebel Ali).

Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca, the holiest city in Islam, 65 kilometers (40 mi) to the east, while Medina, the second-holiest city, is 360 kilometers (220 mi) to the north. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East.[7] Jeddah was ranked fourth in the Africa, Middle East, and 'stan countries region in the Innovation Cities Index in 2009.[8]

Jeddah is one of the Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominate the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair", which translates to "Jeddah is different". The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city is widely perceived as the most liberal city in Saudi Arabia and is a popular tourist destination in the region.

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Hejaz

Hejaz

The Hejaz is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Yanbu, Taif, and Baljurashi. It is also known as the "Western Province" in Saudi Arabia. It is bordered in the west by the Red Sea, in the north by Jordan, in the east by the Najd, and in the south by the 'Asir Region. Its largest city is Jeddah, with Mecca and Medina being the fourth and fifth largest cities respectively in the country. The Hejaz is the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula.

Caliphate

Caliphate

A caliphate or khilāfah is an institution or public office under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph, a person considered a political-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim world (ummah). Historically, the caliphates were polities based on Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. Throughout the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states, almost all hereditary monarchies such as the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) and Ayyubid Caliphate, have claimed to be caliphates.

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or ~19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use. Along its core, the Indian Ocean has some large marginal or regional seas such as the Arabian Sea, Laccadive Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Andaman Sea.

Mecca

Mecca

Mecca, commonly shortened to Makkah, is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam. It is 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah on the Red Sea, in a narrow valley 277 m (909 ft) above sea level. Its last recorded population was 1,578,722 in 2015. Its estimated metro population in 2020 is 2.042 million, making it the third-most populated city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh and Jeddah. Pilgrims more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj pilgrimage, observed in the twelfth Hijri month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

Muslims

Muslims

Muslims are people who adhere to Islam, a monotheistic religion belonging to the Abrahamic tradition. They consider the Quran, the foundational religious text of Islam, to be the verbatim word of the God of Abraham as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main Islamic prophet. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith).

Middle East

Middle East

The Middle East is a geopolitical region commonly encompassing Arabia, Asia Minor, East Thrace, Egypt, Iran, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and the Socotra Archipelago. The term came into widespread usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions, and has been viewed by some to be discriminatory or too Eurocentric. The region includes the vast majority of the territories included in the closely associated definition of Western Asia, but without the South Caucasus, and additionally includes all of Egypt and all of Turkey.

Jeddah Islamic Port

Jeddah Islamic Port

Jeddah Islamic Port is a Saudi Arabian port, located in Jeddah on the Red Sea, at the middle of an international shipping route between the east and west via the Suez Canal. It is the second-largest and second-busiest port in the Arab world. The city of Jeddah is the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia, and is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital.

Dubai

Dubai

Dubai is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai. Established in the 18th century as a small fishing village, the city grew rapidly in the early 21st century with a focus on tourism and luxury, having the second most five-star hotels in the world, and the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa, which is 828 metres (2,717 ft) tall.

Holiest sites in Islam

Holiest sites in Islam

The holiest sites in Islam are predominantly located in Western Asia. While the significance of most places typically varies depending on the Islamic sect, there is a consensus across all mainstream branches of the religion that affirms three cities as having the highest degree of holiness, in descending order: Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem. Mecca's al-Masjid al-Haram, Medina's al-Masjid an-Nabawi, and Jerusalem's Temple Mount are all revered by Muslims as sites of great importance.

Medina

Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is the second-holiest city in Islam, and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia. As of 2020, the estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, making it the fourth-most populous city in the country. Located at the core of the Medina Province in the western reaches of the country, the city is distributed over 589 km2 (227 sq mi), of which 293 km2 (113 sq mi) constitutes the city's urban area, while the rest is occupied by the Hejaz Mountains, empty valleys, agricultural spaces and older dormant volcanoes.

Africa

Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.4 billion people as of 2021, it accounts for about 18% of the world's human population. Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4. Despite a wide range of natural resources, Africa is the least wealthy continent per capita and second-least wealthy by total wealth, behind Oceania. Scholars have attributed this to different factors including geography, climate, tribalism, colonialism, the Cold War, neocolonialism, lack of democracy, and corruption. Despite this low concentration of wealth, recent economic expansion and the large and young population make Africa an important economic market in the broader global context.

Global city

Global city

A global city is a city that serves as a primary node in the global economic network. The concept originates from geography and urban studies, based on the thesis that globalization has created a hierarchy of strategic geographic locations with varying degrees of influence over finance, trade, and culture worldwide. The global city represents the most complex and significant hub within the international system, characterized by links binding it to other cities that have direct, tangible effects on global socioeconomic affairs.

Etymology and spelling

There are at least two etymologies of Jeddah, according to Jeddah Ibn Al-Qudaa'iy, the chief of the Quda'a clan. The more common account has it that the name is derived from جدة Jaddah, the Arabic word for "grandmother". According to eastern folk belief, the Tomb of Eve, considered the grandmother of humanity, is located in Jeddah.[9]

The Maghrebi traveler Ibn Battuta visited Jeddah during his world trip in around 1330. He wrote the name of the city into his diary as "Jiddah".[10]

The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office and other branches of the British government formerly used the older spelling of "Jedda", contrary to other English-speaking usages, but in 2007, it changed to the spelling "Jeddah".[11]

T. E. Lawrence felt that any transcription of Arabic names into English was arbitrary. In his book, Revolt in the Desert, Jeddah is spelled in three different ways on the first page alone.[12]

On official Saudi maps and documents, the city name is transcribed "Jeddah", which is now the prevailing usage.

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Tomb of Eve

Tomb of Eve

The Tomb of Eve, also known as Eve's Grave and Eve's Tomb, is an archeological site located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It is considered by some Muslims to be the burial place of Eve. Prince Faisal, Viceroy of Hejaz, destroyed it in 1928. In 1975, the site was also sealed with concrete by religious authorities, who disapprove of pilgrims praying at tombs.

Maghrebis

Maghrebis

Maghrebis or Maghrebians is a modern Arabic term meaning "Westerners", mainly referring to the western part of the Arab world. They are the inhabitants of the Maghreb region, the westernmost part of North Africa. Maghrebis were known in medieval times as Roman Africans or Moors. The term Moor is derived from Mauri, the Roman name for the Berbers of Mauretania, land of the Moors, the Roman name for the western part of the Maghreb. The Maghrebis are mainly of Arab and Berber origins.

Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Battutah, commonly known as Ibn Battuta, was a Berber Maghrebi scholar and explorer who travelled extensively in the lands of Afro-Eurasia, largely in the Muslim world. He travelled more than any other explorer in pre-modern history, totalling around 117,000 km (73,000 mi), surpassing Zheng He with about 50,000 km (31,000 mi) and Marco Polo with 24,000 km (15,000 mi). Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of southern Eurasia, including Central Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, China, and the Iberian Peninsula. Near the end of his life, he dictated an account of his journeys, titled A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling, but commonly known as The Rihla.

T. E. Lawrence

T. E. Lawrence

Thomas Edward Lawrence was a British archaeologist, army officer, diplomat, and writer, who became renowned for his role in the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) and the Sinai and Palestine Campaign (1915–1918) against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia, a title used for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities.

History

Jeddah in 1938
Jeddah in 1938

Pre-Islam

Traces of early activity in the area are testified by some Thamudic inscriptions that were excavated in Wadi Briman (وادي بريمان), east of the city, and Wadi Boweb (وادي بويب), northwest of the city. The oldest Mashrabiya found in Jeddah dates back to the pre-Islamic era.

Some believe that Jeddah had been inhabited before Alexander the Great, who had a naval expedition to the Red Sea, by fishermen in the Red Sea, who considered it a center from which they sailed out into the sea as well as a place for relaxation and well-being.[13] According to the Ministry of Hajj, Jeddah has been settled for more than 2500 years.[14]

Excavations in the old city have been interpreted as that Jeddah was founded as a fishing hamlet by the Yemeni Quda'a tribe (Arabic: بني قضاعة), who left central Yemen to settle in Makkah after the collapse of Sad (dam) Marib Dam in Yemen in 115 BC.[15]

Under the Caliphates

Jeddah first achieved prominence around AD 647, when the third Muslim Caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan, turned it into a port making it the port of Makkah instead of Al Shoaib port southwest of Mecca.[16]

The Umayyads inherited the entire Rashidun Caliphate including Hejaz and ruled from 661AD to 750AD. In AD 702 Jeddah was briefly occupied by pirates from the Kingdom of Axum.[17] However, Jeddah remained a key civilian harbor, serving fishermen and pilgrims travelling by sea for the Hajj. It is also believed that Sharifdom of Mecca, an honorary Viceroy to the holy land, was first appointed in this period of the Islamic Caliphate. Jeddah has been established as the main city of the historic Hijaz province and a historic port for pilgrims arriving by sea to perform their Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca.

In 750, in the Abbasid Revolution, the Abbasids successfully took control of almost the whole Umayyad Empire, excluding Morocco (Maghrib) and Spain (Al-Andalus). From 876, Jeddah and the surrounding area became the object of wars between the Abbasids and the Tulunids of Egypt, who at one point gained control of the emirates of Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Hejaz. The power struggle between the Tulunid Governors and the Abbasids over Hejaz lasted for nearly 25 years, until the Tulunids finally withdrew from Arabia in 900 AD.

In 930 AD, the main Hejazi cities of Medina, Mecca and Taif were heavily sacked by the Qarmatians. It is probable, though not historically confirmed, that Jeddah itself was attacked by Qarmatians.

Soon after, in early 935, the Ikhshidids, the new power in Egypt, took control of the Hejaz region. There are no historical records that detail the Ikhshidid rule of Hejaz. At this point in time, Jeddah was still unfortified and without walls.

The Fatimids, Ayyubids, and Mamluks

Tabula Rogeriana, a reproduction of one of the most advanced early world maps, by Muhammad al-Idrisi produced in 1154 shows the location of Jeddah. This is a South-up map orientation
Tabula Rogeriana, a reproduction of one of the most advanced early world maps, by Muhammad al-Idrisi produced in 1154 shows the location of Jeddah. This is a South-up map orientation

In 969 AD, the Fatimids from Algeria took control in Egypt from the Ikhshidid Governors of Abbasids and expanded their empire to the surrounding regions, including The Hijaz and Jeddah. The Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean through the Red Sea. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, which eventually determined the economic course of Tihamah during the High Middle Ages.

After Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem in 1171, he proclaimed himself sultan of Egypt, after dissolving the Fatimid Caliphate upon the death of al-Adid, thus establishing the Ayyubid dynasty. Ayyubid conquests in Hejaz included Jeddah, which joined the Ayyubid Empire in 1177 during the leadership of Sharif Ibn Abul-Hashim Al-Thalab (1094–1201). During their relatively short-lived tenure, the Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled and the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to a resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world. This period was also marked by an Ayyubid process of vigorously strengthening Sunni Muslim dominance in the region by constructing numerous madrasas (Islamic schools) in their major cities. Jeddah attracted Muslim sailors and merchants from Sindh, Southeast Asia and East Africa, and other distant regions.

In 1254, following events in Cairo and the dissolution of the Ayyubid Empire, Hejaz became a part of the Mamluk Sultanate.

The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, having found his way around the Cape and obtained pilots from the coast of Zanzibar in AD 1497, pushed his way across the Indian Ocean to the shores of Malabar and Calicut, attacked fleets that carried freight and Muslim pilgrims from India to the Red Sea, and struck terror into the surrounding potentates. The Princes of Gujarat and Yemen turned for help to Egypt. Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri accordingly fitted out a fleet of 50 vessels under the Governor of Jeddah, Hussein the Kurd (aka. Mirocem). Jeddah was soon fortified with a wall, using forced labor, as a harbor of refuge from the Portuguese, allowing Arabia and the Red Sea to be protected.

Ottoman Empire

Portuguese attack in 1517 by Gaspar Correia (c. 1496–1563) -  Originally from Lendas da India by Gaspar Correia.
Portuguese attack in 1517 by Gaspar Correia (c. 1496–1563) - Originally from Lendas da India by Gaspar Correia.

In 1517, the Ottoman Turks conquered the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt and Syria, during the reign of Selim I.[18]

The Ottomans rebuilt the weak walls of Jeddah in 1525 following the defense of the city against the Lopo Soares de Albergaria's Armada at the Siege of Jeddah (1517). The new stone wall included six watchtowers and six city gates. They were constructed to defend against the Portuguese attack. Of the six gates, the Gate of Mecca was the eastern gate and the Gate of Al-Magharibah, facing the port, was the western gate. The Gate of Sharif faced south. The other gates were the Gate of Al-Bunt, Gate of Al-Sham (also called Gate of Al-Sharaf), and Gate of Medina, facing north.[19] The Turks also built The Qishla of Jeddah, a small castle for the city soldiers. In the 19th century, these seven gates were minimized into four giant gates with four towers. These giant gates were the Gate of Sham to the north, the Gate of Mecca to the east, the Gate of Sharif to the south, and the Gate of Al-Magharibah on the seaside.

Jeddah became a direct Ottoman Eyalet, while the remaining Hejaz under Sharif Barakat II became a Vassal state to the Ottoman Empire 8 years after the Siege of Jeddah in 1517.

Parts of the city wall still survive today in the old city. Even though the Portuguese were successfully repelled from the city, fleets in the Indian Ocean were at their mercy. This was evidenced by the Battle of Diu. The Portuguese soldiers' cemetery can still be found within the old city today and is referred to as the site of the Christian Graves.[20]

Ahmed Al-Jazzar, the Ottoman military man mainly known for his role in the Siege of Acre, spent the earlier part of his career at Jeddah. In Jeddah in 1750, he killed some seventy rioting nomads in retaliation for the killing of his commander, Abdullah Beg, earning him the nickname "Jezzar" (butcher).

On 15 June 1858, rioting in the city, believed to have been instigated by a former police chief in reaction to British policy in the Red Sea, led to the massacre of 25 Christians, including the British and French consuls, members of their families, and wealthy Greek merchants.[21] The British frigate HMS Cyclops, anchored at port, bombarded the city for two days in retaliation.[22]

First Saudi State and Ottoman–Saudi War

In 1802, Nejdi forces conquered both Mecca and Jeddah from the Ottomans. When Sharif Ghalib Efendi informed Sultan Mahmud II of this, the Sultan ordered his Egyptian viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha to retake the city. Muhammad Ali successfully regained the city in the Battle of Jeddah in 1813.

World War I and the Hashemite Kingdom

Mohammed Abu Zenada, one of the Chiefs of Jeddah and the advisor to the Sharif during the surrender to King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud in 1925
Mohammed Abu Zenada, one of the Chiefs of Jeddah and the advisor to the Sharif during the surrender to King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud in 1925

During World War I, Sharif Hussein bin Ali declared a revolt against the Ottoman Empire, seeking independence from the Ottoman Turks and the creation of a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.

King Hussein declared the Kingdom of Hejaz. Later, Hussein was involved in a war with Ibn Saud, who was the Sultan of Nejd. Hussein abdicated following the fall of Mecca, in December 1924, and his son Ali bin Hussein became the new king.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

King Abdulaziz sitting with Abdullah Ali Reda on the day he entered Jeddah in 1925
King Abdulaziz sitting with Abdullah Ali Reda on the day he entered Jeddah in 1925

A few months later, Ibn Saud, whose clan originated in the central Nejd province, conquered Medina and Jeddah via an agreement with Jeddans following the Second Battle of Jeddah. He deposed Ali bin Hussein, who fled to Baghdad, eventually settling in Amman, Jordan, where his descendants became part of its Hashemite royalty.

As a result, Jeddah came under the sway of the Al-Saud dynasty in December 1925. In 1926, Ibn Saud added the title King of Hejaz to his position of Sultan of Nejd. Today, Jeddah has lost its historical role in peninsular politics after Jeddah fell within the new province of Makkah, whose provincial capital is the city of Mecca.

From 1928 to 1932, the new Khuzam Palace was built as the new residence of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah. The palace lies south of the old walled city and was constructed under the supervision of the engineer Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden. After 1963, the palace was used as a royal guest house; since 1995, it has housed the Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography.[23]

The remaining walls and gates of the old city were demolished in 1947. A fire in 1982 destroyed some ancient buildings in the old town center, called Al-Balad, but much is still preserved. A house-by-house survey of the old districts was made in 1979, showing that some 1000 traditional buildings still existed, though the number of structures with great historic value was far less. In 1990, a Jeddah Historical Area Preservation Department was founded.[24][25]

The modern city has expanded wildly beyond its old boundaries. The built-up area expanded mainly to the north along the Red Sea coastline, reaching the new airport during the 1990s and since edging its way around it toward the Ob'hur Creek, some 27 km (17 mi) from the old city center.[26]

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Mashrabiya

Mashrabiya

A mashrabiya or mashrabiyya is an architectural element which is characteristic of traditional architecture in the Islamic world and beyond. It is a type of projecting oriel window enclosed with carved wood latticework located on the upper floors of a building, sometimes enhanced with stained glass. It was traditionally used to catch wind and for passive cooling. Jars and basins of water could be placed in it to cause evaporative cooling. It is most commonly used on the street side of the building; however, it may also be used internally on the sahn (courtyard) side. The term mashrabiya is sometimes used of similar lattices elsewhere, for instance in a takhtabush.

Pre-Islamic Arabia

Pre-Islamic Arabia

Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula before the emergence of Islam in 610 CE.

Quda'a

Quda'a

The Quda'a were a confederation of Arab tribes, including the powerful Kalb and Tanukh, mainly concentrated throughout Syria and northwestern Arabia, from at least the 4th century CE, during Byzantine rule, through the 12th century, during the early Islamic era. Under the first caliphs of the Syria-based Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), the Quda'a occupied a privileged position in the administration and military. During the Second Muslim Civil War (683–692) they allied with South Arabian and other tribes in Syria as the Yaman faction in opposition to their rivals, the Qays confederation, in what became a rivalry for power and influence which continued well after the Umayyad era. In forging this alliance, the Quda'a's leaders genealogically realigned their descent to the South Arabian Himyar, discarding their north Arabian ancestor, Ma'add, a move which elicited centuries-long debate and controversy among early Islamic scholars.

Marib Dam

Marib Dam

The Marib Dam is a modern dam blocking the Wadi or Valley of Adhanah in the Balaq Hills, located in the Ma'rib Governorate in Yemen. The current dam was built in the 1980s and is close to the ruins of the ancient dam, first built in the 8th century BC. It was one of the engineering wonders of the ancient world and a central part of the Sabaean and Himyarite kingdoms around Ma'rib.

Rashidun Caliphate

Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate was the first caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE. During its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in West Asia.

Hejaz

Hejaz

The Hejaz is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Yanbu, Taif, and Baljurashi. It is also known as the "Western Province" in Saudi Arabia. It is bordered in the west by the Red Sea, in the north by Jordan, in the east by the Najd, and in the south by the 'Asir Region. Its largest city is Jeddah, with Mecca and Medina being the fourth and fifth largest cities respectively in the country. The Hejaz is the most cosmopolitan region in the Arabian Peninsula.

Hajj

Hajj

The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and of supporting their family during their absence from home.

Sharif of Mecca

Sharif of Mecca

The Sharif of Mecca or Hejaz was the title of the leader of the Sharifate of Mecca, traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and the surrounding Hejaz. The term sharif is Arabic for "noble", "highborn", and is used to describe the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's grandson al-Hassan ibn Ali.

Abbasid Revolution

Abbasid Revolution

The Abbasid Revolution, also called the Movement of the Men of the Black Raiment, was the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate, the second of the four major Caliphates in early Islamic history, by the third, the Abbasid Caliphate. Coming to power three decades after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and immediately after the Rashidun Caliphate, the Umayyads were an Arab empire ruling over a population which was overwhelmingly non-Arab. Non-Arabs were treated as second-class citizens regardless of whether or not they converted to Islam, and this discontent cutting across faiths and ethnicities ultimately led to the Umayyads' overthrow. The Abbasid family claimed to have descended from al-Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad.

Abbasid Caliphate

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate was the third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid Caliphate first centered its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Babylonian capital city of Babylon. Baghdad became the center of science, culture and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, including the House of Wisdom, as well as a multiethnic and multi-religious environment, garnered it a worldwide reputation as the "Center of Learning".

Barghawata

Barghawata

The Barghawatas were a Berber tribal confederation on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy. After allying with the Sufri Kharijite rebellion in Morocco against the Umayyad Caliphate, they established an independent state in the area of Tamesna on the Atlantic coast between Safi and Salé under the leadership of Tarif al-Matghari.

Emirate of Córdoba

Emirate of Córdoba

The Emirate of Córdoba was a medieval Islamic kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula. Its founding in the mid-eighth century would mark the beginning of seven hundred years of Muslim rule in what is now Spain and Portugal.

Geography

Map of Jeddah from OpenStreetMap
Map of Jeddah from OpenStreetMap

Jeddah is located in Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coastal plain (called Tihamah). Jeddah lies in the Hijazi Tihama (تهامة الحجاز) region which is in the lower Hijaz mountains. Historically, politically and culturally, Jeddah was a major city of Hejaz Vilayet, the Kingdom of Hejaz and other regional political entities according to Hijazi history books. It is the 100th largest city in the world by land area.

Climate

Jeddah features an arid climate (BWh) under Koppen's climate classification, with a tropical temperature range. Unlike other Saudi Arabian cities, Jeddah retains its warm temperature in winter, which can range from 15 °C (59 °F) at dawn to 28 °C (82 °F) in the afternoon. Summer temperatures are extremely hot, often breaking the 48 °C (118 °F) mark in the afternoon and dropping to 35 °C (95 °F) in the evening. Summers are also quite steamy, with dew points often exceeding 27 °C (80 °F), particularly in September. Rainfall in Jeddah is generally sparse, and usually occurs in small amounts in November and December. Heavy thunderstorms are common in winter. The thunderstorm of December 2008 was the largest in recent memory, with rain reaching around 80 mm (3 in). The lowest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah was 9.8 °C (49.6 °F) on February 10, 1993.[27] The highest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah was 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) on June 22, 2010,[27] which is the highest temperature to have ever been recorded in Saudi Arabia.[28][29]

Dust storms happen in summer and sometimes in winter, coming from the Arabian Peninsula's deserts or from North Africa. Occasionally, the dust storms accompany thunderstorms.

Climate data for Jeddah (1985-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.0
(95.0)
36.0
(96.8)
40.2
(104.4)
44.5
(112.1)
48.2
(118.8)
52.0
(125.6)
47.0
(116.6)
46.0
(114.8)
48.0
(118.4)
46.4
(115.5)
40.0
(104.0)
37.0
(98.6)
52.0
(125.6)
Average high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
29.5
(85.1)
31.8
(89.2)
34.9
(94.8)
37.2
(99.0)
38.3
(100.9)
39.4
(102.9)
38.8
(101.8)
37.6
(99.7)
36.7
(98.1)
33.5
(92.3)
30.7
(87.3)
34.8
(94.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
24.8
(76.6)
26.1
(79.0)
28.5
(83.3)
30.2
(86.4)
31.2
(88.2)
32.7
(90.9)
32.7
(90.9)
31.5
(88.7)
29.8
(85.6)
27.4
(81.3)
25.9
(78.6)
28.8
(83.8)
Average low °C (°F) 20.3
(68.5)
20.1
(68.2)
21.4
(70.5)
22.1
(71.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.8
(76.6)
26.6
(79.9)
27.6
(81.7)
26.4
(79.5)
24.1
(75.4)
22.3
(72.1)
21.0
(69.8)
23.4
(74.1)
Record low °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
9.8
(49.6)
10.0
(50.0)
12.0
(53.6)
16.4
(61.5)
20.0
(68.0)
20.5
(68.9)
22.0
(71.6)
17.0
(62.6)
15.6
(60.1)
15.0
(59.0)
11.4
(52.5)
9.8
(49.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 9.9
(0.39)
3.7
(0.15)
2.9
(0.11)
2.8
(0.11)
0.2
(0.01)
0.0
(0.0)
0.3
(0.01)
0.5
(0.02)
0.1
(0.00)
1.1
(0.04)
26.4
(1.04)
13.1
(0.52)
61
(2.4)
Average relative humidity (%) 60 60 60 57 56 58 53 59 67 66 65 63 60
Source: Jeddah Regional Climate Center[30]
Jeddah mean sea temperature[31]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
26.3 °C (79.3 °F) 25.7 °C (78.3 °F) 25.8 °C (78.4 °F) 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) 30.6 °C (87.1 °F) 31.6 °C (88.9 °F) 31.1 °C (88.0 °F) 30.7 °C (87.3 °F) 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) 27.9 °C (82.2 °F)

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Coastal plain

Coastal plain

A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast. A fall line commonly marks the border between a coastal plain and a piedmont area. Some of the largest coastal plains are in Alaska and the southeastern United States. The Gulf Coastal Plain of North America extends northwards from the Gulf of Mexico along the Lower Mississippi River to the Ohio River, which is a distance of about 981 miles (1,579 km). The Atlantic Coastal Plain runs from the New York Bight to Florida.

Tihamah

Tihamah

Tihamah or Tihama refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb.

Kingdom of Hejaz

Kingdom of Hejaz

The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East that included the western portion of the Arabian Peninsula that was ruled by the Hashemite dynasty. It was self-proclaimed as a kingdom in June 1916 during the First World War, to be independent from the Ottoman Empire, on the basis of an alliance with the British Empire to drive the Ottoman Army from the Arabian Peninsula during the Arab Revolt.

Köppen climate classification

Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1894–1981) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Dust storm

Dust storm

A dust storm, also called a sandstorm, is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions. Dust storms arise when a gust front or other strong wind blows loose sand and dirt from a dry surface. Fine particles are transported by saltation and suspension, a process that moves soil from one place and deposits it in another.

Arabian Peninsula

Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, or Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi), the Arabian Peninsula is the largest peninsula in the world.

North Africa

North Africa

North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Suez Canal.

Economy

Mall of Arabia is the largest shopping mall in Jeddah.
Mall of Arabia is the largest shopping mall in Jeddah.

Jeddah has long been a port city. Even before being designated the port city for Mecca, Jeddah was a trading hub for the region. In the 19th century, goods such as mother-of-pearl, tortoise shells, frankincense, and spices were routinely exported from the city. Apart from this, many imports into the city were destined for further transit to the Suez, Africa, or Europe. Many goods passing through Jeddah could not even be found in the city or even in Arabia.[32]

All of the capitals of the Middle East and North Africa are within two hours flying distance of Jeddah, making it the second commercial center of the Middle East after Dubai.[33]

Also, Jeddah's industrial district is the fourth largest industrial city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh, Jubail and Yanbu.

King Abdullah Street

King Abdullah Street.
King Abdullah Street.

King Abdullah Street is one of the most important streets in Jeddah and runs from King Fahd Road by the waterfront in the west of Jeddah to the eastern end of the city. It is famous for hosting numerous corporate offices and commercial developments. It will be near the HSR Entrance in Jeddah central train station which connects Jeddah with Makkah, AL-Madinah, and King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC). And it also has the tallest flagpole in the world at a height of 170 m (558 ft). This road also faced a catastrophe in 2011 when it was submerged with rainwater.

Tahliyah Street

Galleria, a Hotel at Tahliyah Street.
Galleria, a Hotel at Tahliyah Street.

Tahaliyah Street is an important fashion and shopping street in central Jeddah. It contains many upscale departments and high fashion brands stores as well as boutiques. It has been renamed "Prince Mohammad bin Abdul Aziz Road" by the government, but this official name is not widely used. It also has many fine dining options.

Madinah Road

A view of the Madinah Road in 2007.
A view of the Madinah Road in 2007.

Madinah Road is a historically significant street in Jeddah. It links the Southern districts with the North and contains the Main offices of several companies and showrooms. The northern end of the road links to the King Abdul Aziz Int'l Airport, which is a contributing factor to heavy traffic on this road at most times during the day.

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Mall of Arabia (Jeddah)

Mall of Arabia (Jeddah)

The Mall of Arabia is a shopping mall located in Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The mall is located on the eastern side of the Medina Road and south of Makkah Road, near the King Abdulaziz International Airport. The mall has an area of 261,000 square meters. It also contains Kidzania Jeddah.

Middle East

Middle East

The Middle East is a geopolitical region commonly encompassing Arabia, Asia Minor, East Thrace, Egypt, Iran, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and the Socotra Archipelago. The term came into widespread usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions, and has been viewed by some to be discriminatory or too Eurocentric. The region includes the vast majority of the territories included in the closely associated definition of Western Asia, but without the South Caucasus, and additionally includes all of Egypt and all of Turkey.

Riyadh

Riyadh

Riyadh, formerly known as Hajr al-Yamamah, is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of the Riyadh Province and the centre of the Riyadh Governorate.

Jubail

Jubail

Jubail is a city in the Eastern province on the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia, with a total population of 684,531 as of 2021. It is home to the largest industrial city in the world. It is also home to the Middle East's largest and world's fourth largest petrochemical company SABIC. It has the world's largest IWPP producing 2743.6 MW of electricity and 800,000 m3 of water daily. Jubail comprises the Old Town of Al Jubail, which was a small fishing village until 1975, and the Industrial Area. Jubail Industrial City is the largest civil engineering project in the world today.

Yanbu

Yanbu

Yanbu, also known simply as Yambu or Yenbo, is a city in the Al Madinah Province of western Saudi Arabia. It is approximately 300 kilometers northwest of Jeddah. The population is 222,360. Many residents are foreign expatriates working in the oil refineries and petrochemical industry, mostly from Asia, but there are also large numbers from the Middle East, Europe, and North America.

Tahlia Street

Tahlia Street

Tahlia Street is a fashion and shopping street in the mid-town of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Fine dining

Fine dining

Fine dining restaurants are full-service restaurants with specific dedicated meal courses. The décor of such restaurants features higher-quality materials, with establishments having certain rules of dining which visitors are generally expected to follow, sometimes including a dress code.

Medina

Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is the second-holiest city in Islam, and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia. As of 2020, the estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, making it the fourth-most populous city in the country. Located at the core of the Medina Province in the western reaches of the country, the city is distributed over 589 km2 (227 sq mi), of which 293 km2 (113 sq mi) constitutes the city's urban area, while the rest is occupied by the Hejaz Mountains, empty valleys, agricultural spaces and older dormant volcanoes.

King Abdulaziz International Airport

King Abdulaziz International Airport

King Abdulaziz International Airport (KAIA) is an international airport serving Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, also known as "Jeddah International Airport"(Arabic: مطار جدة الدولي).

Culture

Religious significance

A woman from Jeddah in traditional clothing, 1873.
A woman from Jeddah in traditional clothing, 1873.

Most citizens are Sunni Muslims. The government, courts, and civil and criminal laws enforce a moral code established by Shari'ah. A very small minority of Saudi citizens are Shia Muslims, and there is also a large foreign workforce.

The city has over 1,300 mosques.[34] The law does not allow other religions' buildings, books, icons, and expressions of faith. However, private religious observance not involving Muslims nor offending public order and morality is tolerated.

Since the 7th century, Jeddah has hosted millions of Muslim pilgrims from all over the world on their way to Hajj. This merge with pilgrims has a major impact on the society, religion, and economy of Jeddah.

Cuisine

Jeddah's multi-ethnic citizenry has influenced Jeddah's traditional cuisine.

Some dishes are native to the Hejaz, like Saleeg سَليق and Mabshūr مَبْشُور is a white-rice dish, cooked in broth, often made with chicken instead of lamb meat. Jeddah cuisine is popular as well and dishes like, Foul, Shorabah Hareira (Hareira soup), Mugalgal, Madhbi (chicken grilled on stone), Madfun (literally meaning "buried"), Magloobah, Kibdah, Manzalah (usually eaten at Eid ul-Fitr), Magliya (a local version of falafel) and Saiyadyia which can be acquired in many traditional restaurants around the city, such as Althamrat, Abo-Zaid, Al-Quarmooshi, Ayaz, and Hejaziyat.

Some were imported from other Saudi regions like Kabsa كَبْسَة from Najd, Arīka عَريكة and Ma'sūb مَعْصُوب from the southern Saudi region. Other Dishes were imported from other cultures through Saudis of different origins, like Mantu مَنْتو, Yaghmush يَغْمُش and Ruz Bukhāri رُز بُخاري from Central Asia, Burēk بُريك and Šurēk شُريك and Kabab almīru كباب الميرو from Turkey and the Balkans, Mandi مَنْدي from Yemen, Mutabbag مُطَبَّق from Yemen-Malaysia, Biryāni برياني and Kābli كابلي rice dishes from South Asia.

Hejazi Saleeg
Hejazi Saleeg

The most popular local fast-food chain, begun in 1974, is Albaik, with branches in Jeddah and the neighboring cities of Makkah, Madinah and Yanbu. Their main dish is broasted (broiled and roasted) chicken, commonly known by Jeddawis as "Broast", and a variety of seafood.The popular fast food chain recently opened branches in Riyadh. Dammam, Buraidah, Bahrain, and Dubai in the UAE.[35][36]

Open-air art

The bicycle roundabout is one of the most iconic open-air art installations in Jeddah.
The bicycle roundabout is one of the most iconic open-air art installations in Jeddah.
Copper Statue 'Hope for the right path' from Belgian artist Hubert Minnebo at the Sword Roundabout (Tahlia Street)
Copper Statue 'Hope for the right path' from Belgian artist Hubert Minnebo at the Sword Roundabout (Tahlia Street)

During the oil boom in the late 1970s and 1980s, there was a focused civic effort led by the then city's mayor Mohamed Said Farsi [37][38] to bring art to Jeddah's public areas. As a result, Jeddah contains a large number of modern open-air sculptures and works of art, typically situated in roundabouts, making the city one of the largest open-air art galleries in the world. Sculptures include works by Jean/Hans Arp, César Baldaccini, Alexander Calder, Henry Moore, Joan Miró, Hubert Minnebo and Victor Vasarely. They often depict traditional Saudi items such as coffee pots, incense burners, palm trees, etc. The fact that Islamic tradition prohibits the depiction of living creatures, notably the human form, has made for some very creative, as well as bizarre, modern art. These include a giant geometry set, a giant bicycle, and a huge block of concrete with several cars protruding from it at odd angles and a monumental sculpture by Aref Rayess called "Swords of God (Soyuf Allah)". At the interchange between Al-Madinah Road, King Abdulaziz Road, and Prince Abullah Al-Faisal Road, there are large sculptures of camels that are the center of a very dangerous roundabout. The camel bodies are not full; they are broken up to prevent it portraying living creatures, which is against Wahhabi belief.[39]

Museums and collections

There are about a dozen museums or collections in Jeddah, with varied educational aims and professionalism.[40] These include the Jeddah Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography run by the Deputy Ministry of Antiquities and Museums, the Jeddah Municipal Museum, the Nasseef House, the Humane Heritage Museum, the private Abdul Rauf Hasan Khalil Museum and the private Arts Heritage Museum.

Events and festivals

Red Sea International Film Festival

Jeddah has been selected as a place for the annual Red Sea International Film Festival that will be held in 2020.[41]

Jeddah International Book Fair

Jeddah hosts an annual international book fair called Jeddah international book fair.[42] It is the second largest book fair in Saudi Arabia,[43] and it was first held in 2015. The book fair is held annually in early December.[42]

Jeddah Season

Jeddah Season is a part of the Saudi government's Saudi Seasons initiatives that aims at launching a high-level tourism activities in Saudi Arabia.[44] The first version of the season has been held in June–July 2019.[45] Around 150 activities and events have been organized in five destinations in Jeddah.[45] As Saudi Seasons 2019 aims at shedding the light on the diverse Saudi culture and heritage.[46] Jeddah was chosen because it is one of the most culturally-rich Saudi cities with a history that spans over 3,000 years.[45] Most of Jeddah Season's events and activities have been held at King Abdullah Sports City, Jeddah's historical area, Al-Hamra Corniche, and the Jeddah Waterfront.[47] Jeddah Season aim to make Jeddah the most preferred tourist destination in the world and the best season of Saudi Seasons.[48]

Media

Jeddah is served by four major Arabic-language newspapers, Asharq Al-Awsat, Al Madina, Okaz, and Al Bilad, as well as two major English-language newspapers, the Saudi Gazette and Arab News. Okaz and Al-Madina are the primary newspapers of Jeddah and some other Saudi cities, with over a million readers; their focus is mainly local.

Internet blogs specifically informative of the locality are abundant in Jeddah, catering mostly to the widespread expatriate population. Of these are constituted websites that have garnered international acclaim for informativeness, such as Jeddah Blog, the recipient of the Bronze Expat Blog Award in 2012 and the Gold Award in 2013 and is among Feedspot's Top 100 Middle East blogs.[49][50] Other amateur websites catering to specific topics in the region exist as well.

Jeddah represents the largest radio and television market in Saudi Arabia. Television stations serving the city area include Saudi TV1, Saudi TV2, Saudi TV Sports, Al Ekhbariya, the ART channels network and hundreds of cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers.

The Jeddah TV Tower is a 250 m (820 ft) high television tower with an observation deck.

Accent

The Jeddah region's distinctive speech pattern is called the Hejazi dialect; it is among the most recognizable accents within the Arabic language.

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Mosque

Mosque

A mosque, also called masjid, is a place of prayer for Muslims. Mosques are usually covered buildings, but can be any place where prayers (sujud) are performed, including outdoor courtyards.

Hajj

Hajj

The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and of supporting their family during their absence from home.

Falafel

Falafel

Falafel is a deep-fried ball or patty-shaped fritter in Middle Eastern cuisine made from ground chickpeas, broad beans, or both. Nowadays, falafel is often served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, samoon, or wrapped in a flatbread known as taboon; "falafel" also frequently refers to a wrapped sandwich that is prepared in this way. The falafel balls may be topped with salads, pickled vegetables, hot sauce, and drizzled with tahini-based sauces. Falafel balls may also be eaten alone as a snack or served as part of a meze tray.

Manti (food)

Manti (food)

Manti is a type of dumpling popular in most cuisines of the South Caucasus, Balkans, Central Asia, and Afghanistan. Manti is also popular among Chinese Muslims, and it is consumed throughout post-Soviet countries, where the dish spread from the Central Asian republics. The dumplings typically consist of a spiced meat mixture, usually lamb or ground beef, wrapped in a thin dough sheet which is then boiled or steamed. The size and shape of manti vary significantly depending on geographic location.

Pilaf

Pilaf

Pilaf or pilau is a rice dish, or in some regions, a wheat dish, whose recipe usually involves cooking in stock or broth, adding spices, and other ingredients such as vegetables or meat, and employing some technique for achieving cooked grains that do not adhere to each other.

Börek

Börek

Börek or burek are a family of pastries or pies found in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia. The pastry is made of a thin flaky dough such as filo with a variety of fillings, such as meat, cheese, spinach or potatoes. Boreks are mainly associated with the areas of the Anatolia, Middle East, Armenia, and also with the former Ottoman Empire, including the Balkans and the Caucasus, Eastern European and Central European countries, Northern Africa and Central Asia. A borek may be prepared in a large pan and cut into portions after baking, or as individual pastries. They are usually baked but some varieties can be fried. Borek is sometimes sprinkled with sesame or nigella seeds, and it can be served hot or cold.

Mandi (food)

Mandi (food)

Mandi is a traditional dish that originated from Hadhramaut, Yemen, consisting mainly of meat and rice with a special blend of spices, cooked in a pit underground. It is popular and commonly consumed in most areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and even considered a staple dish in many regions. It is also found in Egypt, India, the Levant and Turkey.

Murtabak

Murtabak

Motabbaq is a stuffed pancake or pan-fried bread which is commonly found in the Arabian Peninsula and Southeast Asia, notably in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Thailand and Bangladesh. Depending on the location, the name and ingredients can significantly vary. The name mutabbaq in Arabic means "folded". It is a popular street food in Yemen, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore.

Albaik

Albaik

Albaik is a Saudi fast food restaurant chain headquartered in Jeddah, Hejaz that primarily sells broasted and fried chicken with a variety of sauces. It is Saudi Arabia's largest restaurant chain. Albaik currently has a trade name in 80 countries.

Hubert Minnebo

Hubert Minnebo

Hubert Minnebo is an artist from Belgium. He is a painter and sculptor who often works with bronze and gold.

Public space

Public space

A public space is a place that is open and accessible to the general public. Roads, public squares, parks, and beaches are typically considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are open to the public, such as public libraries, are public spaces, although they tend to have restricted areas and greater limits upon use. Although not considered public space, privately owned buildings or property visible from sidewalks and public thoroughfares may affect the public visual landscape, for example, by outdoor advertising. Recently, the concept of shared space has been advanced to enhance the experience of pedestrians in public space jointly used by automobiles and other vehicles.

Roundabout

Roundabout

A roundabout is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic is permitted to flow in one direction around a central island, and priority is typically given to traffic already in the junction.

Cityscape

Skyline of Al-Balad (Jeddah Downtown)
Skyline of Al-Balad (Jeddah Downtown)

Old Jeddah

The Old City known as Al-Balad with its traditional multistory buildings and merchant houses, that often still belong to the families that inhabited them before the oil-era, has lost ground to more modern developments.[51] Nonetheless, the Old City contributes to Hejazi's cultural identity. Since it has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status, in 2014, several traditional buildings have been restored and made open to the public. In 2019, the Saudi crown prince, Muhammad bin Salman, has issued a royal decree that orders The Ministry of Culture to restore 50 historical buildings in Jeddah.[52] Several historic mosques from different eras are located in al-Balad, as well as one of oldest museums in the city, called Bayt Naseef or Naseef house, displaying local furniture and interior design of the past 150 years, approximately.

Resorts and hotels

The city has many popular resorts, including Durrat Al-Arus, Al-Nawras Mövenpick resort at the Red Sea Corniche, Crystal Resort, Radisson Blu, The Signature Al Murjan Beach Resort, Al Nakheel Village, Sands, and Sheraton Abhur. Many are renowned for their preserved Red Sea marine life and offshore coral reefs.

Consulates

One of two consulates of the United States of America in Saudi Arabia is located in Jeddah, along with the consulates for 67 other countries such as Afghanistan, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, France, Germany, Greece, Turkey, Philippines, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Italy, Russia and Mainland China. Some of the other consulates present include, countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Arab League states.

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Al-Balad, Jeddah

Al-Balad, Jeddah

Al-Balad is the historical area of Jeddah, the second largest city of Saudi Arabia. Balad can literally be translated as "The Town." Balad is the historic center of the City of Jeddah.

Ministry of Culture (Saudi Arabia)

Ministry of Culture (Saudi Arabia)

The Ministry of Culture is a governmental organization in Saudi Arabia was established in June 2018 and responsible for various aspects of Saudi culture. Minister of Culture is Prince Badr bin Farhan Al-Saud who was appointed as its new and first minister.

Consul (representative)

Consul (representative)

A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, as well as to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central Asia and South Asia. Referred to as the Heart of Asia, it is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, Tajikistan to the northeast, and China to the northeast and east. Occupying 652,864 square kilometers (252,072 sq mi) of land, the country is predominantly mountainous with plains in the north and the southwest, which are separated by the Hindu Kush mountain range. As of 2021, its population is 40.2 million, composed mostly of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks. Kabul is the country's largest city and serves as its capital.

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and the 14th-largest country by area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres. With over 275 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a transcontinental country predominantly located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain close to 68 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, and Nice.

Germany

Germany

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; it covers an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of almost 84 million within its 16 constituent states. Germany borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. The nation's capital and most populous city is Berlin and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr.

Greece

Greece

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, and is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, and the Sea of Crete and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin, featuring thousands of islands. The country consists of nine traditional geographic regions, and has a population of approximately 10.4 million. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki and Patras.

India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia. The nation's capital city is New Delhi.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi). Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world, and shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial and cultural center. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.

Italy

Italy

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, in Southern Europe; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region. Italy is also considered part of Western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital and largest city, the country covers a total area of 301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland, Campione. With over 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.

China

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India. China spans the equivalent of five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. China also has a narrow maritime boundary with the disputed Taiwan. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two Special Administrative Regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and financial center is Shanghai.

Historical Jeddah

The architecture of buildings in Jeddahs' historic Al-Balad area
The architecture of buildings in Jeddahs' historic Al-Balad area

Historical Jeddah is situated on the eastern shore of the Red Sea. From the 7th century AD, it was established as a major port for Indian Ocean trade routes, channeling goods to Mecca. It was also the gateway for Muslim pilgrims to Mecca who arrived by sea. These twin roles saw the city develop into a thriving multicultural center, characterized by a distinctive architectural tradition, including tower houses built in the late 19th century by the city's mercantile elites, and combining Red Sea coastal coral building traditions with influences and crafts from along the trade routes.[53]

The historic centre
The historic centre

Within a defensive wall that was built during Ottoman rule, the old city of Jeddah, Al-Balad, was divided into districts, or Haras, where business and trade centered around traditional souks, or market places, and khans, covered markets that were generally connected to shops.[54]

Harrat Al-Mathloum (District of the Wronged)

Located in the North East, this district was named after Abdulkarim Al-Barzangi, a Hijazi rebel who was crucified by the Ottomans, some of its landmarks are:

  • Dar Al-Qabil
  • Dar Al-Ba'ashin
  • Dar Al-Sheikh
  • Al-Shafi'i Mosque The oldest mosque in town, its minaret was built in the 13th century, and its pillars date back to Ottoman rule.
  • Mosque of Uthman bin Affan Also called the Ebony Mosque because of its two ebony pillars, it was mentioned in the writings of Ibn Battuta and Ibn Jubayr.
  • Al-Mia'mar Mosque An old mosque built in the 17th century.
  • Souq Al-Jama One of the oldest markets in town.
Saloom's house in historical Jeddah
Saloom's house in historical Jeddah


Harrat Al-Sham (The Levantine District)

Located in the north and named after its orientation, some of its landmarks are:

  • Dar Al-Sadat
  • Dar Al-Serti
  • Dar Al-Zahid
  • Dar Al-Banajah
  • Al-Basha Mosque

Built by Bakr Basha, the governor of Jeddah in 1735.

Harrat Al-Yemen (The Yemeni District)

Beit Bajanaid
Beit Bajanaid

Located in the south and is also named after its orientation, its landmarks include:

  • Beit Nasseef By far the most famous site in the old town, it was built in 1881 for Omar Nassif Efendi, governor of Jeddah at the time, and served as the royal residence of King Abdulaziz after conquering the city.
  • Dar Al-Jamjoom
  • Dar Al-Sha'araoui
  • Dar Al-Abdulsamad
  • Dar Al-Kayal
  • Beit Al-Matbouli
  • Beit Al-Joghadar

Harrat Al-Bahar (The Seafront District)

Located in the southwest, some of its landmarks are:

  • Dar Al-Nas
  • Dar Al-Radwan
  • Dar Al-Nimr

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Red Sea

Red Sea

The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. Its connection to the ocean is in the south, through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To its north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. It is underlain by the Red Sea Rift, which is part of the Great Rift Valley.

Minaret

Minaret

A minaret is a type of tower typically built into or adjacent to mosques. Minarets are generally used to project the Muslim call to prayer (adhan), but they also served as landmarks and symbols of Islam's presence. They can have a variety of forms, from thick, squat towers to soaring, pencil-thin spires.

Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Battutah, commonly known as Ibn Battuta, was a Berber Maghrebi scholar and explorer who travelled extensively in the lands of Afro-Eurasia, largely in the Muslim world. He travelled more than any other explorer in pre-modern history, totalling around 117,000 km (73,000 mi), surpassing Zheng He with about 50,000 km (31,000 mi) and Marco Polo with 24,000 km (15,000 mi). Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of southern Eurasia, including Central Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, China, and the Iberian Peninsula. Near the end of his life, he dictated an account of his journeys, titled A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling, but commonly known as The Rihla.

Ibn Jubayr

Ibn Jubayr

Ibn Jubayr, also written Ibn Jubair, Ibn Jobair, and Ibn Djubayr, was an Arab geographer, traveller and poet from al-Andalus. His travel chronicle describes the pilgrimage he made to Mecca from 1183 to 1185, in the years preceding the Third Crusade. His chronicle describes Saladin's domains in Egypt and the Levant which he passed through on his way to Mecca. Further, on his return journey, he passed through Christian Sicily, which had been recaptured from the Muslims only a century before, and he made several observations on the hybrid polyglot culture that flourished there.

Ibn Saud

Ibn Saud

Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, known in the West as Ibn Saud, was an Arab tribal, political, and religious leader who founded Saudi Arabia, the third Saudi state, and reigned as its first king from 23 September 1932 until his death in 1953. He had ruled parts of the kingdom since 1902, having previously been Emir, Sultan, and King of Nejd, and King of Hejaz.

Main sights

Abdul Raouf Khalil Museum

Founded by Sheikh Abdul Raouf Khalil in 1996, this museum not only presents the rich Islamic cultural heritage of the city but also its pre-Islamic history that goes back to 2500 years; it traces the various civilizations that inhabited the region. Located in the downtown district, it boasts of large collection of items and artifacts belonging to the Ottoman Turks and the fishermen tribes who were the first inhabitants of the region.[55]

King Fahd's Fountain

King Fahd's Fountain was built in the 1980s, can be seen from a great distance and, at 312 meters (1,024 ft), is the highest water jet in the world according to the Guinness World Records.[56] The fountain was donated to the City of Jeddah by the late King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, after whom it was named.

Al-Rahmah Mosque

Al-Rahmah Mosque
Al-Rahmah Mosque

Sometimes referred to as the floating mosque because of it being built above water, this fascinating mix of the old architecture and the new was built in 1985. It is a popular spot among tourists and natives looking to lounge by the seaside.

Al-Jawhara Stadium

Is a new stadium launched in 2014, located north of Jeddah, is used mostly for football, reaching a full capacity of 62,241 spectators. It is the largest stadium in Jeddah, and the second-largest in Saudi Arabia.

King Saud Mosque

The largest mosque in the city. Built in 1987, it displays beautiful Islamic architecture and was built by Egyptian architect Abdel Wahed El Wakil.[57]

NCB Tower

Built-in 1983 and believed to be the highest tower in Saudi Arabia during the 1980s, with a height of over 235 m (771 ft), the National Commercial Bank was Saudi Arabia's first bank.

The IDB Jeddah tower can be seen in the background of this mosque.
The IDB Jeddah tower can be seen in the background of this mosque.

IDB Tower

The Islamic Development Bank is a multilateral development financing institution. It was founded by the first conference of Finance Ministers of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), convened 18 December 1973. The bank officially began its activities on 20 October 1975.

Jeddah Municipality Tower

This is the headquarters of the metropolitan area of Jeddah. The municipality's new building is going to be not only Jeddah's tallest but is also going to dethrone the Burj Khalifa.

This proposed tower, formerly known as the Kingdom Tower, is being built in Jeddah by Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal and will stand 1-kilometer (0.62 mi) tall. Upon its completion, it will be the tallest skyscraper in the world. The building has been scaled down from its initial 1.6 km (1 mi) proposal, since the ground proved unsuitable for a building that tall, to a height of at least 1,000 meters (3,280.84 ft) (the exact height is being kept private while in development, similar to the Burj Khalifa),[58] which, at about one kilometer (0.62 miles), would still make it by far the tallest building or structure in the world to date,[59] standing at least 173 m (568 ft) taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Construction began in April 2013 and there was steady progress, but in January 2018, building owner JEC halted structural concrete work with the tower about one-third completed due to labor issues with a contractor following the 2017–19 Saudi Arabian purge. JEC had said they planned to restart construction in 2020.[60][61]

King Road Tower

King Road Tower is a commercial and office building, the external walls of which are used to show commercials. The building also has a helipad on its roof. King Road Tower has the largest LED display in the world on its walls.

Al Jawharah Tower

Al Jawharah Tower is a residential high-rise under construction. It became the third-tallest structure in Jeddah when completed in 2014.

The world's tallest flagpole
The world's tallest flagpole

Jeddah Flagpole

The King Abdullah Square on the intersection of Andalus Road with King Abdullah Road had the world's tallest flagpole. It is 171 meters (561 feet) high and the Saudi flag atop it weighs 570 kilograms (1,260 pounds). On the 84th Saudi Arabia National Day, September 23, 2014, the flagpole hoisted a huge Saudi flag before a crowd of thousands. The flagpole succeeded Dushanbe Flagpole as the tallest flagpole in the world until 26 December 2021, when the Cairo Flagpole in Cairo, Egypt was erected at a height of 201.952 m (662.57 ft).[62]

Entrance of Mecca

Bab Makkah, also known as Makkah Gate, is a limestone coral gateway that leads into the historic Al-Balad district of Jeddah.

The Mecca Gate, named the "Quran Gate", is located 60 km outside Jeddah on the Makkah Mukkarram road of the Jeddah - Mecca Highway. It is the entrance to Mecca and the birthplace of Muhammad. The gate signifies the boundary of the Haram area of the city of Mecca, where non-Muslims are prohibited to enter. The gate was designed in 1979 by Egyptian architect Samir Elabd for the architectural firm IDEA Center. The structure is that of a book, representing the Quran, sitting on a rehal, or book stand.[63]

Bab Makkah
Bab Makkah

Jeddah waterfront

The new waterfront was inaugurated in November 2017, by Makkah Governor, Prince Khaled Al-Faisal.[64]

Quran Gate, Entrance to Makkah, Makkah Gate
Quran Gate, Entrance to Makkah, Makkah Gate

It spans an area of 730,000 square kilometers (280,000 sq mi) on the Red Sea. It has many facilities including swimming beaches, huts, floating marina dock, washrooms, restaurants, parks, dancing fountains, playgrounds, and access to wifi.[65]

This project of developing JW (Jeddah Waterfront) has been awarded as Jeddah Innovation Award of the year 1439H in the field of government innovation, by the province of Jeddah.[66][67]

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King Fahd's Fountain

King Fahd's Fountain

King Fahd's Fountain, also known as the Jeddah Fountain, is in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It is the tallest fountain of its type in the world.

Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world. The brainchild of Sir Hugh Beaver, the book was co-founded by twin brothers Norris and Ross McWhirter in Fleet Street, London, in August 1955.

Fahd of Saudi Arabia

Fahd of Saudi Arabia

Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was a Saudi Arabian politician who was King and Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia from 13 June 1982 until his death in 2005. Prior to his ascension, he was Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia from 25 March 1975 to 13 June 1982. He was the eighth son of King Abdulaziz, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia.

King Abdullah Sports City

King Abdullah Sports City

King Abdullah Sports City, also nicknamed The Shining Jewel, in Arabic or simply The Jewel, in Arabic (al-Jawhara), is a multi-use stadium and sports city located 30 kilometers north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The City was named after Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia when the stadium opened.

King Saud Mosque

King Saud Mosque

His Majesty King Saud Mosque is the largest mosque in the city of Jeddah and is located in Jeddah's Al-Sharafeyyah District.

Islamic Development Bank

Islamic Development Bank

The Islamic Development Bank is a multilateral development finance institution that is focused on Islamic finance for infrastructure development and located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. There are 57 shareholding member states with the largest single shareholder being Saudi Arabia.

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with 48 being Muslim-majority countries. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony".

Metropolitan area

Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area or metro is a region that consists of a densely populated urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing industries, commercial areas, transport network, infrastructures and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple principal cities, jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, as well as even states and nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions.

Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa

The Burj Khalifa, known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is known for being the world’s tallest building. With a total height of 829.8 m and a roof height of 828 m (2,717 ft), the Burj Khalifa has been the tallest structure and building in the world since its topping out in 2009, supplanting Taipei 101, the previous holder of that status.

Jeddah Tower

Jeddah Tower

Jeddah Tower, previously known as Kingdom Tower, is a skyscraper construction project currently on hold. Located on the north side of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, it is planned to be the first 1 km (3,281 ft) tall building, and the centrepiece and first phase of a development and tourist attraction known as Jeddah Economic City.

Dubai

Dubai

Dubai is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai. Established in the 18th century as a small fishing village, the city grew rapidly in the early 21st century with a focus on tourism and luxury, having the second most five-star hotels in the world, and the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa, which is 828 metres (2,717 ft) tall.

King Road Tower

King Road Tower

King Road Tower is a 34-storey office tower that is located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The tower contains the world largest advertisement LED screen making it a valued landmark for the city. The screen measures almost 10,000 sq m and was designed, built and installed by French company Citiled, a world leader in tailor-made “Media Façade” projects for integration into architecture.

Education

Schools, colleges and universities

As of 2005, Jeddah had 849 public and private schools for male students and another 1,179 public and private schools for female students.[68] The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is typically Arabic, with emphasis on English as a second language. However, some private schools administered by foreign entities conduct classes in English. These include 10+ Indian schools following the CBSE board of education system, several Pakistani and Bangladeshi schools as well. As of 2005, Jeddah also had four Philippine international schools, with two more scheduled to open shortly afterward.[69]

Jeddah's universities and colleges include the following:

Laboratories at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
Laboratories at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)

Jeddah is also home to several primary, intermediate and secondary schools such as:

Italian international school

Libraries

The central library at King Abdulaziz University (main branch) is a five-story building that has a large collection of Arabic and English language books, rare books, and documents as well as access to several online databases. It is open for public access and allows the borrowing of books after requesting a library card. Saturdays are dedicated to female visitors.[71]

King Abdul Aziz Public Library is a philanthropic institution that was founded and supported by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, chairman of its board of directors. Established in 1985, the library was officially opened by the King on 27 February 1987. It emphasizes Islamic and Arabic heritage and history of the Kingdom. The library is divided into three branches (men's, women's, and children's).[72]

The limited number of libraries is criticized by the public. As a result, King Abdullah, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, has approved the King Abdullah Project for the Development of Public Libraries, and approximately SAR150 million is budgeted to be spent.[73]

In April 2014, Prince Mishaal Ibn Abdullah Abdulaziz opened a new public library in Jeddah by Makkah Governor, under the name of King Fahd Public Library.[74]

King Fahd Public Library was built over an area of 17,000 square meters (180,000 sq ft) within the main Campus of King Abdulaziz University (KAU) in Jeddah. it includes a diverse collection of books and reference material classified into three sections to meet the needs and wants of a wide range of readership. Spaces have been set apart for youths, children and women.[74]

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List of universities and colleges in Saudi Arabia

List of universities and colleges in Saudi Arabia

This is the list of universities, colleges and institutes in Saudi Arabia.

Arabic

Arabic

Arabic is a Semitic language spoken primarily across the Arab world. Having emerged in the 1st century, it is named after the Arab people; the term "Arab" was initially used to describe those living in the Arabian Peninsula, as perceived by geographers from ancient Greece.

English language

English language

English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the island of Great Britain. English is genealogically West Germanic, closest related to the Low Saxon and Frisian languages; however, its vocabulary is also distinctively influenced by dialects of French and Latin, plus some grammar and a small amount of core vocabulary influenced by Old Norse. Speakers of English are called Anglophones.

Central Board of Secondary Education

Central Board of Secondary Education

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by the Government of India. Established in 1929 by a resolution of the government, the Board was an experiment towards inter-state integration and cooperation in the sphere of secondary education. There are more than 27,000 schools in India and 240 schools in 28 foreign countries affiliated to the CBSE. All schools affiliated to CBSE follow the NCERT curriculum especially from class 9 to 12. The current Chairperson of CBSE is Nidhi Chibber, IAS.

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) is the first public university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East region specialized in health sciences. Its headquarters is in the main campus in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. It has two other campuses in Jeddah and Al-Ahsa.

King Abdulaziz University

King Abdulaziz University

King Abdulaziz University (KAU) is a public university in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. With over 117,096 students in 2022, it is the largest university in the country. Located in south Jeddah, the university is the center of teaching and research of the city, comprising 24 faculties, 15 of these are located on the campus and 9 are off-campus. The university also offers some courses that are unavailable at any other universities in Saudi Arabia, such as marine science, meteorology, and astronomy. It was established in 1967 as a private university by a group of businessmen led by Muhammad Bakhashab and including author Hamza Bogary. In 1974, King Abdulaziz University was converted to a public university by a decision of the Saudi Cabinet under King Faisal's orders.

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology is a private research university located in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Founded in 2009, the university provides research and graduate training programs in English as the official language of instruction.

Arab Open University

Arab Open University

The Arab Open University (AOU) is a non-profit university. The inception of AOU is a personal initiative by Prince Talal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the Chairman of the AOU Board of Trustees. In December 2000, Kuwait was designated to host the Headquarters of AOU.

Effat University

Effat University

Effat University is a private non-profit institution of higher education for men and women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, operating under the umbrella of King Faisal Charitable Foundation. On 30 January 2009, Effat College became Effat University. The inauguration of its four colleges, the establishment of the Research and Consultancy Institute, and success achieved on the academic, education and social levels, paved the way to becoming a university.

Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies

Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies

Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies is the first private medical college of higher education under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The college is promoted by Al-Jedani Group of Hospitals, KSA. It is located in the southern part of the historic city Jeddah, on the Red Sea coast.

American International School of Jeddah

American International School of Jeddah

The American International School of Jeddah, or the "American School" in short, is an international school with American curriculum in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Established in 1952, the American International School of Jeddah is a U.S. accredited Pre-K - 12 college preparatory institution.

Jeddah International School

Jeddah International School

Jeddah International School is an American-accredited School located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It is accredited by the Middle States Association, making it one of the few schools in the area to receive such accreditation. The school has two sections based on language preference, consisting of American English and French. Arabic is also taught. It has over 2,000 students and has 2 sections; an English section and a French section. It is accredited by AdvancED and MSA, it also provides many classes and co-curricular activities that are considered to be the first in the city, as well as, it is one of the first school's in the city to provide various International Programs, and Courses such as APs, SATs, ILETS in the City.

Sports

Jeddah is the home of the 2 biggest well-known football clubs teams Al-Ittihad Club (Jeddah) and Al-Ahli Saudi FC. Both teams play their league matches at King Abdullah Stadium which is located northern part of Jeddah nearby King Abdelaziz Airport.

The city is home to the 2015 Saudi Arabian basketball Champion Al-Ittihad Jeddah, which plays its home games in the Prince Abdullah Al-Faisal Basketball Arena.[75]

On 5 November 2020, it was announced that Jeddah will host the round of the 2021 FIA Formula 1 World Championship. The Jeddah Corniche Circuit is a street circuit, winding through the Jeddah Corniche along the Red Sea, north of the main part of the city. The race debuted on 5 December 2021, and is scheduled to be held in the city until 2025.

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King Abdullah Sports City

King Abdullah Sports City

King Abdullah Sports City, also nicknamed The Shining Jewel, in Arabic or simply The Jewel, in Arabic (al-Jawhara), is a multi-use stadium and sports city located 30 kilometers north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The City was named after Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia when the stadium opened.

Al-Ittihad Club (Jeddah)

Al-Ittihad Club (Jeddah)

Al-Ittihad Saudi Arabian Club, referred to as Al-Ittihad, is a professional football club based in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, founded in 1927. The club has spent its entire history in the top flight of football in Saudi Arabia, currently known as the Saudi Professional League.

Al-Ittihad Jeddah (basketball)

Al-Ittihad Jeddah (basketball)

Al-Ittihad Jeddah is a basketball club based in the Red Sea port city of Jeddah in Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia that plays in the Saudi Premier League.

Saudi Arabian Grand Prix

Saudi Arabian Grand Prix

The Saudi Arabian Grand Prix is a Formula One motor racing event which took place for the first time in 2021. The inaugural edition of the race was held in Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. It was the fifth full-night race title on the Formula One calendar, following the Singapore, Bahrain, Sakhir and Qatar Grands Prix.

Jeddah Corniche Circuit

Jeddah Corniche Circuit

The Jeddah Corniche Circuit is a 6.174 km (3.836 mi) motor racing circuit built in the Red Sea port city of Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. The circuit staged the inaugural Saudi Arabian Grand Prix on 5 December 2021 as the penultimate race on the 2021 Formula One season calendar.

Jeddah Corniche

Jeddah Corniche

The Jeddah Corniche, also known as the Jeddah Waterfront (JW), is a 30 km coastal resort area of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Located along the Red Sea, the corniche features a coastal road, recreation areas, pavilions and large-scale civic sculptures as well as King Fahd's Fountain, the highest fountain in the world. Also located here is the Al-Rahmah Mosque, which is a popular attraction to visitors.

Transport

Airport

Jeddah is served by King Abdulaziz International Airport. The airport has four passenger terminals. One is the Hajj Terminal, a special outdoor terminal covered by large white tents, which was constructed to handle the more than two million pilgrims who pass through the airport during the Hajj season. The Southern Terminal is used by Saudia and Flynas (both based in Saudi Arabia), while the Northern Terminal serves foreign airlines. A plan for the extension of the airport is being developed. The Royal Terminal is a special terminal reserved for VIPs, foreign kings and presidents, and the Saudi royal family. A portion of the airport, King Abdullah Air Base, was used by Coalition B-52 heavy bombers during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

Before King Abdulaziz Airport opened in 1981, Kandara Airport served Jeddah. It was at Kandara, a neighborhood very near the town center. However, the old Jeddah airport experienced heavy congestions, especially during Hajj seasons.[76] After the airport became defunct, the area was redeveloped for housing.[77]

Seaport

The Jeddah Seaport is the 32nd busiest seaport in the world as of 2008. It handles the majority of Saudi Arabia's commercial movement.

In 2017 Jeddah seaport handled 4,309,765 TEUs and in the year 2018 handled 4,215,248 TEUs.

Jeddah is part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the Upper Adriatic region with its rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe.[78][79][80][81]

Road and rail

The high-speed locomotive that operates the Haramain train line between Makkah, Madinah, and Jeddah. It is manufactured by Spanish trainset manufacturer Talgo.
The high-speed locomotive that operates the Haramain train line between Makkah, Madinah, and Jeddah. It is manufactured by Spanish trainset manufacturer Talgo.

Highway 40, which begins in Jeddah, connects the city to Mecca, Riyadh and Dammam on the east coast. Jeddah does not have any rapid transit system, but the Haramain High Speed Rail Project provides a connection to Mecca and Medina.[82] There is a contracted plan to build an extensive light metro system known as the Jeddah Metro, throughout the city,[83] originally by 2020. Jeddah's main highways run parallel to each other.

Discover more about Transport related topics

King Abdulaziz International Airport

King Abdulaziz International Airport

King Abdulaziz International Airport (KAIA) is an international airport serving Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, also known as "Jeddah International Airport"(Arabic: مطار جدة الدولي).

Hajj

Hajj

The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and of supporting their family during their absence from home.

Saudia

Saudia

Saudia, formerly known as Saudi Arabian Airlines, is the flag carrier of Saudi Arabia, based in Jeddah. The airline's main operational base is at King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah. King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh and King Fahd International Airport in Dammam are secondary hubs. The airline is the third largest in the Middle East in terms of Qatar Airways. It operates domestic and international scheduled flights to over 100 destinations in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. Domestic and international charter flights are operated, mostly during the Ramadan and the Hajj season. It joined the SkyTeam airline alliance on 29 May 2012 becoming the first Persian Gulf carrier to join one of the three major airline alliances. Saudia is a member and one of the founders of the Arab Air Carriers Organization.

Flynas

Flynas

Flynas, stylized flynas, formerly Nas Air, is a Saudi low-cost airline, the country's first budget airline. The company's head office is located in Riyadh.

Coalition of the Gulf War

Coalition of the Gulf War

Under United Nations Security Council Resolution 678, a coalition of 35 countries, led by the United States, fought Iraq in the Gulf War from 1990–1991.

List of busiest container ports

List of busiest container ports

This article lists the world's busiest container ports, by total number of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) transported through the port. The table lists volume in thousands of TEU per year. The vast majority of containers moved by large, ocean-faring container ships, are 20-foot, and 40-foot ISO-standard shipping containers, with 40-foot units outnumbering 20-foot units to such an extent, that the actual number of containers moved is between 55%–60% of the number of TEUs counted.

21st Century Maritime Silk Road

21st Century Maritime Silk Road

The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, commonly just Maritime Silk Road (MSR), is the sea route part of the Belt and Road Initiative which is a Chinese strategic initiative to increase investment and foster collaboration across the historic Silk Road.

Highway 40 (Saudi Arabia)

Highway 40 (Saudi Arabia)

Highway 40 is a major east–west six-lane controlled-access highway in Saudi Arabia, spanning 1,395 km. The highway connects Jeddah, the second-largest city in the kingdom, on the western coast of Saudi Arabia to Dammam, the sixth-largest city on the eastern coast and the largest in the Eastern Province. Apart from Jeddah and Dammam, Highway 40 also runs near or through Mecca, Ta'if, Riyadh, Abqaiq and Khobar along its length, and provides access to the Mahazat as-Sayd and Saja and Umm Al Ramth wildlife sanctuaries.

Mecca

Mecca

Mecca, commonly shortened to Makkah, is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam. It is 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah on the Red Sea, in a narrow valley 277 m (909 ft) above sea level. Its last recorded population was 1,578,722 in 2015. Its estimated metro population in 2020 is 2.042 million, making it the third-most populated city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh and Jeddah. Pilgrims more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj pilgrimage, observed in the twelfth Hijri month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

Riyadh

Riyadh

Riyadh, formerly known as Hajr al-Yamamah, is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of the Riyadh Province and the centre of the Riyadh Governorate.

Dammam

Dammam

Dammam is the fifth-most populous city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh, Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina. It is the capital of the Eastern Province. With a total population of 1,252,523 as of 2020. The judicial and administrative bodies of the province, in addition to the administrative offices of other minor governmental departments functioning within the province, are located in the city. The word itself is generally used to refer to the city, but may also refer to its eponymous governorate.

Rapid transit

Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail or metro, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. A rapid transit system that primarily or traditionally runs below the surface may be called a subway, tube, or underground. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles, and which is often grade-separated in tunnels or on elevated railways.

Issues and challenges

The city is challenged by pollution, weak sewage systems, a weak storm drain system that led to massive floodings, heavy traffic, epidemics, and water shortages.

Pollution and environment

Air pollution is a problem for Jeddah, particularly on hot summer days. The city has experienced bush fires, landfill fires, and pollution from the two industrial zones in the north and the south of the metropolitan area. A water treatment factory and the seaport also contribute to water pollution. Much of the seafront, however, is considered to be safe and clean. Ramboll has acted as Environmental Consultant on the Jeddah Environmental Impact Assessment as well as the Jeddah Environmental Social Masterplan.[84]

Terrorism

On 6 December 2004, a group of five men associated with the terrorist group Al-Qaeda (Al-Qaeda Organization in the Arabian Peninsula) conducted a mid-day attack on the U.S. Consulate, which killed five Consulate workers. The group was led by Fayez ibn Awwad Al-Jeheni, a former member of the Saudi religious police. Two other assailants were subsequently identified by the Saudi authorities as residents of Jeddah's Al-Jamia suburb and other slums on Saudi Arabia's increasingly urbanized west coast. Buildings were attacked, hostages taken and used as human shields, and the U.S. and non-U.S. staff were under siege, although the chancery/consular section building itself was never penetrated.[85] Closed-circuit video feeds documented that the Saudi security personnel assigned to protect the facility fled when the vehicle holding the terrorists pulled up to the front gate and ran past the Delta barrier.[86] Inside the compound, however, an armed Saudi security guard employed by the embassy shot and killed one terrorist before being fatally shot himself.

The attackers spread and ignited a flammable liquid on the front of the chancery building, and opened fire on the front doors, both of which actions did not have any penetrating effect. The Consulate's U.S. Marines released tear gas in front of the chancery building, but the terrorists had already left that location. More than an hour later, Saudi special forces made it through traffic and, along with others from their unit who arrived in a helicopter, fought to retake the compound. Two of the terrorists were killed in the final fight, with another dying later in hospital and the final militant being captured alive. Four Saudi special forces and a further 10 hostages were wounded in the crossfire.[85][87][88]

The five Foreign Service National employees who died during the terrorist attack were Ali Yaslem Bin Talib, Imad e-Deen Musa Ali, Romeo de la Rosa, Mohammed Baheer Uddin, and Jaufar Sadik. The casualties came from Yemen, Sudan, Philippines, India and Sri Lanka.[89]

The attack underscores the ongoing vulnerabilities of Westerners to threats, terrorist actions, and the environs. In a communiqué posted in online publications such as Sawt al-Jihad (Voice of Jihad) and Mu'askar al-Battar (Al-Battar Training Camp), Al-Qaeda hinted at the symbolic nature of the U.S. Consulate attack, stating: "Know that the Mujahideen are determined to continue on their path, and they will not be weakened by what has happened to them."[85]

Terrorist activities have persisted from 2004 to the present day. In 2004 there was an unsuccessful shooting attack on a U.S. Marine visiting the Saudi American Bank and an attempt to simultaneously explode car bombs at Saudi American Bank and Saudi British Bank branches in Jeddah on the anniversary of the 2001 "9-11" terrorist attacks on the U.S.[90] On 26 August 2012, a spokesman for the Interior Ministry announced that terrorists were arrested in Jeddah who had been preparing explosives for attacks within the kingdom.[91]

In 2022, the Houthis launched a missile attack to an Aramco facility near the Jeddah circuit, where the Formula One Saudi Arabian Grand Prix was held.

Traffic

Roads and highways within and exiting the city are frequently clogged with traffic. Mass transit is rare and planning is nascent; most Jeddawi adults have at least one car. Motorcycles are rare on the roads, further impacting the traffic patterns. Days immediately preceding and following the holy days are particularly noisome and cost hundreds of thousands of man-hours because of traffic jams. The Saudi Gazette reports that there is a plan in the works to tackle the traffic issue. A reported 3 billion Saudi Riyals will be put into constructing flyovers and underpasses in an effort to expedite traffic. The plan is scheduled to take about five years from its start to finish.[92]

Sewage

Prior to the construction of a waste treatment plant, Jeddah's wastewater was disposed of by either discharge into the sea or via absorption into deep underground pits. As the city grew, a proper waste management plant was created and the built-up part of the city was connected with a sewer system by the 1970s. However, even with the ever-increasing population, the original sewer system has hardly been expanded. The original plant cannot cope with the amount of waste inundating it daily. As a result, some untreated sewage is discharged directly into the sea and the entire northern part of the city remains completely unconnected to the sewage system, instead of relying on septic tanks. This has been responsible for a large number of sewage tankers.

In late 2011, a storm drainage system was built in the south Jeddah area (similar to that of the Los Angeles storm drain) to reduce the risk of floods.[93]

Floods

A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2009 floods.
A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2009 floods.

On 25 November 2009, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of Makkah Province.[94][95] The floods were described by civil defence officials as the worst in 27 years.[96] As of 26 November 2009, 77 people were reported to have been killed,[97] and more than 350 were missing.[94] Some roads were under a meter (three feet) of water on 26 November, and many of the victims were believed to have drowned in their cars. At least 3,000 vehicles were swept away or damaged.[94][97][98] The death toll was expected to rise as flood waters receded, allowing rescuers to reach stranded vehicles.[99]

A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2011 floods.
A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2011 floods.

On 26 January 2011, again, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of Makkah Province. The cumulative rainfall exceeded the 90 mm (3.5 in) recorded in four hours during the 25 November 2009 flash floods. Streets including Palestine Street, Madinah Road, and Wali Al-Ahad Street were either flooded or jammed with traffic. Cars were seen floating in some places. Meanwhile, eyewitnesses told local newspaper Arab News that East Jeddah was swamped and floodwater was rushing west towards the Red Sea, turning streets into rivers once again.

On 17 November 2015, heavy floods affected the city. Streets affected by the flood include Palestine Street, Madinah Road, and many others. Cars were seen burning, and many trees fell as a result of the violent flood.[100] 3 deaths were also reported. 2 of the fatalities (including a child) were hit by lightning while crossing a street.

On 21 November 2017, heavy floods affected the city once more and Jeddah Islamic Port stopped operations for about 3 hours. Jeddah police received 11,000 phone calls on 911 from people enquiring about alternative roads and weather conditions.[101] There were 250 reports of electrocution. Five people were electrocuted, two died.

On 24 November 2022, heavy floods affected mainly in Jeddah. Jeddah was heavily damaged from the flood and cause more than thousands of cars to be damaged by the flood and caused power outage to most of the city and the flood was approximately 1-2 meters high. Which caused flights delayed and school closed and 2 people killed.

Discover more about Issues and challenges related topics

Sewage

Sewage

Sewage is a type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people. It is typically transported through a sewer system. Sewage consists of wastewater discharged from residences and from commercial, institutional and public facilities that exist in the locality. Sub-types of sewage are greywater and blackwater. Sewage also contains soaps and detergents. Food waste may be present from dishwashing, and food quantities may be increased where garbage disposal units are used. In regions where toilet paper is used rather than bidets, that paper is also added to the sewage. Sewage contains macro-pollutants and micro-pollutants, and may also incorporate some municipal solid waste and pollutants from industrial wastewater.

Air pollution

Air pollution

Air pollution is the contamination of air due to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are many different types of air pollutants, such as gases, particulates, and biological molecules. Air pollution can cause diseases, allergies, and even death to humans; it can also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment or built environment. Air pollution can be caused by both human activities and natural phenomena.

Landfill

Landfill

A landfill site, also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump, or dumping ground, is a site for the disposal of waste materials. Landfill is the oldest and most common form of waste disposal, although the systematic burial of the waste with daily, intermediate and final covers only began in the 1940s. In the past, refuse was simply left in piles or thrown into pits; in archeology this is known as a midden.

Ramboll

Ramboll

Rambøll Group A/S is a Danish consulting engineering group.

Jeddah Corniche Circuit

Jeddah Corniche Circuit

The Jeddah Corniche Circuit is a 6.174 km (3.836 mi) motor racing circuit built in the Red Sea port city of Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. The circuit staged the inaugural Saudi Arabian Grand Prix on 5 December 2021 as the penultimate race on the 2021 Formula One season calendar.

Formula One

Formula One

Formula One is the highest class of international racing for open-wheel single-seater formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The World Drivers' Championship, which became the FIA Formula One World Championship in 1981, has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950. The word formula in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on both purpose-built circuits and closed public roads.

2022 Saudi Arabian Grand Prix

2022 Saudi Arabian Grand Prix

The 2022 Saudi Arabian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race that was held on 27 March 2022 at the Jeddah Corniche Circuit in Saudi Arabia. It was the second edition of the Saudi Arabian Grand Prix and the second round of the 2022 Formula One World Championship.

2009 Jeddah floods

2009 Jeddah floods

The 2009 Saudi Arabian floods affected Jeddah, on the Red Sea (western) coast of Saudi Arabia, and other areas of Makkah Province. They have been described by civil defence officials as the worst in 27 years. As of 3 January 2010, some 122 people had been reported to have been killed, and more than 350 were missing. Some roads were under a meter of water on 26 November, and many of the victims were believed to have drowned in their cars. At least 3,000 vehicles were swept away or damaged. The death toll was expected to rise as flood waters receded, allowing rescuers to reach stranded vehicles.

Flood

Flood

A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health. Human changes to the environment often increase the intensity and frequency of flooding, for example land use changes such as deforestation and removal of wetlands, changes in waterway course or flood controls such as with levees, and larger environmental issues such as climate change and sea level rise. In particular climate change's increased rainfall and extreme weather events increases the severity of other causes for flooding, resulting in more intense floods and increased flood risk.

Lightning

Lightning

Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge during which two electrically charged regions, both in the atmosphere or with one on the ground, temporarily neutralize themselves, causing the instantaneous release of an average of one gigajoule of energy. This discharge may produce a wide range of electromagnetic radiation, from heat created by the rapid movement of electrons, to brilliant flashes of visible light in the form of black-body radiation. Lightning causes thunder, a sound from the shock wave which develops as gases in the vicinity of the discharge experience a sudden increase in pressure. Lightning occurs commonly during thunderstorms as well as other types of energetic weather systems, but volcanic lightning can also occur during volcanic eruptions.

2022 Saudi Arabia floods

2022 Saudi Arabia floods

In November 2022, Saudi Arabia was hit by coastal flooding as a result of heavy rain. The main affected area was the city of Jeddah in which two people were killed. As a result, flights were delayed and schools were closed. The main road to Mecca was also closed.

Districts

Metropolitan Jeddah comprises 137 districts: (transliterated from Arabic)

  1. Al-Murjan (The Coral)
  2. Al-Basateen (The Orchards)
  3. Al-Mohamadiya (Of Mohammed)
  4. Ash-Shati (The Beach)
  5. An-Nahda (The Renaissance)
  6. An-Naeem (The Bliss)
  7. An-Nuzha (The Excursion)
  8. Az-Zahraa (from Fatima Az-Zahraa)
  9. As-Salamah (The Safety)
  10. Al-Bawadi
  11. Ar-Rabwa (The Hill)
  12. Al-Safa
  13. Al-Khalidiya (Of Khalid)
  14. Ar-Rawdha (The Medow)
  15. Al-Faysaliya (Of Faisal)
  16. Al-Andalus (Andalucia)
  17. Al-Aziziya (Of Aziz "Abdulaziz")
  18. Ar-Rihab (The Vast Expanse)
  19. Al-Hamraa (The Red or Alhambra)
  20. Mosharafa
  21. Ar-Ruwais
  22. Ash-Sharafiya (Of The Shareef)
  23. Bani Malik
  24. Al-Woroud (The Flowers)
  25. An-Naseem (The Breeze)
  26. Al-Baghdadiya Ash-Sharqiya (Of East Baghdad)
  27. Al-Amariya (Of Ammar)
  28. Al-Hindawiya
  29. As-Saheifa
  30. Al-Kandra
  31. As-Sulaimaniya (Of Sulaiman/Solomon)
  32. Al-Thaalba (The Foxes)
  33. As-Sabeel (The Path)
  34. Al-Qurayat
  35. Gholail
  36. An-Nozla Al-Yamaniya
  37. Al-Nozla Ash-Sharqiya
  38. Al-Taghr (The Stoma)
  39. Al-Jamaa (The University; due to its proximity to King Abdulaziz University)
  40. Madayin Al-Fahad (The Cities of Fahad)
  41. Ar-Rawabi
  42. Al-Wazeeriya (The Ministerial)
  43. Petromin
  44. Al-Mahjar (The Stone Pit)
  45. Prince Abdel Majeed
  46. Obhour Al-Janobiya (South of the Obhur Bay)
  47. Al-Marwa
  48. AL-Fayhaa
  49. King Abdul Al-Aziz University
  50. Al-Baghdadiya Al-Gharbiya (Of West Baghdad)
  51. Al-Balad (The City)
  52. Al-Ajwad
  53. Al-Manar
  54. As-Samer
  55. Abruq Ar-Roghama
  56. Madinat As-Sultan
  57. Um Hablain
  58. Al-Hamdaniya
  59. Al-Salhiya
  60. Mokhatat Al-Aziziya
  61. Mokhatat Shamal Al-Matar
  62. Mokhatat Ar-Riyadh
  63. Mokhatat Al-Huda
  64. Braiman
  65. Al-Salam
  66. Al-Mostawdaat
  67. Al-Montazahat
  68. Kilo 14
  69. Al-Harazat
  70. Um As-Salam
  71. Mokhtat Zahrat Ash-Shamal
  72. Al-Majid
  73. Gowieza
  74. Al-Gozain
  75. Al-Kuwait
  76. Al-Mahrogat
  77. Al-Masfa
  78. Al-Matar Al-Gadeem (old airport)
  79. Al-Bokhariya
  80. An-Nour
  81. Bab Shareif
  82. Bab Makkah
  83. Bahra
  84. Al-Amir Fawaz
  85. Wadi Fatma
  86. Obhour Shamaliya
  87. At-Tarhil (deportation)
  88. Al-Iskan Al-janoubi
  89. At-Tawfeeq
  90. Al-Goaid
  91. Al-Jawhara
  92. Al-Jamoum
  93. Al-Khumra
  94. Ad-Difaa Al-Jawi (Air Defense)
  95. Ad-Dageeg
  96. Ar-Robou
  97. Ar-Rabie
  98. Ar-Rehaily
  99. As-Salmiya
  100. As-Sanabil
  101. As-Sinaiya (Bawadi)
  102. Industrial City (Mahjar)
  103. Al-Adl
  104. Al-Olayia
  105. Al-Faihaa
  106. Al-Karanteena
  107. Al-Ajaweed
  108. Al-Ahmadiya
  109. Al-Mosadiya
  110. East Al-Khat As-Sarei
  111. Kilo 10
  112. King Faisal Navy Base
  113. Kilo 7
  114. Kilo 45
  115. King Faisal Guard City
  116. Kilo 11
  117. Thowal
  118. Kilo 13
  119. Al-Makarona
  120. Al-Layth
  121. Al-Gonfoda
  122. Rabegh
  123. Kilo 8
  124. Kilo 5
  125. Kilo 2
  126. Al-Mokhwa
  127. National Guard Residence
  128. As-Showag
  129. Air Defense Residence
  130. Al-Morsalat
  131. Ash-Shoola
  132. Al-Corniche
  133. Al-Waha
  134. Mokhatat Al-Haramain
  135. Kholais
  136. Al-Rhmanya
  137. Wadi al batin
  138. AL MADINAH
  139. JUDAYYIADAT ARAR
  140. AS SALWA
  141. al huda

Twin towns – sister cities

Jeddah is twinned with:

Discover more about Twin towns – sister cities related topics

Adana

Adana

Adana is a major city in southern Turkey. It is situated on the Seyhan River, 35 km (22 mi) inland from the Mediterranean Sea. The administrative seat of Adana province, it has a population of 2.26 million. Adding in the large adjoining population centres of Tarsus and Mersin, almost 10 million people live within two hours' drive of Adana city centre.

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Alexandria

Alexandria

Alexandria is the second largest city in Egypt, and the largest city on the Mediterranean coast. Founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, Alexandria grew rapidly and became a major centre of Hellenic civilisation, eventually replacing Memphis, in present-day Greater Cairo, as Egypt's capital. During the Hellenistic period, it was home to the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which ranked among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, as well as the storied Library of Alexandria. Today, the library is reincarnated in the disc-shaped, ultramodern Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Its 15th-century seafront Qaitbay Citadel is now a museum. Called the "Bride of the Mediterranean" by locals, Alexandria is a popular tourist destination and an important industrial centre due to its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez.

Almaty

Almaty

Almaty, formerly known as Alma-Ata, is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of about 2 million. It was the capital of Kazakhstan from 1929 to 1936 as an autonomous republic as part of the Soviet Union, then from 1936 to 1991 as a union republic and finally from 1991 as an independent state to 1997 when the government relocated the capital to Akmola.

Amman

Amman

Amman is the capital and largest city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political, and cultural center. With a population of 4,061,150 as of 2021, Amman is Jordan's primate city and is the largest city in the Levant region, the fifth-largest city in the Arab world, and the ninth largest metropolitan area in the Middle East.

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the South Caucasus region, and is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south. Baku is the capital and largest city.

Baku

Baku

Baku is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku is located 28 metres (92 ft) below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and also the largest city in the world located below sea level. Baku lies on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, alongside the Bay of Baku. Baku's urban population was estimated at two million people as of 2009. Baku is the primate city of Azerbaijan - it is the sole metropolis in the country, and about 25% of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi). Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world, and shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial and cultural center. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.

Chittagong

Chittagong

Chittagong, officially Chattogram, is the second-largest city in Bangladesh after Dhaka and third largest city in Bengal. It is the administrative seat of the eponymous division and district. It hosts the busiest seaport on the Bay of Bengal. The city is located on the banks of the Karnaphuli River between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal. The Greater Chittagong Area had a population of more than 5.2 million in 2022. In 2020, the city area had a population of more than 3.9 million.

Dubai

Dubai

Dubai is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the capital of the Emirate of Dubai. Established in the 18th century as a small fishing village, the city grew rapidly in the early 21st century with a focus on tourism and luxury, having the second most five-star hotels in the world, and the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa, which is 828 metres (2,717 ft) tall.

Istanbul

Istanbul

Istanbul, formerly known as Constantinople, is the largest city in Turkey, serving as the country's economic, cultural and historic hub. The city straddles the Bosporus strait, lying in both Europe and Asia, and has a population of over 15 million residents, comprising 19% of the population of Turkey. Istanbul is the most populous European city, and the world's 15th-largest city.

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and the 14th-largest country by area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres. With over 275 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

Source: "Jeddah", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeddah.

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See also
References
  1. ^ "Saleh Al-Turki, mayor of Jeddah". arabnews.com. Saudi Research & Publishing Company. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  2. ^ "Population". Statistical Yearbook 50 (2014). Central Department Of Statistics & Information. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  3. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Makkah". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2022-09-04.
  4. ^ "Jeddah Hooked on Fishing". Arab News. 2006-03-04. Retrieved 2022-09-04.
  5. ^ "population of the administrative region of Makkah" (PDF). General authority of statistics.
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