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James Ferdinand Morton Jr.

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James F. Morton as a young man
James F. Morton as a young man

James Ferdinand Morton Jr. (October 18, 1870 – October 7, 1941) was an anarchist writer and political activist of the 1900s through the 1920s especially on the topics of the single tax system, racism, and advocacy for women. After about 1920 he was more known as a member of the Baháʼí Faith, a notable museum curator, an esperantist and a close friend of H. P. Lovecraft.

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Biography

Early years

Morton was born in Littleton, Massachusetts, lived in Andover, New Hampshire.[1] His family reached back to the pilgrims landing in 1620, his grandfather was Rev. Samuel Francis Smith.[2] A newspaper article from 1906 refers alittle to his youth - that he worked as a "newsboy, bootblack, an organ blower, and an employe(sic) in a jelly factory".[3] In 1892 he earned Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Arts degree from Harvard University,[2][4] simultaneously, in Classical Philology,[1] earning a "Gorham Thomas" scholarship,[1] graduated cum laude and was a member of the honors society Phi Beta Kappa.[2] He was a classmate of W.E.B. Du Bois[5] and carried on some correspondence with him.[6] He gained skills in Greek, Latin and French.[1] The Harvard Secretary's Report of 1896 noted by then he was in the temperate Independent Order of Good Templars, animal rights oriented New England Anti-Vivisection Society and had campaigned under the People's Party.[7]

Even at this early period he was actively involved in the amateur journalism movement, appearing in newspaper coverage of the developing practice in 1891,[8] and elected President of the National Amateur Press Association (NAPA) in 1896.[9] In his earlier days in New England he explored a number of alternatives to mainstream culture.[10]

Anarchism and the tour to the West and back

He became a supporter of anarchism - having a special affinity for individualist anarchism, free love, and freethought - and went on a cross-country speaking tour 1899-1900 to the West supporting these ideas.[11] Several of these talks appeared in newspapers.[12] By 1901 he was active on the West Coast.[13] When living in the West Morton wrote for or edited various anarchist journals[5][14] such as Free Society,[15] Discontent, The Demonstrator, and Emma Goldman's Mother Earth[16] as well as the Freethought periodical Truth Seeker and lived at the Home, Washington anarchist commune which had been raided though Morton was not arrested,[17] and was still present when the news of the assassination attempt against US President William McKinley arrived.[18] Morton's writings clarified that he favored a "non-retaliatory" anarchism.[14] In 1904 he made his way back to the East coast[19] and a talk of his on anarchism, free-thought, and morality was carried in several newspapers.[20]

Initiatives

As early as 1903 Morton was visibly against racism in his writing for the anarchist Distcontent.[14] He campaigned actively for civil rights for blacks, challenged productions like Thomas Dixon's The Clansman,[3] and in 1906 published The Curse of Race Prejudice,[21] which the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's The Crisis listed among its suggested reading materials in many editions over the years.[22] Morton served on various committees of the NAACP in the 1910s,[23] and continued to speak on the issue across several years.[24] In 1922 he contributed to a conference on the history of racism.[25]

Perhaps no other subject consumed Morton's energy and focus in the earlier half of his life than the subject of a single-tax as originated by Henry George.[26] It was one of the topics he spoke across several years about.[27] In 1916-17 Morton totaling 68 lectures in 54 cities, with over 2000 in attendance.[28] Many of these made the newspapers.[29] He also advocated for taxing churches.[30]

A third topic was of lasting concern to Morton—the facets of advocacy for women, including suffrage,[31] feminism,[32] and conventions on limitations on sexuality and contraception.[33]

In addition to particular topics that had his voice across the decades, and practicing law for some years in New York and Massachusetts,[2] he wrote or gave talks on a wide range of topics:

Literature and friendships

In addition to various individual topics he was also invested in several over a long term. From about 1915 he was a prominent member of the Blue Pencil Club of Brooklyn (founded 1908[45] Albertus Minton Adams (1878 – 1952) President of the Blue Pencil Club; Hazel Bosler Pratt (1888 – 1927), Secretary.[46]), publisher of The Brooklynite, and named after the traditional Blue pencil editor's corrections, and supported appreciation of literature in a number of talks.[47] His close friendship with the author H. P. Lovecraft[10] is today perhaps the feature of his biography which arouses the most interest. Morton promoted Lovecraft to be president of National Amateur Press Association in 1922.[48][49] Blue Pencil Club of Manhattan published Blue Pencil Magazine.[50]

Association with Lovecraft

Morton was a key member of the Kalem Club, the close circle of friends around Lovecraft in New York City in the mid 1920s.[10] During the early part of that period he lived in Harlem, New York City, a predominantly black neighborhood.

Paterson Museum

Morton was an active student of mineralogy and a leading member of the Thomas Paine Natural History Association.[2] In the mid 1920s he was offered and took the post of head museum curator at the new museum at Paterson, New Jersey – then a regional locus of anarchism – where he would build a mineralogy collection which was admired nationally and internationally. This job enabled him to marry the writer Pearl K. Merritt in 1934; the couple had no children.[5] Morton became a leader in the American Association of Museums, and a leading member of the New York Mineralogical Club. Locally he enjoyed walking with the radical Paterson Rambling Club.

In the 1934 he was interested in his family history and wrote congratulating a local historian on research important to overcoming some limits in his own research.[51] An avid walker,[52] he died in 1941, due to being struck in the back by a moving car while walking to a meeting .[2][4]

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Littleton, Massachusetts

Littleton, Massachusetts

Littleton is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 10,141 at the 2020 census.

Andover, New Hampshire

Andover, New Hampshire

Andover is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 2,406 at the 2020 census. Andover includes the villages of Cilleyville, Potter Place, East Andover, and West Andover, in addition to the town center. The town is home to Ragged Mountain State Forest and Proctor Academy, a private coeducational preparatory school.

Harvard University

Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the Puritan clergyman John Harvard, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious and highly ranked universities in the world.

New England Anti-Vivisection Society

New England Anti-Vivisection Society

The New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) is a national, registered 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization "dedicated to ending the use of animals in research, testing, and science education" and replacing them with "modern alternatives that are ethically, humanely, and scientifically superior."

People's Party (United States)

People's Party (United States)

The People's Party, also known as the Populist Party or simply the Populists, was a left-wing agrarian populist political party in the United States in the late 19th century. The Populist Party emerged in the early 1890s as an important force in the Southern and Western United States, but collapsed after it nominated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 United States presidential election. A rump faction of the party continued to operate into the first decade of the 20th century, but never matched the popularity of the party in the early 1890s.

Amateur journalism

Amateur journalism

Amateur journalism is a hobby for starting small newspapers established after the U.S. Civil War, using small and inexpensive printing presses. Local circulation and exchanges, sometimes among associations were done. Conventions were also held. The hobby waxed and waned in the early 20th century, achieving a literary peak under the influence of H. P. Lovecraft and W. Paul Cook in the 1915-1925 period. The 1930s brought a redevelopment of interest with a mix of fine printing with quality material and crude leaflets from small hand-presses and mimeographs. Membership in associations has diminished to the hundreds in the United States and Canada and many are elderly as safety rules for motorized presses and hand-setting type have become lost arts. Citizen journalism and blogging have come with the advent of the internet, however.

Amateur press association

Amateur press association

An amateur press association (APA) is a group of people who produce individual pages or zines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group.

Anarchism

Anarchism

Anarchism is a political philosophy and movement that is skeptical of all justifications for authority and seeks to abolish the institutions it claims maintain unnecessary coercion and hierarchy, typically including, though not necessarily limited to, governments, nation states, and capitalism. Anarchism advocates for the replacement of the state with stateless societies or other forms of free associations. As a historically left-wing movement, usually placed on the farthest left of the political spectrum, it is usually described alongside communalism and libertarian Marxism as the libertarian wing of the socialist movement.

Individualist anarchism in the United States

Individualist anarchism in the United States

Individualist anarchism in the United States was strongly influenced by Benjamin Tucker, Josiah Warren, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Lysander Spooner, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Max Stirner, Herbert Spencer and Henry David Thoreau. Other important individualist anarchists in the United States were Stephen Pearl Andrews, William Batchelder Greene, Ezra Heywood, M. E. Lazarus, John Beverley Robinson, James L. Walker, Joseph Labadie, Steven Byington and Laurance Labadie.

Anarchism and issues related to love and sex

Anarchism and issues related to love and sex

Major anarchist thinkers generally supported women's equality. Free love advocates sometimes traced their roots back to Josiah Warren and to experimental communities, viewing sexual freedom as an expression of an individual's self-ownership. Free love particularly stressed women's rights. In New York's Greenwich Village, "bohemian" feminists and socialists advocated self-realisation and pleasure for both men and women. In Europe and North America, the free love movement combined ideas revived from utopian socialism with anarchism and feminism to attack the "hypocritical" sexual morality of the Victorian era.

Freethought

Freethought

Freethought is an epistemological viewpoint which holds that beliefs should not be formed on the basis of authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma, and that beliefs should instead be reached by other methods such as logic, reason, and empirical observation. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a freethinker is "a person who forms their own ideas and opinions rather than accepting those of other people, especially in religious teaching." In some contemporary thought in particular, free thought is strongly tied with rejection of traditional social or religious belief systems. The cognitive application of free thought is known as "freethinking", and practitioners of free thought are known as "freethinkers". Modern freethinkers consider free thought to be a natural freedom from all negative and illusive thoughts acquired from society.

List of anarchist periodicals

List of anarchist periodicals

The following is a chronological list of noteworthy anarchist and proto-anarchist periodicals.

Religion

Beginning in 1907 Morton also published a series of articles under "Fragments of a Mental Autobiography" in a journal named Libra[53] which outlines his religious background beginning with Baptist family heritage, goes through Unitarian relatives, and Theosophy exploration,[54] (he was president of the Boston Theosophical Society in 1895)[7] and placing Jesus and the Buddha among those on the highest level of his admiration even if he found fault with all scripture and organized religion.[54] In this period Morton was an avid "evangelist" atheist[10] and often spoke out against religion[55] but he had already encountered the Baháʼí Faith which:

At first, I regarded it with amused interest, as one of many little cults; but gradually I found myself drawn into closer and closer relation with it. There was a wideness in its attitude which I had not found elsewhere. It held place for what was best in Christianity, Judaism, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, Freethought and all the rest, warring with none of these, but finding each of them definitely serviceable to the larger spiritual plan of the universe. It is the great reconciler and harmonizer. I have discovered in it an abiding-place which I had sought in vain for many restless years. It increases, rather than decreases, my eagerness to continue the investigation of truth without bias, and to labor energetically in all branches of human service. I have no fault to find with the differing conclusions of other truth-lovers, and am ready to work with them all as occasion offers.[54] (near 1910)[9]

He became a convert to the religion in later life.[10][56] Morton is visibly in Baháʼí circles from 1915 on the program of presenters at Green Acre,[57] a Baháʼí center of lectures and conferences from about 1912, and got into some debates with a critic of the religion circa 1916.[58] He also served as an alternate delegate from New York to a national convention of the religion in 1918.[59] He received two letters (aka "Tablets") from ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, then head of the religion, in 1919 which were later published in the Baháʼí journal Star of the West.[60] Morton increasingly gave public talks related to the religion from the late 1910s through the 20s and into the 30s[61] and during the same period addressed the topic of Esperanto sometimes as a Baháʼí specifically.[62] He was vice-president of the Esperanto League for North America, and was the lead teacher of that language at the Ferrer Center (a long-running anarchist school) in New York City.[5]

Similarities, parallels and connections

It is worth noting perhaps that other Baháʼís were interested in the single tax movement originated around the ideas of Henry George, and other ideas also in common with the young Morton.[63] Among these were Paul Kingston Dealy and Marie Howland. Both had joined the religion some years earlier around 1897-8. Dealy and Howland had joined the religion in different cities - Chicago, the first national community of Baha'is in the US in the case of Dealy, and Howland in Enterpririse Kansas, the second such in the States. Dealy had also previously run for office under the People's Party circa 1895 but in Chicago. Howland and her husband had also been interested in the ideas of sexual freedom against the norms of the day and the cultural situation of women though Howland's husband soon died. Both Dealy (and his family) and Howland, independently, also moved to commune of sorts although this one was different, at Fairhope, Alabama, circa 1898-9. There Howland established the first library and worked on the first newspaper, another interest of Morton's, of the colony. Another Baháʼí couple - Honoré Jaxon and Aimée Montfort show similar interests as well. Jaxon had been an anarchist a decade before and been involved in another commune of sorts at Topolobampo Mexico, and then joined the religion about 1897 in Chicago shortly before Aimée. They had married and pursued worker's rights involvements though their long term interested turned to Canada.[64][65] It is not known if Morton, Dealy, Howland, Jaxon or Montfort ever knew of each other. Additionally Thornton Chase, called the first Baháʼí in the West, was a student of Morton's grandfather, Rev. Samuel Francis Smith, in his youth.[66]

Discover more about Religion related topics

Unitarianism

Unitarianism

Unitarianism is a Nontrinitarian branch of Christianity. Unitarian Christians affirm the unitary nature of God as the singular and unique creator of the universe, believe that Jesus Christ was inspired by God in his moral teachings and that he is the savior of humankind, but he is not comparable or equal to God himself.

Theosophical Society

Theosophical Society

The Theosophical Society, founded in 1875, is a worldwide body with the aim to advance the ideas of Theosophy in continuation of previous Theosophists, especially the Greek and Alexandrian Neo-Platonic philosophers dating back to 3rd century CE. It also encompasses wider religious philosophies like Vedānta, Mahāyāna, Qabbalah, and Sufism. The Theosophical Society functions as a bridge between East and West, emphasizing the commonality of human culture.

Baháʼí Faith

Baháʼí Faith

The Baháʼí Faith is a religion founded in the 19th century that teaches the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people. Established by Baháʼu'lláh, it initially developed in Iran and parts of the Middle East, where it has faced ongoing persecution since its inception. The religion is estimated to have 5–8 million adherents, known as Baháʼís, spread throughout most of the world's countries and territories.

ʻAbdu'l-Bahá

ʻAbdu'l-Bahá

ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, born ʻAbbás, was the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh and served as head of the Baháʼí Faith from 1892 until 1921. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá was later canonized as the last of three "central figures" of the religion, along with Baháʼu'lláh and the Báb, and his writings and authenticated talks are regarded as sources of Baháʼí sacred literature.

Star of the West

Star of the West

Star of the West was an American merchant steamship that was launched in 1852 and scuttled by Confederate forces in 1863. In January 1861, the ship was hired by the government of the United States to transport military supplies and reinforcements to the U.S. military garrison of Fort Sumter. A battery on Morris Island, South Carolina handled by cadets from the South Carolina Military Academy fired upon the ship, effectively the first shots fired in the American Civil War.

Esperanto

Esperanto

Esperanto is the world's most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. Created by the Warsaw-based ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof in 1887, it was intended to be a universal second language for international communication, or "the international language". Zamenhof first described the language in Dr. Esperanto's International Language, which he published under the pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto. Early adopters of the language liked the name Esperanto and soon used it to describe his language. The word esperanto translates into English as "one who hopes".

Georgism

Georgism

Georgism, also called in modern times Geoism, and known historically as the single tax movement, is an economic ideology holding that, although people should own the value they produce themselves, the economic rent derived from land—including from all natural resources, the commons, and urban locations—should belong equally to all members of society. Developed from the writings of American economist and social reformer Henry George, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to social and ecological problems, based on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice.

Henry George

Henry George

Henry George was an American political economist and journalist. His writing was immensely popular in 19th-century America and sparked several reform movements of the Progressive Era. He inspired the economic philosophy known as Georgism, the belief that people should own the value they produce themselves, but that the economic value of land should belong equally to all members of society. George famously argued that a single tax on land values would create a more productive and just society.

Marie Howland

Marie Howland

Marie Stevens Case Howland was an American feminist writer of the nineteenth century, who was closely associated with the utopian socialist movements of her era.

Topolobampo

Topolobampo

Topolobampo is a port on the Gulf of California in northwestern Sinaloa, Mexico. It is the fourth-largest town in the municipality of Ahome, reporting a 2010 census population of 6,361 inhabitants.

Thornton Chase

Thornton Chase

Thornton Chase was a distinguished officer of the United States Colored Troops during the American Civil War, and the first western convert to the Baháʼí Faith.

Samuel Francis Smith

Samuel Francis Smith

Samuel Francis Smith was an American Baptist minister, journalist, and author. He is best known for having written the lyrics to "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", which he entitled "America".

Writings

  • James Ferdinand Morton. The Philosophy of the Single Tax.
  • Enrico Malatesta; James F. Morton Jr (June 1900). Anarchy, by Enrico Malatesta, and Is it all a dream?. Free Society Library. Vol. 5. San Francisco: A. Isaak. (note Morton's part is just pages 44 to 47.)
  • James Ferdinand Morton (1900). Do You Want Free Speech?. self published.
  • Morton, James F, Jr (1906). The curse of race prejudice. self published.
  • James Ferdinand Morton; John Eleazer Remsburg (1916). Exempting the Churches. The Truth seeker company.

Source: "James Ferdinand Morton Jr.", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Ferdinand_Morton_Jr..

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Further reading
References
  1. ^ a b c d Harvard University (1884). General Catalogue Issue. University. pp. 214, 260, 280, 474, 480, 483, 487, 490.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Lee, O. Ivan (March 1942). "Memorial of James F. Morton" (PDF). American Mineralogist. 27 (3): 200–202. ISSN 0003-004X. Retrieved Nov 2, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c "Dangers of Race prejudice". The New York Times. New York, New York. 22 Jan 1906. p. 7. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Paterson NJ Morning Call of Oct 8, 1941 which was reprinted in Schabrucker, Matilda A. (October 1941). "James F. Morton". Boys' Herald. 71 (1): 1. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d Katz, Esther (1999). "Morton, Jr., James Ferdinand (1870-1941)". The Margaret Sanger Papers Electronic Edition: Margaret Sanger and The Woman Rebel, 1914-1916. Model Editions Partnership. Archived from the original on October 11, 2017. Retrieved Nov 3, 2014.
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b Harvard College (1780- ). Class of 1892 (1896). Secretary's Report. p. 54.
  8. ^ "Young reformers". Boston Post. Boston, Massachusetts. 17 Jun 1891. p. 8. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
  9. ^ a b William C. Ahlhauser (1919). Ex-presidents of the National Amateur Press Association: sketches. W. P. Cook. pp. 55–6.
  10. ^ a b c d e Joshi, S. T.; Schultz, David E., eds. (2001). "Morton, James Ferdinand, Jr. (1870-1941)". An H.P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 172–3. ISBN 978-0-313-31578-7.
  11. ^ Candace Falk (1 April 2008). Emma Goldman: A Documentary History of the American Years Made for America, 1890-1901. University of Illinois Press. p. 393. ISBN 978-0-252-07541-4.
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    • "Gives lecture on free speech". Chicago Daily Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. 11 Dec 1899. p. 2. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
    • "Talk on unionism". The Topeka Daily Capital. Topeka, Kansas. 4 Mar 1900. p. 9. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
    • "Lecture". The Salt Lake Herald. Salt Lake City, Utah. 6 Apr 1900. p. 6. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
    • "Anarchists in a flutter". The Eagle. Bryan, Texas. 25 Oct 1900. p. 1. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
  13. ^
  14. ^ a b c Ernesto A. Longa (2 November 2009). Anarchist Periodicals in English Published in the United States (1833-1955): An Annotated Guide. Scarecrow Press. pp. 6, 18, 20, 40–52, 83–86, 94, 153, 182, 186. ISBN 978-0-8108-7255-4.
  15. ^ Morton is noted in many editions of Free Society - see "James F. Morton, Jr". Radical, Libertarian, Individualist and Anarchist Periodicals: An Index. 4 May 2013. Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  16. ^ "James F. Morton, Jr". The Libertarian Labyrinth. 10 May 2014. Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  17. ^ "Raid on him of anarchists". The San Francisco Call. San Francisco, California. 25 Sep 1901. p. 9. Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  18. ^ Wadland, Justin (March–April 2013). "The Anarchists must go". Believer. 11 (3). Retrieved Nov 7, 2013.
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  21. ^ Morton, James F, Jr (1906). The curse of race prejudice. self published.
  22. ^
    • "Books" (PDF). The Crisis. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 1 (5): 32. March 1911. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
    • "advert (and) Best Books" (PDF). The Crisis. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 4 (5): 214, 259. September 1912. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
    • "Best Books" (PDF). The Crisis. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 5 (5): advert page before index, and 213. March 1913. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
    • "advert" (PDF). The Crisis. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 7 (3): 109. January 1914. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
    • "advert" (PDF). The Crisis. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 19 (6): 325. April 1915. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
    • "advert" (PDF). The Crisis. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 20 (5): 44. May 1918. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
    • "A selected list of Books" (PDF). The Crisis. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 20 (5): advert page before index, and 213. September 1920. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
    • "A selected list of Books" (PDF). The Crisis. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 21 (3): advert page before index. January 1921. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^ "Spring Conference for study of Negro life and history". The New York Age. New York, NY. 8 Apr 1922. p. 1. Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  26. ^ "Single-Taxers again laud Henry George" (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Sep 8, 1912. p. 12 (1st col from top). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  27. ^
  28. ^ Morton, James F., Jr. (July–August 1918). "Report of James F. Morton, Jr.'s Lecture Work". The Single Tax Review. 18 (4): 116. Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^ "James F. Morton Jr., to talk on feminism" (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Nov 20, 1915. p. 3 (8th col bottom). Retrieved Nov 8, 2014.
  33. ^
  34. ^ "All superstitions defied at Thirthee Club dinner". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, New York. 14 Feb 1907. p. 22. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
  35. ^ "Thirteen Club at Brighton". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, New York. 11 Jul 1907. p. 7. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
  36. ^ "Thomas Paine and the Hall of Fame". The New York Times. New York, New York. 21 Sep 1907. p. 26. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
  37. ^
    • "Postal Bureaucracy". The Chronicle-Telegram. Elyria, Ohio. 29 Apr 1908. p. 7. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
    • "Postal Bureaucracy". The Alexandria Times-Tribune. Elwood, Indiana. 26 May 1908. p. 2. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
  38. ^ "Miscellaneous; Before the People's Forum to-morrow ..." (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Mar 6, 1908. p. 3 (3rd col near bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  39. ^ "Freeethought funerals". Blue-Grass Blade. Lexington, Kentucky. 28 Jun 1908. p. 11. Retrieved Nov 6, 2014.
  40. ^ "Memorial Services for T. B. Wakeman" (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. May 3, 1912. p. 6 (6th col below mid). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  41. ^ "Pastors oppose Sunday Baseball; say only foreigners want game" (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Mar 18, 1909. p. 8 (see 3rd col above mid). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  42. ^ "Will lecture on "the Mob Spirit"" (PDF). Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Nov 27, 1909. pp. 10 (4th col below mid). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
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  44. ^ "Lectures; Freethinkers' Society of New York" (PDF). New York Call. New York, NY. Dec 28, 1919. p. 2 (6th col below top). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  45. ^ "Amateur Press Protest". Editor & Publisher. Editor & Publisher Company: 20. September 1923. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^ "(book review) H. P. Lovecraft, Letters to Rheinhart Kleiner, New York: Hippocampus Press, 2005, trade paperback, 298pp. Edited by S. T. Joshi and David E. Schultz" (PDF). The Fossil. Glenview, Illinois: Historians of Amateur Journalism. 101 (4): 11–14. July 2005. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014. ISBN 978-0-9748789-5-9
  49. ^ "(book review) H. P. Lovecraft, Letters from New York, Portland and San Francisco: Night Shade Books, 2005, hardcover, xx+332pp. Edited by S. T. Joshi and David E. Schultz" (PDF). The Fossil. Glenview, Illinois: Historians of Amateur Journalism. 101 (4): 11–14. July 2005. ISBN 1-892389-37-1. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
  50. ^
  51. ^ "Combes praised as an historian" (PDF). The Nassau Daily Review. Long Island, NY. May 8, 1934. pp. 5 (4th col mid). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
  52. ^
  53. ^ Schultz, David E.; Joshi, S. T., eds. (May 3, 2014). Letters to James F. Morton (Kindle ed.). Hippocampus Press. p. Kindle Location 9598. ISBN 978-1-61498-082-7.
  54. ^ a b c Morton Jr, James F. , Jr. (May 3, 2014). "Fragments of a Mental Autobiography"(V)". In Schultz, David E.; Joshi, S. T. (eds.). Letters to James F. Morton (Kindle ed.). Hippocampus Press. p. Kindle Locations 8211–8217, 8225–8227, 8258–8264. ISBN 978-1-61498-082-7.
  55. ^
  56. ^ A Subtler Magick: The Writings and Philosophy of H. P. Lovecraft. Wildside Press LLC. 1 December 1996. p. 240. ISBN 978-1-880448-61-8.
  57. ^ "Program for Green Acre Conferences". The Portsmouth Herald. Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 14 Aug 1915. p. 5. Retrieved Nov 3, 2014.
  58. ^ The debates followed the publication of Richardson, Robert P. (August 1915). "The Persian Revival to Jesus, and his American Disciples". The Open Court. 29 (8): 460–483. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014. - see Richardson, Robert P. (March 1931). "The Rise and Fall of the Parliament of Religions at Greenacre". The Open Court. 45 (3): 129–166. Retrieved Nov 4, 2014.
  59. ^ "Monday Afternoon Session". Star of the West. Chicago, Illinois: Baháʼí News service. 9 (4): 50–53. May 17, 1918. Retrieved Nov 3, 2014.
  60. ^ * ʻAbdu'l-Bahá; Translated by Azizullah S. Bahadur (February 7, 1921). "Tablet to Bahais in American received in 1919 and 1920; James Morton, Jr". Star of the West. Chicago, Illinois: Baháʼí News service. 11 (18): 206. Retrieved Nov 3, 2014.
  61. ^
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  63. ^ Stockman, Robert (1985). The Baha'i Faith in America -. Vol. 1, Origins 1892-1900. Wilmette, Il.: Baha'i Publishing Trust. pp. 8, 86–88, 91–93, 106–108, 188. ISBN 0-87743-199-X.
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