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Janata Dal

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Janata Dal
AbbreviationJD
FounderV. P. Singh
Founded11 October 1988 (34 years ago) (1988-10-11)
Dissolved1999
Merger of
Preceded byJanata Party
Succeeded by
National affiliation
Colours  Green

Janata Dal (“People’s Party”) was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.[2][3]

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List of political parties in India

List of political parties in India

India has a multi-party system. The Election Commission of India (ECI) accords recognition to the national level and the state level political parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol, free broadcast time on state-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India. Registered Parties are upgraded as recognised National Party or State Party by the ECI if they meet the relevant criteria after a Lok Sabha or State legislative assembly election. The Recognised Party status is reviewed periodically by the ECI.

Janata Party

Janata Party

The Janata Party was a political party that was founded as an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the Emergency that was imposed between 1975 and 1977 by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of the Indian National Congress. In the 1977 general election, the party defeated the Congress and Janata leader Morarji Desai became the first non-Congress prime minister in independent modern India's history.

Indian National Congress (Jagjivan)

Indian National Congress (Jagjivan)

Congress (Jagjivan) was a political party in India. It was formed in August 1981, after Jagjivan Ram resigned from the Indian National Congress (Urs).

Jan Morcha

Jan Morcha

The Jan Morcha was an Indian political party founded by V. P. Singh after he left the Indian National Congress party in 1987 upon being dismissed as Defence Minister by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Together with Arun Nehru, Arif Mohammed Khan, Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, Vidya Charan Shukla, Ram Dhan, Raj Kumar Rai and Satyapal Malik, Singh formed a nucleus of opposition to the Rajiv Gandhi government that had a commanding majority in the Lok Sabha.

Jayaprakash Narayan

Jayaprakash Narayan

Jayaprakash Narayan, popularly referred to as JP or Lok Nayak, was an Indian independence activist, theorist, socialist and political leader. He is remembered for leading the mid-1970s opposition against Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, for whose overthrow he had called for a "total revolution". His biography, Jayaprakash, was written by his nationalist friend and the writer of Hindi literature, Rambriksh Benipuri. In 1999, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, in recognition of his social service. Other awards include the Magsaysay award for Public Service in 1965.

V. P. Singh

V. P. Singh

Vishwanath Pratap Singh , shortened to V. P. Singh, was an Indian politician who was the 7th Prime Minister of India from 1989 to 1990 and the 41st Raja Bahadur of Manda. He is India's only prime minister to have been former royalty.

History

V. P. Singh united the entire disparate spectrum of parties ranging from regional parties such as the Telugu Desam Party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, and the Asom Gana Parishad, together and formed the National Front with N. T. Rama Rao as Indian Election History President and V. P. Singh as convenor with outside support from the (Right-wing Political party) Bharatiya Janata Party and (Left-wing Political party) Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left front. They defeated Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) in the 1989 parliamentary elections.[4][5] His government fell after Lalu Prasad Yadav, got Advani arrested in Samastipur and stopped his Ram Rath Yatra which was going to Ayodhya on the site of the Babri Masjid on October 23, 1990 and the Bharatiya Janata Party withdrew support. V.P. Singh lost a parliamentary vote of confidence on November 7, 1990.[6] In the 1991 Indian general election the Janata Dal lost power but emerged as the third largest party in Lok Sabha.[7] Janata Dal-led United Front formed the government after the 1996 Indian general election with the outside support of the Indian National Congress. But after this the Janata Dal gradually disintegrated into various smaller factions, largely regional parties Biju Janata Dal, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Secular) and Janata Dal (United).[8]

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Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam is a political party based in the state of Tamil Nadu where it is currently the ruling party having a comfortable majority without coalition support and the union territory of Puducherry where it is currently the main opposition.

Asom Gana Parishad

Asom Gana Parishad

Asom Gana Parishad is a state political party in Assam, India. The AGP was formed after the historic Assam Accord of 1985 and formally launched at the Golaghat Convention held from 13–14 October 1985 in Golaghat, that let Prafulla Kumar Mahanta to be elected as the youngest chief minister of the state. The AGP has formed government twice from 1985 to 1989 and from 1996 to 2001.

N. T. Rama Rao

N. T. Rama Rao

Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao, often referred to by his initials NTR, was an Indian actor, filmmaker and politician who served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for seven years over three terms. He starred in over 300 films, predominantly in Telugu cinema, and was referred by the media as Viswa Vikhyatha Nata Sarwa Bhouma. Rao received three National Film Awards for co-producing Thodu Dongalu (1954) and Seetharama Kalyanam (1960) under National Art Theater, Madras, and for directing Varakatnam (1970). Known for his breakthrough performances in Raju Peda (1954) and Lava Kusa (1963), Rao garnered the Nandi Award for Best Actor for Kodalu Diddina Kapuram in 1970, and the Inaugural Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Telugu in 1972 for Badi Panthulu.

Bharatiya Janata Party

Bharatiya Janata Party

The Bharatiya Janata Party is a political party in India, and one of the two major Indian political parties alongside the Indian National Congress. Since 2014, it has been the ruling political party in India under Narendra Modi, the incumbent Indian prime minister. The BJP is aligned with right-wing politics, and its policies have historically reflected a traditional Hindu nationalist ideology; it has close ideological and organisational links to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). As of February 2022, it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the Parliament of India as well as state legislatures.

Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics describes the range of political ideologies that support and seek to achieve social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy. Left-wing politics typically involve a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished. Left-wing politics are also associated with popular or state control of major political and economic institutions. According to emeritus professor of economics Barry Clark, left-wing supporters "claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status, power, and wealth are eliminated."

Communist Party of India

Communist Party of India

The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest Marxist–Leninist communist party in India and one of the eight national parties in the country. The CPI was founded in modern-day Kanpur on 26 December 1925.

Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Communist Party of India (Marxist)

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated as CPI(M)/CPIM/CPM) is a communist political party in India. It is the largest communist party of India in terms of membership and electoral seats and one of the national parties of India. The party emerged from a split in the Communist Party of India (CPI) on 7 November 1964. As of 2022, CPI(M) is a part of ruling alliances in three states — the Left Democratic Front in Kerala, Mahagathbandhan in Bihar, and the Secular Progressive Alliance in Tamil Nadu. CPIM has representation in the legislative assemblies of 8 states.

Rajiv Gandhi

Rajiv Gandhi

Rajiv Gandhi was an Indian politician who served as the sixth prime minister of India from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, to become the youngest Indian Prime minister at the age of 40.

Lalu Prasad Yadav

Lalu Prasad Yadav

Lalu Prasad Yadav is an Indian politician and president of the Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD). He is a former Chief Minister of Bihar (1990-1997), a former Railway Minister of India (2004-2009), and a former Member of Parliament (MP) of the Lok Sabha.

L. K. Advani

L. K. Advani

Lal Krishna Advani is an Indian politician who served as the 7th Deputy Prime Minister of India from 2002 to 2004. Advani is one of the co-founders and a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party. He is a longtime member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a volunteer organisation. He also served as Minister of Home Affairs in the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance government from 1998 to 2004. He was the Leader of the Opposition in the 10th Lok Sabha and 14th Lok Sabha and also the longest serving person of this post. He is widely considered architect of Hindutva politics and was the power centre of BJP in 1990s. He was the Prime Ministerial candidate of BJP in 2009.

Ram Rath Yatra

Ram Rath Yatra

The Ram Rath Yatra was a political and religious rally that lasted from September to October 1990. It was organised by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and its Hindu nationalist affiliates, and led by the then-president of the BJP, L. K. Advani. The purpose of the yatra was to support the agitation, led by the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) and its affiliates in the Sangh Parivar, to erect a temple to the Hindu deity Rama on the site of the Babri Masjid.

Ayodhya

Ayodhya

Ayodhya is a city situated on the banks of holy river Saryu in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of the Faizabad district as well as the Faizabad division of Uttar Pradesh, India. Ayodhya city is administered by the Ayodhya Municipal Corporation, the governing civic body of the city.

Ascent to power

It first came to power in 1989, after allegations of corruption, known as the Bofors scandal, caused Rajiv Gandhi's Congress (I) to lose the elections. The National Front coalition that was formed consisted of the Janata Dal and a few smaller parties in the government, and had outside support from the Left Front and the Bharatiya Janata Party. V. P. Singh was the prime minister. In November 1990, this coalition collapsed, and a new government headed by Chandra Shekhar under Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) which had the support of the congress came to power for a short while. Two days before the vote, Chandra Shekhar, an ambitious Janata Dal rival who had been kept out of the National Front government, joined with Devi Lal, a former deputy prime minister under V.P. Singh, to form the Samajwadi Janata Party, with a total of just sixty Lok Sabha members. The day after the collapse of the National Front government, Chandra Shekhar informed the president that by gaining the backing of the Congress (I) and its electoral allies he enjoyed the support of 280 members of the Lok Sabha, and he demanded the right to constitute a new government. Even though his rump party accounted for only one-ninth of the members of the Lok Sabha, Chandra Shekhar succeeded in forming a new minority Government and becoming Prime Minister (with Devi Lal as deputy prime minister). However, Chandra Shekhar's government fell less than four months later, after the Congress (I) withdrew its support.

Its second spell of power began in 1996, when the Janata Dal-led United Front coalition came to power, with outside support from the congress under Sitaram Kesri, choosing H. D. Deve Gowda as their prime minister. The congress withdrew their support in less than a year, hoping to gain power with the support of various United Front constituent groups, and I. K. Gujral became the next prime minister. His government too fell in a few months, and in February 1998, the Janata Dal-led coalition lost power to the Bharatiya Janata Party.

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V. P. Singh

V. P. Singh

Vishwanath Pratap Singh , shortened to V. P. Singh, was an Indian politician who was the 7th Prime Minister of India from 1989 to 1990 and the 41st Raja Bahadur of Manda. He is India's only prime minister to have been former royalty.

Bofors scandal

Bofors scandal

The Bofors scandal was a major weapons-contract political scandal that occurred between India and Sweden during the 1980s and 1990s, initiated by Indian National Congress politicians and implicating the Indian prime minister, Rajiv Gandhi, and several other members of the Indian and Swedish governments who were accused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB, an arms manufacturer principally financed by the Wallenberg family's Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken, for winning a bid to supply to India their 155 mm field howitzer. The scandal relates to illegal kickbacks paid in a US$1.4-billion deal between the Swedish arms manufacturer Bofors with the government of India for the sale of 410 field howitzer guns, and a supply contract almost twice that amount. It was the biggest arms deal ever in Sweden, and money marked for development projects was diverted to secure this contract at any cost. The investigations revealed flouting of rules and bypassing of institutions.

Rajiv Gandhi

Rajiv Gandhi

Rajiv Gandhi was an Indian politician who served as the sixth prime minister of India from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, to become the youngest Indian Prime minister at the age of 40.

Indian National Congress

Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress (INC), colloquially the Congress Party but often simply the Congress, is a political party in India with widespread roots. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. The Congress led India to independence from the United Kingdom, and significantly influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.

Left Front (West Bengal)

Left Front (West Bengal)

The Left Front is an alliance of left-wing political parties in the Indian state of West Bengal. It was formed in January 1977, the founding parties being the Communist Party of India (Marxist), All India Forward Bloc, the Revolutionary Socialist Party, the Marxist Forward Bloc, the Revolutionary Communist Party of India and the Biplabi Bangla Congress. Other parties joined in later years, most notably the Communist Party of India.

Bharatiya Janata Party

Bharatiya Janata Party

The Bharatiya Janata Party is a political party in India, and one of the two major Indian political parties alongside the Indian National Congress. Since 2014, it has been the ruling political party in India under Narendra Modi, the incumbent Indian prime minister. The BJP is aligned with right-wing politics, and its policies have historically reflected a traditional Hindu nationalist ideology; it has close ideological and organisational links to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). As of February 2022, it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the Parliament of India as well as state legislatures.

Chandra Shekhar

Chandra Shekhar

Chandra Shekhar was an Indian politician who served as the 8th Prime Minister of India, between 10 November 1990 and 21 June 1991. He headed a minority government of a breakaway faction of the Janata Dal with outside support from the Indian National Congress. He was the first Indian Prime Minister who had never held any prior government office.

Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya)

Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya)

Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya), also called as Janata Dal (Socialist) is an Indian political party founded by Chandra Shekhar, 8th Prime Minister of India in 1990–91, and led by him until his death on 8 July 2007.

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by an adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi.

United Front (India)

United Front (India)

The United Front was a coalition government of 13 political parties formed in India after the 1996 general elections. The coalition formed two governments in India between 1996 and 1998. The government was headed by two Prime Ministers from Janata Dal – H. D. Deve Gowda, and I. K. Gujral. N. Chandrababu Naidu of the Telugu Desam Party served as the convener of United Front. Headquartered at the Andhra Pradesh Bhavan at New Delhi.

Sitaram Kesri

Sitaram Kesri

Sitaram Kesri was an Indian politician and parliamentarian. He became a union minister and served as President of the Indian National Congress from 1996 to 1998.

H. D. Deve Gowda

H. D. Deve Gowda

Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda is an Indian politician from the state of Karnataka. He served as the 11th prime minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997. He was previously the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996. He presently is a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha representing Karnataka. He is the National President of the Janata Dal (Secular) party.

List of prime ministers

No. Prime ministers Year Duration Constituency Image
1 Vishwanath Pratap Singh 1989 – 1990 343 days Fatehpur V. P. Singh (cropped).jpg
2 H. D. Deve Gowda 1996 – 1997 324 days — (Rajya Sabha MP) from Karnataka Prime Minister H. D. Deve Gowda BNC.jpg
3 Inder Kumar Gujral 1997 – 1998 332 days — (Rajya Sabha MP) from Bihar Inder Kumar Gujral 071.jpg
Electoral Performance
Year Seats won Votes
1989 Indian general election 143 Increase 143 53,518,521 Increase 53,518,521
1991 Indian general election 59 Decrease 84 32,628,400 Decrease 2,08,90,121
1996 Indian general election 46 Decrease 13 27,070,340 Decrease 55,58,060
1998 Indian general election 6 Decrease 40 11,930,209 Decrease 1,51,40,131
Party Disintegrated

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H. D. Deve Gowda

H. D. Deve Gowda

Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda is an Indian politician from the state of Karnataka. He served as the 11th prime minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997. He was previously the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996. He presently is a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha representing Karnataka. He is the National President of the Janata Dal (Secular) party.

Rajya Sabha

Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally the Council of States, is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. As of 2022, it has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the states and union territories using single transferable votes through open ballots, while the president can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. The potential seating capacity of the Rajya Sabha is 245, according to article 80 of the Indian Constitution. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with about a third of the 238 designates up for election every two years, in even-numbered years. Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha is a continuing chamber and hence not subject to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha, can be prorogued by the president.

Member of Parliament (India)

Member of Parliament (India)

Member of Parliament in India refers to persons who serve in the Parliament of India. These include:Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha: Representative of the Indian citizens to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India. Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha: Representative of the Indian states to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India.

Karnataka

Karnataka

Karnataka, formerly Mysore State, is a state in the southwestern region of India. It was formed as Mysore State on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act and renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. Its capital and largest city is Bengaluru.

Inder Kumar Gujral

Inder Kumar Gujral

Inder Kumar Gujral was an Indian diplomat, politician and freedom activist who served as the 12th prime minister of India from April 1997 to March 1998.

Bihar

Bihar

Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the second largest state by population in 2019, 12th largest by area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi), and 14th largest by GDP in 2021. Bihar borders Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east.

1989 Indian general election

1989 Indian general election

General elections were held in India on 22 and 26 November 1989 to elect the members of the 9th Lok Sabha. The incumbent Indian National Congress government under the premiership of Rajiv Gandhi lost its mandate, even though it was still the largest single party in the Lok Sabha. V. P. Singh, the leader of the second largest party Janata Dal was invited by the President of India to form the government. The government was formed with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party and a Left Front led by CPI (M). V. P. Singh was sworn in as the seventh Prime Minister of India on 2 December 1989.

1991 Indian general election

1991 Indian general election

General elections were held in India on 20 May, 12 June and 15 June 1991 to elect the members of the 10th Lok Sabha, although they were delayed until 19 February 1992 in Punjab.

1996 Indian general election

1996 Indian general election

General elections were held in India on 27 April, 2 May and 7 May 1996 to elect the members of the 11th Lok Sabha. The elections resulted in a hung parliament with no single party having a clear majority. The Bharatiya Janata Party, which had won the most seats, formed a short-lived government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. However, two weeks later the United Front coalition was able to secure a parliamentary majority and H. D. Deve Gowda of Janata Dal became Prime Minister. In 1997 Inder Kumar Gujral, also from the United Front, succeeded Gowda as Prime Minister. Due to the instability, early elections were held in 1998. The elections were the first since 1980 in which every states' seats were elected in a single election period.

1998 Indian general election

1998 Indian general election

General elections were held in India on 16, 22 and 28 February 1998 to elect the members of the 12th Lok Sabha. The elections were held three years ahead of schedule after the government led by Inder Kumar Gujral collapsed when the Indian National Congress (INC) withdrew its support in November 1997.

Vice President of India

Party Presidents

National Units

Thakur Ji Pathak (1989 – 1994) |Position = National General Secretary [11]

State Units

Karnataka

Presidents

B. Rachaiah (1989)[9]

Siddaramaiah (Feb 1999)[12]

C. Byre Gowda (July 1999)[10]

General Secretary

Jeevaraj Alva (1989-1990)[13][9]

C. Narayanaswamy (1999)[10]

Tamil Nadu

President

Sivaji Ganesan

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B. Rachaiah

B. Rachaiah

Basavaiah Rachaiah was an Indian politician. He was a member of the Karnataka Legislative Assembly and a member of the Rajya Sabha from Karnataka. He was elected to the Lok Sabha from Chamarajanagar Karnataka in 1977. He was the governor of Kerala and Himachal Pradesh and a Dalit leader, a member of the Karnataka state cabinets headed by S. Nijalingappa, B. D. Jatti, Devraj Urs, Veerendra Patil, Ramakrishna Hegde and S. R. Bommai.

Siddaramaiah

Siddaramaiah

Siddaramaiah, also referred to by his nickname Siddu, Siddaramaiah served as Chief Minister of Karnataka from 13 May 2013 to 17 May 2018 and currently serving as the leader of the opposition in Karnataka Legislative Assembly since 9 December 2019. He belongs to Indian National Congress party and a member of Congress Working Committee.

Jeevaraj Alva

Jeevaraj Alva

Jeevaraj Alva (1947–2001) was an Indian politician and a minister in the government of Karnataka.

C. Narayanaswamy

C. Narayanaswamy

C. Narayanaswamy is a former MP (1996–97) having represented Bangalore North Constituency. He is currently associated with Indian National Congress (INC).

Sivaji Ganesan

Sivaji Ganesan

Villupuram Chinnaiya Manrayar Ganesamoorthy, better known by his stage name Sivaji Ganesan, was an Indian actor and producer. He was active in Tamil cinema during the latter half of the 20th century. Sivaji Ganesan is acknowledged as one of the greatest Indian actors of all time and among the most imitated one by other actors. He was known for his versatility and the variety of roles he depicted on screen, which gave him also the Tamil nickname Nadigar Thilagam. In a career that spanned close to five decades, he had acted 288 films in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Hindi. Sivaji Ganesan is the only Tamil actor to have played the lead role in over 250 films. He Has Won Two National Film Award, Three Tamil Nadu State Film Award, One Nandi Award and Four Filmfare Award South respectively.

Janata Dal factions

Pro-National Democratic Alliance parties

Pro-United Progressive Alliance parties

Non-NDA/UPA parties

Defunct parties

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Lok Janshakti Party

Lok Janshakti Party

The Lok Janshakti Party was a state political party mainly based in the state of Bihar, India. The party was formed in 2000 when Ram Vilas Paswan split from Janata Dal. The party had a considerable following amongst Dalits in Bihar. The Party is factioned into two parties Lok Janshakti Party and Rashtriya Lok Janshakti Party.

Chirag Paswan

Chirag Paswan

Chirag Kumar Paswan is an Indian politician, former actor and president of the Lok Janshakti Party. He is the son of late Member of Parliament and Union Minister, Ram Vilas Paswan.

Ajay Singh Chautala

Ajay Singh Chautala

Ajay Singh Chautala is a former Indian MP and sports administrator. He is elder son of former Chief Minister of Haryana Om Prakash Chautala and father of current Deputy Chief Minister of Haryana Dushyant Chautala.

Jitan Ram Manjhi

Jitan Ram Manjhi

Jitan Ram Manjhi is an Indian politician from the eastern state of Bihar who served as its 23rd Chief Minister from 20 May 2014 to 20 February 2015. He is a former President of Hindustani Awam Morcha (HAM). Previously, he had served as minister for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes welfare in Nitish Kumar's cabinet. He has been a minister in several Bihar state governments, under multiple chief ministers like Chandrashekhar Singh, Bindeshwari Dubey, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, Jagannath Mishra, Lalu Prasad Yadav and Rabri Devi.

George Fernandes

George Fernandes

George Mathew Fernandes was an Indian trade unionist, statesman, and journalist, who served as the 22nd Defence Minister of India from 1998 until 2004. He was a member of Lok Sabha for over 30 years, starting from Bombay in 1967 till 2009 mostly representing constituencies from Bihar. He was a key member of the Janata Dal and the founder of the Samata Party, now led by Uday Mandal its President. He held several ministerial portfolios including communication, industry, railways, and defence. In 2020, he was posthumously awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian award.

Indian Socialist Party

Indian Socialist Party

The Indian Socialist Party was a political party in the Indian state of Kerala. ISP was founded in May 1969, by the majority of the erstwhile Kerala Samyukta Socialist Party. The two KSSP ministers in the state government, P. K. Kunju and P. R. Kurup, became members of ISP. The ISP declared that it sought to become an All India party in six months.

Janata Dal (United)

Janata Dal (United)

Janata Dal (United), abbreviated as JD(U), is an Indian political party with political presence mainly in eastern and north-eastern India. JD(U) is recognised as a state party in the states of Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur and is a part of government in Bihar. JD(U) heads the government in Bihar and has remained the second largest party in Manipur. JD(U) won 16 seats in the 2019 Indian general election, making it the seventh largest party in the Lok Sabha.

Biju Janata Dal

Biju Janata Dal

The Biju Janata Dal is a regional political party in the Indian state of Odisha founded and led by Naveen Patnaik, the current Chief Minister of Odisha and the son of former Chief Minister of Odisha Biju Patnaik, after whom the party is named. It was founded on 26 December 1997.

Naveen Patnaik

Naveen Patnaik

Naveen Patnaik is an Indian politician serving as the current and 14th Chief Minister of Odisha. He is also the president of the Biju Janata Dal, a writer and has authored three books. He is the longest-serving chief minister of Odisha and as of 2023, one of the longest-serving chief ministers of any Indian state, holding the post for over two decades, and only the third Indian chief Minister after Pawan Chamling and Jyoti Basu to win five consecutive terms as Chief Minister of an Indian state.

Lalu Prasad Yadav

Lalu Prasad Yadav

Lalu Prasad Yadav is an Indian politician and president of the Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD). He is a former Chief Minister of Bihar (1990-1997), a former Railway Minister of India (2004-2009), and a former Member of Parliament (MP) of the Lok Sabha.

Janata Dal (Secular)

Janata Dal (Secular)

The Janata Dal (Secular) is an Indian political party led by former prime minister of India, H. D. Deve Gowda. The party is recognized as a State Party in the states of Karnataka, Kerala and Arunachal Pradesh. It was formed in July 1999 by the split of Janata Dal party. It has a political presence mainly in Karnataka. In Kerala, the party is a part of the Left Democratic Front (LDF).

H. D. Deve Gowda

H. D. Deve Gowda

Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda is an Indian politician from the state of Karnataka. He served as the 11th prime minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997. He was previously the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996. He presently is a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha representing Karnataka. He is the National President of the Janata Dal (Secular) party.

Source: "Janata Dal", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 29th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janata_Dal.

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References
  1. ^ Samata Party
  2. ^ N. Jose Chander (1 January 2004). Coalition Politics: The Indian Experience. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-81-8069-092-1. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
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