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Japanese destroyer Wakaba (1934)

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Wakaba
Wakaba on 21 October 1937.
History
Empire of Japan
NameWakaba
Ordered1931 Fiscal Year
BuilderSasebo Naval Arsenal
Laid down12 December 1931
Launched18 March 1934
Commissioned31 October 1934
Stricken10 December 1944
FateSunk in action, 24 October 1944
General characteristics
Class and type Hatsuharu-class destroyer
Displacement1,802 long tons (1,831 t)
Length
  • 103.5 m (340 ft) pp,
  • 105.5 m (346 ft) waterline
  • 109.5 m (359 ft) overall
Beam10 m (32 ft 10 in)
Draught3 m (9 ft 10 in)
Propulsion
Speed36 knots (41 mph; 67 km/h)
Range4,000 nmi (7,400 km) at 14 kn (26 km/h)
Complement200
Armament
Service record
Operations:

Wakaba (若葉, ”Young Leaves”) [1] was the third of six Hatsuharu-class destroyers, built for the Imperial Japanese Navy under the Circle One Program (Maru Ichi Keikaku). Three were laid down in JFY 1931 and the next three in JFY 1933. The remaining six ships in the plan were built as the Shiratsuyu class.[2]

Discover more about Japanese destroyer Wakaba (1934) related topics

Hatsuharu-class destroyer

Hatsuharu-class destroyer

The Hatsuharu-class destroyers were a class of Imperial Japanese Navy destroyers in the service before and during World War II. The final two vessels in the class, completed after modifications to the design, are sometimes considered a separate "Ariake class".

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Imperial Japanese Navy

Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed between 1952–1954 after the dissolution of the IJN.

Shiratsuyu-class destroyer

Shiratsuyu-class destroyer

The Shiratsuyu-class destroyers were a class of ten 1st Class destroyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy in service before and during World War II, during which all ten were sunk.

History

Construction of the advanced Hatsuharu-class destroyers was intended to give the Imperial Japanese Navy smaller and more economical destroyers than the previous Fubuki and Akatsuki-class destroyers, but with essentially the same weaponry.[3] These conflicting goals proved beyond contemporary destroyer design, and the resulting ships were top-heavy design, with severe stability problems and with inherent structural weaknesses. After the "Tomozuru Incident" of 1934 and "IJN 4th Fleet Incident" in 1935, Wakaba underwent extensive modifications on completion to remedy these issues.

The Hatsuharu-class destroyers used the same 50 caliber 12.7 cm gun as the Fubuki class, but all turrets could elevate to 75° to give the main guns a minimal ability to engage aircraft. During the war the single turret was removed on all surviving ships after 1942. The only anti-aircraft guns were two water-cooled, license-built Vickers 40 mm (1.6 in) (pom pom). These guns were deemed to be too heavy, slow-firing and short-ranged and were replaced by license-built French Hotchkiss 25 mm (0.98 in) Type 96 anti-aircraft guns in single, double and triple mounts from 1943 for the surviving ships. These powered mounts were still unsatisfactory because their traverse and elevation speeds were too slow to engage high-speed aircraft[4] and more single mounts were fitted to ships in the last year of the war.

The 61 cm Type 90 torpedo was mounted in triple tube Type 90 Model 2 launchers It was traversed by an electro-hydraulic system and could traverse 360° in twenty-five seconds. If the backup manual system was used the time required increased to two minutes. Each tube could be reloaded in twenty-three seconds using the endless wire and winch provided.[5] Wakaba was laid down on December 12, 1931, launched on March 18, 1934 and commissioned on October 31, 1934.[6]

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Fubuki-class destroyer

Fubuki-class destroyer

The Fubuki-class destroyers were a class of twenty-four destroyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Fubuki class has been described as the world's first modern destroyer. The Fubuki class set a new standard not only for Japanese vessels, but for destroyers around the world. They remained formidable opponents to the end of World War II, despite being much older than many of their adversaries.

Akatsuki-class destroyer (1931)

Akatsuki-class destroyer (1931)

The Akatsuki-class destroyer was a class of four destroyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. According to most sources, they are regarded as a sub-class of the Fubuki class, partly because the Imperial Japanese Navy itself kept the improvements made a secret, and did not officially designate these four destroyers as a separate class.

Caliber (artillery)

Caliber (artillery)

In artillery, caliber or calibre is the internal diameter of a gun barrel, or, by extension, a relative measure of the barrel length.

Anti-aircraft warfare

Anti-aircraft warfare

Anti-aircraft warfare, counter-air or air defence forces is the battlespace response to aerial warfare, defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action". It includes surface based, subsurface, and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements, and passive measures. It may be used to protect naval, ground, and air forces in any location. However, for most countries, the main effort has tended to be homeland defence. NATO refers to airborne air defence as counter-air and naval air defence as anti-aircraft warfare. Missile defence is an extension of air defence, as are initiatives to adapt air defence to the task of intercepting any projectile in flight.

Hotchkiss et Cie

Hotchkiss et Cie

Société Anonyme des Anciens Etablissements Hotchkiss et Compagnie was a French arms and, in the 20th century, automobile manufacturer first established by United States gunsmith Benjamin B. Hotchkiss. He moved to France and set up a factory, first at Viviez near Rodez in 1867, manufacturing arms used by the French in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, then moving at Saint-Denis near Paris in 1875. It was merged into and succeeded by Thomson-CSF, now Thales Group.

61 cm Type 90 torpedo

61 cm Type 90 torpedo

The 61 cm Type 90 torpedo was a surface-fired torpedo used by the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. It was used in the Hatsuharu-class destroyers and in most cruisers, including the Furutaka, Aoba, Myoko, Takao and Mogami-class heavy cruisers after refits during the 1930s. It was superseded by the Type 93 oxygen-powered torpedo, commonly called the Long Lance, as oxygen generating equipment was installed aboard the cruisers.

Operational history

On completion, Wakaba was assigned to the IJN 2nd Fleet. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, from 1937, Wakaba covered landing of Japanese forces in Shanghai and Hangzhou. From 1940, she was assigned to patrol and cover landings of Japanese forces in south China, and participated in the Invasion of French Indochina.

World War II history

At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Wakaba was assigned as flagship of Destroyer Division 21 of Destroyer Squadron 1 of the IJN 1st Air Fleet together with her sister ships Hatsuharu, Nenohi, and Hatsushimo, and remained in Japanese home waters on anti-submarine patrol. From the end of January 1942, she deployed with the invasion force for the Netherlands East Indies as part of "Operation H", covering landing operations at Kendari on Sulawesi on 24 January, Makassar on 8 February, and Bali and Lombok on 18 February. She returned to Sasebo Naval Arsenal at the end of March for maintenance.[7]

From May 1942, Wakaba was reassigned to northern operations, and deployed from Ōminato Guard District in support of "Operation AL" as part of Admiral Boshiro Hosogaya’s Northern Force in the Aleutians campaign, patrolling around Attu, Kiska and Amchitka Island until mid-July. After returning briefly to Yokosuka Naval Arsenal for maintenance, she continued to patrol in the Chishima Islands, deploying out of Paramushiro or Shumushu to Attu and Kiska, making numerous transport runs to deploy supplies and reinforcements until December.[8]

Wakaba returned to Sasebo at the end of 1942, and during a refit, her aft 40 mm (1.6 in) (pom pom) was replaced by twin 25 mm (0.98 in) Type 96 anti-aircraft guns.

Wakaba returned to northern waters from January 1943, continuing patrols and resupply transport missions to the Aleutians. On 26 March, she participated in the Battle of the Komandorski Islands as part of the IJN 5th Fleet, and unsuccessfully engaged United States Navy forces at long range with torpedoes. She collided with the destroyer Ikazuchi on 30 March, and was withdrawn together with the cruisers Nachi and Maya to Yokosuka for repairs.

Wakaba rejoined the IJN 5th Fleet in northern waters at the end of April, escorting convoys between Paramushiro and Ōminato to early July. In July, she participated in the evacuation of the Aleutians as part of a screening force consisting of the destroyers Hatsushimo, Naganami, Shimakaze and Samidare. On 26 July, she was rammed by Hatsushimo in the stern, suffering heavy damage, which necessitated a return to Sasebo for two months of repairs. While at Sasebo, a Type 22 radar was installed, the "X"-turret was removed, and additional 25 mm anti-aircraft guns were added. She was able to return to active duty with the northern fleet in mid-October.

From 24 November, Wakaba escorted Hiyō, from Kure to Truk via Manila, Singapore, Tarakan and Palau, returning with the aircraft carriers Unyō and Zuihō to Yokosuka at the end of the year.

At the start of 1944, Wakaba was reassigned directly to Combined Fleet headquarters, and continued in escort missions between Yokosuka and Truk. She returned to northern waters from the end of February to the end of June, with additional 25 mm anti-aircraft guns added during maintenance refits at Ōminato at the end of May and Yokosuka at the end of June. In July, she made two troop transport runs to Iwo Jima as part of the Japanese preparations against the American landings. A Type 13 Radar was added at the end of July. In August through October, she escorted troop convoys from Kure to Taiwan and Luzon.[9]

On 24 October 1944, in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, Wakaba was sunk by aircraft from USS Franklin, struck by one or two bombs off the west coast of Panay (11°50′N 121°25′E / 11.833°N 121.417°E / 11.833; 121.417Coordinates: 11°50′N 121°25′E / 11.833°N 121.417°E / 11.833; 121.417). Hatsuharu rescued 78 survivors and Hatsushimo 74 survivors.[10]

On 10 December 1944, Wakaba was removed from the navy list.[11]

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Hangzhou

Hangzhou

Hangzhou, also romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, China. It is located in the northwestern part of the province, sitting at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of China's most renowned and prosperous cities for much of the last millennium. It is a major economic and e-commerce hub within China, and the second biggest city in Yangtze Delta after Shanghai. Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China after Guangzhou-Shenzhen Pearl River agglomeration, Shanghai-Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou conurbation and Beijing. As of 2019, the Hangzhou metropolitan area was estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (nominal) of 3.2 trillion yuan, making it larger than the economy of Nigeria. As of the 2020 Chinese census, it had a total population of 11,936,010 inhabitants. However, its metropolitan area, populated by 13.035 million people over an area of 8,107.9 km2 (3,130.5 sq mi), consists of all urban districts in Hangzhou and 3 urban districts of the city of Shaoxing.

China

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India. China spans the equivalent of five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. With an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two special administrative regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and largest financial center is Shanghai.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 8:00 a.m. on Sunday, December 7, 1941. The United States was a neutral country at the time; the attack led to its formal entry into World War II the next day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, and as Operation Z during its planning.

Flagship

Flagship

A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag. Used more loosely, it is the lead ship in a fleet of vessels, typically the first, largest, fastest, most heavily armed, or best known.

Japanese destroyer Hatsuharu (1933)

Japanese destroyer Hatsuharu (1933)

Hatsuharu , the second Imperial Japanese Navy destroyer of the name, was the lead ship of six Hatsuharu-class destroyers built under the Circle One Program. Three were laid down in JFY 1931 and the next three in JFY 1933. The remaining six ships in the plan were built as the Shiratsuyu class.

Japanese destroyer Nenohi (1932)

Japanese destroyer Nenohi (1932)

Nenohi was the second of six Hatsuharu-class destroyers, built for the Imperial Japanese Navy under the Circle One Program. Three were laid down in JFY 1931 and the next three in JFY 1933. The remaining six ships in the plan were built as the Shiratsuyu class.

Japanese destroyer Hatsushimo (1933)

Japanese destroyer Hatsushimo (1933)

Hatsushimo was the fourth of six Hatsuharu-class destroyers, built for the Imperial Japanese Navy under the Circle One Program. Three were laid down in JFY 1931 and the next three in JFY 1933. The remaining six ships in the plan were built as the Shiratsuyu class.

Kendari

Kendari

Kendari is the capital city of the Indonesian province of Southeast Sulawesi. With a population of 345,107 according to the 2020 census, it is the most populous city in the province, and the fourth most on Sulawesi. The city covers an area of 271.76 square kilometers (104.93 sq mi), or about 0.7 percent of Southeast Sulawesi's land area. Located on Kendari Bay, it continues to be an important trade center, with the province's main port and airport. It is the economic and educational center of the province, home to various universities and colleges. Kendari has the highest Human Development Index (HDI) in Sulawesi.

Makassar

Makassar

Makassar is the capital of the Indonesian province of South Sulawesi. It is the largest city in the region of Eastern Indonesia and the country's fifth-largest urban center after Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung. The city is located on the southwest coast of the island of Sulawesi, facing the Makassar Strait.

Bali

Bali

Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. East of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller offshore islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, and Nusa Ceningan to the southeast. The provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second-largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. The upland town of Ubud in Greater Denpasar is considered Bali's cultural centre. The province is Indonesia's main tourist destination, with a significant rise in tourism since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy.

Lombok

Lombok

Lombok is an island in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia. It forms part of the chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali to the west and the Alas Strait between it and Sumbawa to the east. It is roughly circular, with a "tail" to the southwest, about 70 kilometres across and a total area of about 4,738.65 square kilometres including smaller offshore islands. The provincial capital and largest city on the island is Mataram.

Sasebo Naval Arsenal

Sasebo Naval Arsenal

Sasebo Naval Arsenal was one of four principal naval shipyards owned and operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Source: "Japanese destroyer Wakaba (1934)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2021, December 1st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_destroyer_Wakaba_(1934).

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Notes
  1. ^ Nelson. Japanese-English Character Dictionary. page 773
  2. ^ Lengerer, pp. 92-3
  3. ^ GlobalSecurity.org: IJN Hatsuharu class
  4. ^ "Japan 25 mm/60 (1") Type 96 Model 1". 4 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  5. ^ Lengerer, pp. 102-3
  6. ^ Nishidah, Hiroshi (2002). "Wakaba class 1st class destroyers". Materials of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  7. ^ Nevitt, Allyn D. (1997). "IJN Wakaba: Tabular Record of Movement". Long Lancers. Combinedfleet.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  8. ^ Morison. Aleutians, Gilberts and Marshalls, June 1942-April 1944.
  9. ^ D’Albas. Death of a Navy: Japanese Naval Action in World War II.
  10. ^ Brown. Warship Losses of World War II
  11. ^ Nishidah, Hiroshi (2002). "Wakaba class destroyers". Materials of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
References
External links

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