Get Our Extension

James Leal Greenleaf

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
James Leal Greenleaf
Born(1857-07-30)July 30, 1857
DiedApril 15, 1933(1933-04-15) (aged 75)
EducationDelaware Academy
Alma materColumbia University
Occupationlandscape architect, civil engineer, painter
SpouseBertha Potts
Children1

James Leal Greenleaf (July 30, 1857 – April 15, 1933) was an American landscape architect and civil engineer. Early in his career, he was a well-known landscape architect who designed the gardens and grounds of many large estates in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York. He was appointed to the United States Commission of Fine Arts in 1918, and served until 1927. He was the landscape architect for the Lincoln Memorial (finished in 1922), and a consulting landscape architect for the Arlington Memorial Bridge (designed in 1925 and finished in 1932).

Discover more about James Leal Greenleaf related topics

Landscape architect

Landscape architect

A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, site planning, land planning, planting design, grading, storm water management, sustainable design, construction specification, and ensuring that all plans meet the current building codes and local and federal ordinances.

Civil engineer

Civil engineer

A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering – the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructure while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructure that may have been neglected.

Connecticut

Connecticut

Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport. Historically the state is part of New England as well as the tri-state area with New York and New Jersey. The state is named for the Connecticut River which approximately bisects the state. The word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of "Quinnetuket”, a Mohegan-Pequot word for "long tidal river".

New Jersey

New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the state of Delaware. At 7,354 square miles (19,050 km2), New Jersey is the fifth-smallest state in land area; but with close to 9.3 million residents, it ranks 11th in population and first in population density. The state capital is Trenton, and the most populous city is Newark. With the exception of Warren County, all of the state's 21 counties lie within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia.

United States Commission of Fine Arts

United States Commission of Fine Arts

The U.S. Commission of Fine Arts (CFA) is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States, and was established in 1910. The CFA has review authority over the "design and aesthetics" of all construction within Washington, D.C. In accordance with the Old Georgetown Act, the CFA appoints the Old Georgetown Board. The Old Georgetown Board has design review authority over all semipublic and private structures within the boundaries of the Georgetown Historic District. The CFA was granted approval authority by the Shipstead-Luce Act over the design and height of public and private buildings which front or abut the grounds of the United States Capitol, the grounds of the White House, Pennsylvania Avenue NW extending from the Capitol to the White House, Lafayette Square, Rock Creek Park, the National Zoological Park, the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, Potomac Park, and the National Mall and its constituent parks.

Lincoln Memorial

Lincoln Memorial

The Lincoln Memorial is a U.S. national memorial built to honor the 16th president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., across from the Washington Monument, and is in the form of a neoclassical temple. The memorial's architect was Henry Bacon. The designer of the memorial interior's large central statue, Abraham Lincoln (1920), was Daniel Chester French; the Lincoln statue was carved by the Piccirilli brothers. The painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin, and the epitaph above the statue was written by Royal Cortissoz. Dedicated in May 1922, it is one of several memorials built to honor an American president. It has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has sometimes been a symbolic center focused on race relations.

Arlington Memorial Bridge

Arlington Memorial Bridge

The Arlington Memorial Bridge is a Neoclassical masonry, steel, and stone arch bridge with a central bascule that crosses the Potomac River at Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. First proposed in 1886, the bridge went unbuilt for decades thanks to political quarrels over whether the bridge should be a memorial, and to whom or what. Traffic problems associated with the dedication of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in November 1921 and the desire to build a bridge in time for the bicentennial of the birth of George Washington led to its construction in 1932.

Early life

View of a portion of "Killenworth", considered Greenleaf's greatest accomplishment
View of a portion of "Killenworth", considered Greenleaf's greatest accomplishment

Greenleaf was born in 1857 in Kortright, New York. His father, Thomas Greenleaf, was a member of the prominent Greenleaf merchant family, but had retired to Kortright due to failing health.[1] His mother, Eleanor Leal, was of Dutch and Scottish descent.[2] He was the fourth of five children, and the only son, born to Thomas and Eleanor.[2] The Greenleafs were Huguenots who fled France, anglicizing their family name (Feuillevert) to Greenleaf. Greenleaf's great-great-great-great-grandfather, Edmund, was born in 1574 in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. His great-great-grandfather, Enoch, was born there in 1647, and the entire family emigrated to Salisbury, Connecticut, in 1650.[3] His great-grandfather, Thomas, was the founder and editor of Greenleaf's New Daily Advertiser.[4] He was a distant relative of James Greenleaf, the infamous Washington, D.C., land speculator and whose sister married Noah Webster (whose newspaper later merged with the New Daily Advertiser).[5] Greenleaf later credited his childhood in the Catskill Mountains for giving him a love of landscape architecture.[1]

His father's wealth enabled Greenleaf to be educated at Delaware Academy in Delhi, New York. He entered the School of Mines at Columbia University, graduating with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering in 1880. After graduation, Greenleaf was hired by the United States Census to engage in a two-year survey of water power.[2] He worked primarily in the areas around Niagara Falls, the Mississippi River, and in Alabama.[4]

Discover more about Early life related topics

Kortright, New York

Kortright, New York

Kortright is a town in Delaware County, New York, United States. The population was 1,675 at the 2010 census. The town is in the northern part of the county.

Ipswich

Ipswich

Ipswich is a port town and borough in Suffolk, England, of which it is the county town. The town is located in East Anglia about 9.9 mi (16 km) away from the mouth of the River Orwell and the North Sea. Ipswich is both on the Great Eastern Main Line railway and the A12 road; it is 67 mi (108 km) north-east of London, 45 mi (72 km) east-southeast of Cambridge and 40 mi (64 km) south of Norwich. Ipswich is surrounded by two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB): Suffolk Coast and Heaths and Dedham Vale.

Commercial Advertiser

Commercial Advertiser

The New-York Commercial Advertiser was an American evening newspaper. It originated as the American Minerva in 1793, changed its name in 1797, and was published, with slight name variations, until 1904.

James Greenleaf

James Greenleaf

James Greenleaf was a late 18th and early 19th century American land speculator responsible for substantial of the newly designated capital of Washington, D.C. after 1790. A member of a prominent and wealthy Boston family, he married a Dutch noblewoman, who he later abandoned and then divorced, and served briefly as consul at the United States embassy in Amsterdam.

Catskill Mountains

Catskill Mountains

The Catskill Mountains, also known as the Catskills, are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York. As a cultural and geographic region, the Catskills are generally defined as those areas close to or within the borders of the Catskill Park, a 700,000-acre (2,800 km2) forest preserve protected from many forms of development under New York state law.

Delaware Academy

Delaware Academy

Delaware Academy is a K-12 school in Delhi (village), New York, 160 miles (260 km) northwest of New York City.

Delhi, New York

Delhi, New York

Delhi is a town in Delaware County, New York, United States. The population was 4,795 at the 2020 census. The town is in the east-central part of the county and contains the village of Delhi. The State University of New York at Delhi is located in the town.

Columbia University

Columbia University

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. Columbia is ranked among the top universities in the world.

Bachelor's degree

Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to six years. The two most common bachelor's degrees are the Bachelor of Arts (BA) and the Bachelor of Science. In some institutions and educational systems, certain bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate educations after a first degree has been completed, although more commonly the successful completion of a bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for further courses such as a master's or a doctorate.

Civil engineering

Civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways.

Mississippi River

Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system in North America, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. From its traditional source of Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota, it flows generally south for 2,340 miles (3,770 km) to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is entirely within the United States; the total drainage basin is 1,151,000 sq mi (2,980,000 km2), of which only about one percent is in Canada. The Mississippi ranks as the thirteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

Alabama

Alabama

Alabama is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States, bordered by Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state.

Career

Greenleaf took a teaching position as an Assistant at the Columbia School of Mines in 1882. He was promoted to Tutor, Instructor, and Assistant Professor. Increasingly engaged in the practice of civil engineering, he became an Adjunct Professor, and then left the school entirely in 1894 to become a full-time civil engineer.[2]

In the late 1890s, Greenleaf turned to the practice of landscape architecture.[6] Working primarily on Long Island and in Connecticut, New Jersey, and Westchester County, he designed estates for Frederick William Vanderbilt ("Hyde Park" in Hyde Park, New York),[7] C. Ledyard Blair ("Blairsden" in Peapack-Gladstone, New Jersey),[8] Mortimer L. Schiff ("Northwood" in Oyster Bay, New York),[4] Jacob Schiff ("Seabright" in Red Bank, New Jersey),[9] and a number of estates for the Pratt family: Pratt Oval (Charles Pratt),[10] The Braes (Herbert L. Pratt),[11] Welwyn (Harold I. Pratt)[10][12] The Manor House (John Teele Pratt),[10] Poplar Hill (Frederic B. Pratt),[10] and Killenworth (George Dupont Pratt).[13] Killenworth is considered his greatest achievement.[4] Pratt's most visible landscape design, however, was for the Lincoln Memorial, which he did for memorial designer Henry Bacon between 1913 and 1916.[14]

"Welwyn", the estate of Harold Irving Pratt, designed by Greenleaf in the 1890s
"Welwyn", the estate of Harold Irving Pratt, designed by Greenleaf in the 1890s

President Woodrow Wilson appointed Greenleaf to the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts in 1918. He served on this body, which had statutory approval authority over the design and siting of memorials and monuments in Washington, D.C., as well as advisory authority over building design in the city, until 1927.[15] After World War I, he authored the landscape design for seven American battlefield cemeteries in France and Belgium: Aisne-Marne American Cemetery and Memorial, Flanders Field American Cemetery and Memorial, Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery and Memorial, Oise-Aisne American Cemetery and Memorial, Somme American Cemetery and Memorial, St. Mihiel American Cemetery and Memorial, and Suresnes American Cemetery and Memorial.[6] During his time on the Commission of Fine Arts, Greenleaf consulted on landscape design in a number of national parks.[4] In 1924, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician.

After his retirement from public service in 1927, Greenleaf rarely worked. However, he did consult with the firm of McKim, Mead and White on the landscape design around Arlington Memorial Bridge in 1931 and 1932.[4] In retirement, Greenleaf devoted himself to landscape painting, working primarily in Italy and on the Isle of Skye.[4] His work was exhibited at the National Academy of Design in New York City.[6]

Discover more about Career related topics

Frederick William Vanderbilt

Frederick William Vanderbilt

Frederick William Vanderbilt was a member of the American Vanderbilt family. He was a director of the New York Central Railroad for 61 years, and also a director of the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad and of the Chicago and North Western Railroad.

Hyde Park, New York

Hyde Park, New York

Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States, bordering the Hudson River north of Poughkeepsie. Within the town are the hamlets of Hyde Park, East Park, Staatsburg, and Haviland. Hyde Park is known as the hometown of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd president of the United States. His house there, now the Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site, is listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places, as are the homes of Eleanor Roosevelt, Isaac Roosevelt, and Frederick William Vanderbilt, along with Haviland Middle School.

C. Ledyard Blair

C. Ledyard Blair

Clinton Ledyard Blair was an American investment banker and yachtsman.

Jacob Schiff

Jacob Schiff

Jacob Henry Schiff was a German-born Jewish American banker, businessman, and philanthropist. Among many other things, he helped finance the expansion of American railroads, and the Japanese military efforts against Tsarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War.

Charles Pratt

Charles Pratt

Charles Pratt was an American businessman. Pratt was a pioneer of the U.S. petroleum industry, and he established his kerosene refinery Astral Oil Works in Brooklyn, New York. He then lived with his growing family in Clinton Hill, Brooklyn. He recruited Henry H. Rogers into his business, forming Charles Pratt and Company in 1867. Seven years later, Pratt and Rogers agreed to join John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil.

Herbert L. Pratt

Herbert L. Pratt

Herbert Lee Pratt was an American businessman and a leading figure in the United States oil industry. In 1923, he became head of Standard Oil of New York; his father Charles Pratt was a founder of Astral Oil Works, which later became part of Standard Oil. He lived and worked in New York City, as well as having a country estate, "The Braes" in Glen Cove, Long Island, and a hunting preserve and estate, "Good Hope Plantation" in Ridgeland, South Carolina. He was also an art collector and philanthropist.

Harold I. Pratt

Harold I. Pratt

Harold Irving Pratt was an American oil industrialist and philanthropist. A director of Standard Oil of New Jersey, he also served on the Council of Foreign Relations from 1923-1939.

John Teele Pratt

John Teele Pratt

John Teele Pratt was an American corporate attorney, philanthropist, music impresario, and financier.

Frederic B. Pratt

Frederic B. Pratt

Frederic Bayley Pratt was an American heir, the president of the board of trustees of Brooklyn's Pratt Institute for 44 years, from 1893 to 1937, and president of the United States Olympic Committee in 1910.

Killenworth

Killenworth

Killenworth is a historic mansion in Glen Cove, New York constructed for George Dupont Pratt in 1912. It was purchased by the Soviet Union in 1946 to become the country retreat of the Soviet, and later Russian, delegation to the United Nations. In the 1980s the property was subject to allegations it was being used for espionage. There has been a long-standing conflict with the City of Glen Cove over its tax status.

George Dupont Pratt

George Dupont Pratt

George Dupont Pratt was an American conservationist, philanthropist, Boy Scout sponsor, big-game hunter and collector of ancient antiquities.

Henry Bacon

Henry Bacon

Henry Bacon was an American Beaux-Arts architect who is best remembered for the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., which was his final project.

Personal life

Greenleaf married Bertha Potts of New York City on June 14, 1899.[2] She was the daughter of George A.H. and Helen (Hard) Potts, whose wealthy mining family founded Pottsville, Pennsylvania.[16] They had a son, Donald Leal Greenleaf, born June 5, 1890.[2] Bertha Potts Greenleaf died in 1911.[4]

Greenleaf was a Republican, but not active in party politics.[2] He was a member of the Columbia University Club, the Cosmos Club, and the Century Club. He was an associate of the National Academy of Design, and served several times on juries for the American Academy in Rome. He was a long-time fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects, and served as its national president from 1922 to 1927.[4]

Greenleaf moved to New Canaan, Connecticut, around 1918. He contracted pneumonia in 1932, and although he recovered he remained in poor health. A few months before his death, he moved in with his son (also a resident of New Canaan). Greenleaf suffered from appendicitis, and had his appendix removed on April 3, 1933. He never recovered from the shock of the surgery, and died in Stamford Hospital in Stamford, Connecticut, on April 15.[4]

Funeral services were held at the Congregational Church in New Canaan,[4] and he was buried at the New Cemetery in Somerville, New Jersey.[17]

Discover more about Personal life related topics

Pottsville, Pennsylvania

Pottsville, Pennsylvania

Pottsville is the county seat of Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The population was 13,346 at the 2020 census, and is the principal city of the Pottsville, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies along the west bank of the Schuylkill River, 52 miles (84 km) south of Wilkes-Barre. It is located in Pennsylvania's Coal Region.

Republican Party (United States)

Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. Since Ronald Reagan's presidency in the 1980s, conservatism has been the dominant ideology of the GOP. It has been the main political rival of the Democratic Party since the mid-1850s.

Columbia University Club of New York

Columbia University Club of New York

The Columbia University Club of New York is a private university alumni club that extends membership to all graduates of all the schools and affiliates of Columbia University, as well as Columbia undergraduate students, graduate students, faculty and administrators. The Club has more than 2,500 Columbia members representing all the schools and affiliates of Columbia University.

Cosmos Club

Cosmos Club

The Cosmos Club is a 501(c)(7) private social club in Washington, D.C. that was founded by John Wesley Powell in 1878 as a gentlemen's club for those interested in science. Among its stated goals is, "The advancement of its members in science, literature, and art and also their mutual improvement by social intercourse."

Century Association

Century Association

The Century Association is a private social, arts, and dining club in New York City, founded in 1847. Its clubhouse is located at 7 West 43rd Street near Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. It is primarily a club for men and women with distinction in literature or the arts. The Century Association was founded by members of New York's Sketch Club; preceding clubs also included the National Academy of Design, the Bread and Cheese Club, and the Column. Traditionally a men's club, women first became active in club life in the early 1900s; the organization began admitting women as members in 1988.

American Academy in Rome

American Academy in Rome

The American Academy in Rome is a research and arts institution located on the Gianicolo in Rome. The academy is a member of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers.

American Society of Landscape Architects

American Society of Landscape Architects

The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) is a professional association for landscape architects in the United States. The ASLA's mission is to advance landscape architecture through advocacy, communication, education, and fellowship.

New Canaan, Connecticut

New Canaan, Connecticut

New Canaan is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 20,622 according to the 2020 census.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as alveoli. Symptoms typically include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of the condition is variable.

Appendicitis

Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. Symptoms commonly include right lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. However, approximately 40% of people do not have these typical symptoms. Severe complications of a ruptured appendix include widespread, painful inflammation of the inner lining of the abdominal wall and sepsis.

Congregational church

Congregational church

Congregational churches are Protestant churches in the Calvinist tradition practising congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.

Somerville, New Jersey

Somerville, New Jersey

Somerville is a borough and the county seat of Somerset County, New Jersey, United States. The borough is located in the heart of the Raritan Valley region within the New York Metropolitan Area, located about 33 miles (53 km) from Manhattan and 20 miles (32 km) from Staten Island. The borough has grown to become a commercial hub for central New Jersey and commuter town of New York City.

Source: "James Leal Greenleaf", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Leal_Greenleaf.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ a b Birnbaum and Karson, p. 146.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Chamberlain, p. 558.
  3. ^ Greenleaf, p. 71, 75-76. Accessed 2012-10-29.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "James Greenleaf Dies at Age of 75." New York Times. April 16, 1933.
  5. ^ Snyder, p. 87.
  6. ^ a b c "James Neal Greenleaf." archINFORM.net. February 12, 2013. Accessed 2013-04-18.
  7. ^ Griswold, Weller, and Rollins, page 73.
  8. ^ Griswold, Mac. "A Turn-of-the-Century Jewel in the New Jersey Rough." Tuscaloosa News. May 28, 1998, page 8G. Accessed 2013-04-18.
  9. ^ The Studio Yearbook of Decorative Art, page 144.
  10. ^ a b c d Griswold, Weller, and Rollins, page 102.
  11. ^ Sclare and Sclare, page 95; Hubel, Joy Alter. "Gilded Age Estates Hold a Key to Open-Space Efforts." The New York Times. October 26, 1997, accessed 2013-04-18.
  12. ^ Authorship of this landscape design is disputed, and may be by Martha Brookes Hutcheson. See: Zaitzevsky, pages 65, 70.
  13. ^ Zaitzevsky, p. 265.
  14. ^ Sclare and Sclare, page 100.
  15. ^ Kohler, p. 249.
  16. ^ Bergen, pages 443-444.
  17. ^ "Jersey Burial for James L. Greenleaf." Syracuse Herald. April 15, 1933, page 22. Accessed 2013-04-18.
Bibliography
  • Bergen, Tunis G., ed. Genealogies of the State of New York: A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making of a Commonwealth and the Founding of a Nation. New York: Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1915.
  • Birnbaum, Charles A. and Karson, Robin. Pioneers of American Landscape Design. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000.
  • Chamberlain, Joshua L., ed. Universities and Their Sons: History, Influence and Characteristics of American Universities, With Biographical Sketches and Portraits of Alumni and Recipients of Honorary Degrees. Boston: R. Herndon Co., 1899.
  • Greenleaf, James Edward. Genealogy of the Greenleaf Family. Boston: F. Wood, Printer, 1896.
  • Griswold, Mac; Weller, Eleanor; and Rollins, Helen E. The Golden Age of American Gardens: Proud Owners, Private Estates, 1890-1940. New York: H.N. Abrams, 2000.
  • Kohler, Sue A. The Commission of Fine Arts: A Brief History, 1910-1995. Washington, D.C.: United States Commission of Fine Arts, 1996.
  • Sclare, Liisa and Sclare, Donald. Beaux-Arts Estates: A Guide to the Architecture of Long Island. New York: Viking Press, 1980.
  • Snyder, Alan K. Defining Noah Webster. Washington, D.C.: Allegiance Press, 2002.
  • The Studio Yearbook of Decorative Art. New York: Viking Press, 1916.
  • Zaitzevsky, Cynthia. Long Island Landscapes and the Women Who Designed Them. New York: Society for the Preservation of Long Island Antiquities, 2009.

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.