Japanese transport ship Gyoun Maru (1890)
|Empire of Japan|
|Builder||Fleming & Ferguson, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland|
|Launched||8 April 1890|
|Sponsored by||J & A Brown, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia|
|Acquired||28 December 1942, seized by the Imperial Japanese Navy|
|Length||67.06 m (220 ft 0 in) o/a|
|Beam||9.45 m (31 ft 0 in)|
|Draught||4 m (13 ft 1 in)|
|Installed power||170 nhp|
|Propulsion||2 x 2 cyl Compound expansion engines, dual shaft, 2 screws, steam|
Gyoun Maru (Japanese: 曉雲丸) was an auxiliary transport of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II.
She was launched on 8 April 1890 and completed in June 1890 at the Paisley, Renfrewshire shipyard of Fleming & Ferguson for J & A Brown of Australia and christened SS Duckenfield. She was registered in Newcastle, New South Wales, and was used as a 'sixty-miler' collier. In 1933, she was purchased by Moller & Company of Shanghai which operated numerous shipping companies (the Moller Line, Trader Line Ltd., British China Steamship Co, and Zodiac Shipping) and renamed SS Ethel Moller. In 1935, she was converted as a salvage vessel for Moller´s Towages Ltd. On 25 November 1942 she was scuttled at Hong Kong to prevent seizure by the Japanese but on 28 December 1942 she was seized and then re-floated and repaired by the Imperial Japanese Navy and renamed Gyoun Maru.
On 3 July 1944, she was part of Convoy No. 91 en route from Takao to Hong Kong consisting of three other transport/cargo ships and two escorts (the Momi-class destroyer Kuri and the Chidori-class torpedo boat Hatsukari). The US submarine USS Seahorse torpedoed and sank the transport Nitto Maru and the cargo ship Gyoyu Maru (the ex-British Joan Moller) and then soon after midnight on the 4th, the cargo ship, Kyodo Maru No. 28. Gyoun Maru and its two escorts, were able to reach Hong Kong without further incident on 5 July.
On 12 October 1944, she was bombed and sunk by aircraft from Task Force 38 off Takao at 22°37′N 119°34′E / 22.617°N 119.567°ECoordinates: 22°37′N 119°34′E / 22.617°N 119.567°E. Other ships sunk in the attack were transports Bujo Maru and Joshu Maru; Imperial Japanese Army cargo ship Yamahagi Maru; merchant cargo ships Hakko Maru, Tenjin Maru No. 11 and Takatomi Maru No. 1; merchant tankers Nanshin Maru No. 5, Nanshin Maru No. 11, and Nanshin Maru No. 20; and dredger Niitaka Maru. Ships damaged were tanker Eiho Maru; army cargo ship Shinto Maru; Teisho Maru (ex-German Havenstein); and cargo ships Taisho Maru and Taihoku Maru.
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Source: "Japanese transport ship Gyoun Maru (1890)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 19th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_transport_ship_Gyoun_Maru_(1890).
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- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lettens, Jan; Tony, Allen (19 April 2010). "Gyoun Maru (+1944)". Wrecksite.
- ^ Mingli, Xiao (2017). "Rejuvenating China by Shipping" and "Saving the Nation by Shipping": Japan's Shipping Competition with China (1914-1945) (in Japanese). ISBN 9789863502524.
- ^ a b Toda, Gengoro S. "曉雲丸の船歴 (Gyoun Maru - Ship History)". Imperial Japanese Navy - Tokusetsukansen (in Japanese).
- ^ a b "Duckenfield". Scottish Built Ships.
- ^ "FLOTILLA AUSTRALIA". www.flotilla-australia.com. Retrieved 19 November 2022.
- ^ "Moller & Co". shiplist.com. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- ^ "BAAG records of shipping in HK during 1944-45 – the Gyoun (aka Agekumo) Maru". The Industrial History of Hong Kong Group.
entry by Peter Cundall: Gyoun Maru (1890, 912 gt) was formerly Moller’s Ethel Moller seized in December 1941. The intelligence report is mostly correct. The ship was in convoy TA-406 from Shanghai and sailed to Takao (Kaohsiung) as one of 4 ships. The same ships then sailed to Hong Kong as convoy No.91. En route on 4th July the ships were attacked by USS Seahorse and three of the four ships in the convoy (Nitto Maru, Kyodo Maru No.28 and Gyoyu Maru (ex Joan Moller)) were torpedoed and sunk. Gyoun Maru and escorting destroyer Kuri and torpedo boat Hatsukari arrived at Hong Kong at 1540 on 5th July (NB not 20 July).
- ^ a b c Cressman, Robert (1 December 1999). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781557501493.
- ^ "Task Force 38". pacific.valka.cz.
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