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Iron(III) chloride

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Iron(III) chloride
Iron(III) chloride hexahydrate.jpg
Iron(III) chloride (hydrate)
Iron(III) chloride anhydrate.jpg
Iron(III) chloride (anhydrous)
Iron-trichloride-sheet-3D-polyhedra.png
Iron-trichloride-sheets-stacking-3D-polyhedra.png
Names
IUPAC names
Iron(III) chloride
Iron trichloride
Other names
  • Ferric chloride
  • Molysite
  • Flores martis
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.846 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 231-729-4
RTECS number
  • LJ9100000
UNII
UN number
  • 1773 (anhydrous)
  • 2582 (aqueous solution)
  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Fe/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3 checkY
    Key: RBTARNINKXHZNM-UHFFFAOYSA-K checkY
  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Fe/h3*1H;/q;;;+3/p-3
    Key: RBTARNINKXHZNM-DFZHHIFOAF
  • Key: RBTARNINKXHZNM-UHFFFAOYSA-K
  • Cl[Fe](Cl)Cl
Properties
FeCl3
Molar mass
  • 162.204 g/mol (anhydrous)
  • 270.295 g/mol (hexahydrate)[1]
Appearance Green-black by reflected light; purple-red by transmitted light; yellow solid as hexahydrate; brown as aqueous solution
Odor Slight HCl
Density
  • 2.90 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
  • 1.82 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)[1]
Melting point 307.6 °C (585.7 °F; 580.8 K) (anhydrous)
37 °C (99 °F; 310 K) (hexahydrate)[1]
Boiling point
  • 316 °C (601 °F; 589 K) (anhydrous, decomposes)[1]
  • 280 °C (536 °F; 553 K) (hexahydrate, decomposes)
912 g/L (anhydrous or hexahydrate, 25 °C)[1]
Solubility in
  •  
  • 630 g/L (18 °C)
  • Highly soluble
  • 830 g/L
  • Highly soluble
+13,450·10−6 cm3/mol[2]
Viscosity 12 cP (40% solution)
Structure
Hexagonal, hR24
R3, No. 148[3]
a = 0.6065 nm, b = 0.6065 nm, c = 1.742 nm
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°
6
Octahedral
Hazards[5][6][Note 1]
GHS labelling:
Corr. Met. 1; Skin Corr. 1C; Eye Dam. 1Acute Tox. 4 (oral)
Danger
H290, H302, H314
P234, P260, P264, P270, P273, P280, P301+P312, P301+P330+P331, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P321, P363, P390, P405, P406, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
2
0
0
Flash point Non-flammable
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1 mg/m3[4]
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 1499
Related compounds
Other anions
Other cations
Related coagulants
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Iron(III) chloride hexahydrate
Iron(III) chloride hexahydrate

Iron(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula FeCl3. Also called ferric chloride, it is a common compound of iron in the +3 oxidation state. The anhydrous compound is a crystalline solid with a melting point of 307.6 °C. The colour depends on the viewing angle: by reflected light the crystals appear dark green, but by transmitted light they appear purple-red.

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Iron

Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table. It is, by mass, the most common element on Earth, right in front of oxygen, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust.

Chloride

Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion Cl−. It is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating liquid flow in and out of cells. Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane is an organic compound with a covalent C−Cl bond in which the chlorine is not an anion.

Oxidation state

Oxidation state

In chemistry, the oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical charge of an atom if all of its bonds to different atoms were fully ionic. It describes the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. Conceptually, the oxidation state may be positive, negative or zero. While fully ionic bonds are not found in nature, many bonds exhibit strong ionicity, making oxidation state a useful predictor of charge.

Anhydrous

Anhydrous

A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water. Many processes in chemistry can be impeded by the presence of water; therefore, it is important that water-free reagents and techniques are used. In practice, however, it is very difficult to achieve perfect dryness; anhydrous compounds gradually absorb water from the atmosphere so they must be stored carefully.

Structure and properties

Anhydrous

Anhydrous iron(III) chloride has the BiI3 structure, with octahedral Fe(III) centres interconnected by two-coordinate chloride ligands.[3]

Iron(III) chloride has a relatively low melting point and boils at around 315 °C. The vapor consists of the dimer Fe2Cl6 (like aluminium chloride) which increasingly dissociates into the monomeric FeCl3 (with D3h point group molecular symmetry) at higher temperature, in competition with its reversible decomposition to give iron(II) chloride and chlorine gas.[8]

Hydrates

In addition to the anhydrous material, ferric chloride forms four hydrates. All forms of iron(III) chloride feature two or more chlorides as ligands, and three hydrates feature [FeCl4].[9]

  • dihydrate: FeCl3·2H2O has the structural formula trans-[FeCl2(H2O)4][FeCl4].
  • FeCl3·2.5H2O has the structural formula cis-[FeCl2(H2O)4][FeCl4]·H2O.
  • FeCl3·3.5H2O has the structural formula cis-[FeCl2(H2O)4][FeCl4]·3H2O.
  • hexahydrate: FeCl3·6H2O has the structural formula trans-[FeCl2(H2O)4]Cl·2H2O.[10]

Aqueous solution

Aqueous solutions of ferric chloride are characteristically yellow, in contrast to the pale pink solutions of [Fe(H2O)6]3+. According to spectroscopic measurements, the main species in aqueous solutions of ferric chloride are the octahedral complex [FeCl2(H2O)4]+ (stereochemistry unspecified) and the tetrahedral [FeCl4].[9]

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Bismuth(III) iodide

Bismuth(III) iodide

Bismuth(III) iodide is the inorganic compound with the formula BiI3. This gray-black salt is the product of the reaction of bismuth and iodine, which once was of interest in qualitative inorganic analysis.

Ligand

Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding with the metal generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs, often through Lewis bases. The nature of metal–ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic. Furthermore, the metal–ligand bond order can range from one to three. Ligands are viewed as Lewis bases, although rare cases are known to involve Lewis acidic "ligands".

Dimer (chemistry)

Dimer (chemistry)

A dimer is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular. Dimers also have significant implications in polymer chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and biochemistry.

Aluminium chloride

Aluminium chloride

Aluminium chloride, also known as aluminium trichloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula AlCl3. It forms hexahydrate with the formula [Al(H2O)6]Cl3, containing six water molecules of hydration. Both are colourless crystals, but samples are often contaminated with iron(III) chloride, giving a yellow color.

Symmetry group

Symmetry group

In group theory, the symmetry group of a geometric object is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant, endowed with the group operation of composition. Such a transformation is an invertible mapping of the ambient space which takes the object to itself, and which preserves all the relevant structure of the object. A frequent notation for the symmetry group of an object X is G = Sym(X).

Molecular symmetry

Molecular symmetry

Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of these molecules according to their symmetry. Molecular symmetry is a fundamental concept in chemistry, as it can be used to predict or explain many of a molecule's chemical properties, such as whether or not it has a dipole moment, as well as its allowed spectroscopic transitions. To do this it is necessary to use group theory. This involves classifying the states of the molecule using the irreducible representations from the character table of the symmetry group of the molecule. Symmetry is useful in the study of molecular orbitals, with applications to the Hückel method, to ligand field theory, and to the Woodward-Hoffmann rules. Many university level textbooks on physical chemistry, quantum chemistry, spectroscopy and inorganic chemistry discuss symmetry. Another framework on a larger scale is the use of crystal systems to describe crystallographic symmetry in bulk materials.

Iron(II) chloride

Iron(II) chloride

Iron(II) chloride, also known as ferrous chloride, is the chemical compound of formula FeCl2. It is a paramagnetic solid with a high melting point. The compound is white, but typical samples are often off-white. FeCl2 crystallizes from water as the greenish tetrahydrate, which is the form that is most commonly encountered in commerce and the laboratory. There is also a dihydrate. The compound is highly soluble in water, giving pale green solutions.

Chlorine

Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

Hydrate

Hydrate

In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood.

Preparation

Anhydrous iron(III) chloride may be prepared by treating iron with chlorine:[11]

2 Fe + 3 Cl2 → 2 FeCl3

Solutions of iron(III) chloride are produced industrially both from iron and from ore, in a closed-loop process.

  1. Dissolving iron ore in hydrochloric acid
    Fe3O4 + 8 HCl → FeCl2 + 2 FeCl3 + 4 H2O
  2. Oxidation of iron(II) chloride with chlorine
    2 FeCl2 + Cl2 → 2 FeCl3
  3. Oxidation of iron(II) chloride with oxygen and hydrochloric acid
    4 FeCl2 + O2 + 4 HCl → 4 FeCl3 + 2 H2O

Heating hydrated iron(III) chloride does not yield anhydrous ferric chloride. Instead, the solid decomposes into hydrochloric acid and iron oxychloride. Hydrated iron(III) chloride can be converted to the anhydrous form by treatment with thionyl chloride.[12] Similarly, dehydration can be effected with trimethylsilyl chloride:[13]

FeCl3·6H2O + 12 (CH3)3SiCl → FeCl3 + 6 ((CH3)3Si)2O + 12 HCl

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Iron ore

Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The iron is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe2O3, 69.9% Fe), goethite (FeO(OH), 62.9% Fe), limonite (FeO(OH)·n(H2O), 55% Fe) or siderite (FeCO3, 48.2% Fe).

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride. It is a colorless solution with a distinctive pungent smell. It is classified as a strong acid. It is a component of the gastric acid in the digestive systems of most animal species, including humans. Hydrochloric acid is an important laboratory reagent and industrial chemical.

Iron(II) chloride

Iron(II) chloride

Iron(II) chloride, also known as ferrous chloride, is the chemical compound of formula FeCl2. It is a paramagnetic solid with a high melting point. The compound is white, but typical samples are often off-white. FeCl2 crystallizes from water as the greenish tetrahydrate, which is the form that is most commonly encountered in commerce and the laboratory. There is also a dihydrate. The compound is highly soluble in water, giving pale green solutions.

Chlorine

Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

Oxygen

Oxygen

Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Oxygen is Earth's most abundant element, and after hydrogen and helium, it is the third-most abundant element in the universe. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. Diatomic oxygen gas currently constitutes 20.95% of the Earth's atmosphere, though this has changed considerably over long periods of time. Oxygen makes up almost half of the Earth's crust in the form of oxides.

Iron oxychloride

Iron oxychloride

Iron oxychloride is the inorganic compound with the formula FeOCl. This purple solid adopts a layered structure, akin to that of cadmium chloride. The material slowly hydrolyses in moist air. The solid intercalates electron donors such as tetrathiafulvalene and even pyridine to give mixed valence charge-transfer salts. Intercalation is accompanied by a marked increase in electrical conductivity and a color change to black.

Thionyl chloride

Thionyl chloride

Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2. It is a moderately volatile, colourless liquid with an unpleasant acrid odour. Thionyl chloride is primarily used as a chlorinating reagent, with approximately 45,000 tonnes per year being produced during the early 1990s, but is occasionally also used as a solvent. It is toxic, reacts with water, and is also listed under the Chemical Weapons Convention as it may be used for the production of chemical weapons.

Trimethylsilyl chloride

Trimethylsilyl chloride

Trimethylsilyl chloride, also known as chlorotrimethylsilane is an organosilicon compound (silyl halide), with the formula (CH3)3SiCl, often abbreviated Me3SiCl or TMSCl. It is a colourless volatile liquid that is stable in the absence of water. It is widely used in organic chemistry.

Reactions

A brown, acidic solution of iron(III) chloride
A brown, acidic solution of iron(III) chloride

When dissolved in water, iron(III) chloride give a strongly acidic solution.[14][9]

When heated with iron(III) oxide at 350 °C, iron(III) chloride gives iron oxychloride.[15]

FeCl3 + Fe2O3 → 3FeOCl

The anhydrous salt is a moderately strong Lewis acid, forming adducts with Lewis bases such as triphenylphosphine oxide; e.g., FeCl3(OPPh3)2 where Ph is phenyl. It also reacts with other chloride salts to give the yellow tetrahedral [FeCl4] ion. Salts of [FeCl4] in hydrochloric acid can be extracted into diethyl ether.

Redox reactions

Iron(III) chloride is a mild oxidizing agent, for example, it oxidizes copper(I) chloride to copper(II) chloride.

FeCl3 + CuCl → FeCl2 + CuCl2

In a comproportionation reaction, it reacts with iron to form iron(II) chloride:

2 FeCl3 + Fe → 3 FeCl2

A traditional synthesis of anhydrous ferrous chloride is the reduction of FeCl3 with chlorobenzene:[16]

2 FeCl3 + C6H5Cl → 2 FeCl2 + C6H4Cl2 + HCl

With carboxylate anions

Oxalates react rapidly with aqueous iron(III) chloride to give [Fe(C2O4)3]3−. Other carboxylate salts form complexes; e.g., citrate and tartrate.

With alkali metal alkoxides

Alkali metal alkoxides react to give the metal alkoxide complexes of varying complexity.[17] The compounds can be dimeric or trimeric.[18] In the solid phase a variety of multinuclear complexes have been described for the nominal stoichiometric reaction between FeCl3 and sodium ethoxide:[19][20]

FeCl3 + 3 [CH3CH2O]Na+ → Fe(OCH2CH3)3 + 3 NaCl

With organometallic compounds

Iron(III) chloride in ether solution oxidizes methyl lithium LiCH3 to give first light greenish yellow lithium tetrachloroferrate(III) Li[FeCl4] solution and then, with further addition of methyl lithium, lithium tetrachloroferrate(II) Li2[FeCl4]:[21]

2 FeCl3 + LiCH3 → FeCl2 + Li[FeCl4] + •CH3
Li[FeCl4] + LiCH3 → Li2[FeCl4] + •CH3

The methyl radicals combine with themselves or react with other components to give mostly ethane C2H6 and some methane CH4.

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Iron(III) oxide

Iron(III) oxide

Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron(II) oxide (FeO), which is rare; and iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4), which also occurs naturally as the mineral magnetite. As the mineral known as hematite, Fe2O3 is the main source of iron for the steel industry. Fe2O3 is readily attacked by acids. Iron(III) oxide is often called rust, and to some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition; however, in chemistry, rust is considered an ill-defined material, described as Hydrous ferric oxide.

Iron oxychloride

Iron oxychloride

Iron oxychloride is the inorganic compound with the formula FeOCl. This purple solid adopts a layered structure, akin to that of cadmium chloride. The material slowly hydrolyses in moist air. The solid intercalates electron donors such as tetrathiafulvalene and even pyridine to give mixed valence charge-transfer salts. Intercalation is accompanied by a marked increase in electrical conductivity and a color change to black.

Adduct

Adduct

An adduct is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components. The resultant is considered a distinct molecular species. Examples include the addition of sodium bisulfite to an aldehyde to give a sulfonate. It can just be considered as a single product resulting from the direct combination of different molecules which comprises all the reactant molecules' atoms.

Chloride

Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion Cl−. It is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating liquid flow in and out of cells. Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded. For example, methyl chloride, with the standard name chloromethane is an organic compound with a covalent C−Cl bond in which the chlorine is not an anion.

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride. It is a colorless solution with a distinctive pungent smell. It is classified as a strong acid. It is a component of the gastric acid in the digestive systems of most animal species, including humans. Hydrochloric acid is an important laboratory reagent and industrial chemical.

Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula (C2H5)2O, sometimes abbreviated as Et2O. It is a colourless, highly volatile, sweet-smelling, extremely flammable liquid. It is commonly used as a solvent in laboratories and as a starting fluid for some engines. It was formerly used as a general anesthetic, until non-flammable drugs were developed, such as halothane. It has been used as a recreational drug to cause intoxication.

Copper(I) chloride

Copper(I) chloride

Copper(I) chloride, commonly called cuprous chloride, is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. The substance is a white solid sparingly soluble in water, but very soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Impure samples appear green due to the presence of copper(II) chloride (CuCl2).

Copper(II) chloride

Copper(II) chloride

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. The anhydrous form is yellowish brown but slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.

Chlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. This colorless, flammable liquid is a common solvent and a widely used intermediate in the manufacture of other chemicals.

Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid is an organic acid with the systematic name ethanedioic acid and formula HO2C−CO2H. It is the simplest dicarboxylic acid. It is a white crystalline solid that forms a colorless solution in water. Its name comes from the fact that early investigators isolated oxalic acid from flowering plants of the genus Oxalis, commonly known as wood-sorrels. It occurs naturally in many foods. Excessive ingestion of oxalic acid or prolonged skin contact can be dangerous.

Carboxylate

Carboxylate

In organic chemistry, a carboxylate is the conjugate base of a carboxylic acid, RCOO−. It is an ion with negative charge.

Citric acid

Citric acid

Citric acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula HOC(CO2H)(CH2CO2H)2. It is a colorless weak organic acid. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.

Uses

Industrial

Iron(III) chloride is used in sewage treatment and drinking water production as a coagulant and flocculant.[22] In this application, FeCl3 in slightly basic water reacts with the hydroxide ion (OH) to form a floc of iron(III) hydroxide (Fe(OH)3), also formulated as FeO(OH) (ferrihydrite), that can remove suspended materials.

[Fe(H2O)6]3+ + 4 OH → [Fe(OH)4(H2O)2] + 4 H2O → [FeO(OH)2(H2O)] + 6 H2O

It is also used as a leaching agent in chloride hydrometallurgy,[23] for example in the production of Si from FeSi (Silgrain process by Elkem).[24]

Another important application of iron(III) chloride is etching copper in two-step redox reaction to copper(I) chloride and then to copper(II) chloride in the production of printed circuit boards (PCB).[25]

FeCl3 + Cu → FeCl2 + CuCl
FeCl3 + CuCl → FeCl2 + CuCl2

Iron(III) chloride is used as catalyst for the reaction of ethylene with chlorine, forming ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane), an important commodity chemical, which is mainly used for the industrial production of vinyl chloride, the monomer for making PVC.

H2C=CH2 + Cl2 → ClCH2CH2Cl

Laboratory use

In the laboratory iron(III) chloride is commonly employed as a Lewis acid for catalysing reactions such as chlorination of aromatic compounds and Friedel–Crafts reaction of aromatics. It is less powerful than aluminium chloride, but in some cases this mildness leads to higher yields, for example in the alkylation of benzene:

Iron(III) chloride as a catalyst

The ferric chloride test is a traditional colorimetric test for phenols, which uses a 1% iron(III) chloride solution that has been neutralized with sodium hydroxide until a slight precipitate of FeO(OH) is formed.[26] The mixture is filtered before use. The organic substance is dissolved in water, methanol or ethanol, then the neutralized iron(III) chloride solution is added—a transient or permanent coloration (usually purple, green or blue) indicates the presence of a phenol or enol.

This reaction is exploited in the Trinder spot test, which is used to indicate the presence of salicylates, particularly salicylic acid, which contains a phenolic OH group.

This test can be used to detect the presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and gamma-butyrolactone,[27] which cause it to turn red-brown.

Other uses

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Hydroxide

Hydroxide

Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a single covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile, and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions. Sodium hydroxide is a multi-million-ton per annum commodity chemical. The corresponding electrically neutral compound HO• is the hydroxyl radical. The corresponding covalently bound group –OH of atoms is the hydroxy group. Both the hydroxide ion and hydroxy group are nucleophiles and can act as catalysts in organic chemistry.

Flocculation

Flocculation

Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process by which colloidal particles come out of suspension to sediment under the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent. The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely suspended, under the form of a stable dispersion and are not truly dissolved in solution.

Ferrihydrite

Ferrihydrite

Ferrihydrite (Fh) is a widespread hydrous ferric oxyhydroxide mineral at the Earth's surface, and a likely constituent in extraterrestrial materials. It forms in several types of environments, from freshwater to marine systems, aquifers to hydrothermal hot springs and scales, soils, and areas affected by mining. It can be precipitated directly from oxygenated iron-rich aqueous solutions, or by bacteria either as a result of a metabolic activity or passive sorption of dissolved iron followed by nucleation reactions. Ferrihydrite also occurs in the core of the ferritin protein from many living organisms, for the purpose of intra-cellular iron storage.

Leaching (chemistry)

Leaching (chemistry)

Leaching is the process of a solute becoming detached or extracted from its carrier substance by way of a solvent.

Elkem

Elkem

Elkem is a company that produces silicones, silicon, alloys for the foundry industry, carbon and microsilica, and other materials. Elkem was founded in 1904, has more than 7,000 employees and fields 30 production sites worldwide. Elkem has an operating income of NOK 33.7 billion. Elkem is responsible for a total of 2.52 million tonnes of scope 1 emissions in 2021. Elkem is listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange.

Copper

Copper

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.

Copper(I) chloride

Copper(I) chloride

Copper(I) chloride, commonly called cuprous chloride, is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. The substance is a white solid sparingly soluble in water, but very soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Impure samples appear green due to the presence of copper(II) chloride (CuCl2).

Copper(II) chloride

Copper(II) chloride

Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. The anhydrous form is yellowish brown but slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.

Ethylene

Ethylene

Ethylene is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C2H4 or H2C=CH2. It is a colourless, flammable gas with a faint "sweet and musky" odour when pure. It is the simplest alkene.

Chlorine

Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

Commodity chemicals

Commodity chemicals

Commodity chemicals are a group of chemicals that are made on a very large scale to satisfy global markets. The average prices of commodity chemicals are regularly published in the chemical trade magazines and web sites such as Chemical Week and ICIS. There have been several studies of the scale and complexity of this market for example in the USA.

Monomer

Monomer

In chemistry, a monomer is a molecule that can react together with other monomer molecules to form a larger polymer chain or three-dimensional network in a process called polymerization.

Safety

Iron(III) chloride is harmful, highly corrosive and acidic. The anhydrous material is a powerful dehydrating agent.

Although reports of poisoning in humans are rare, ingestion of ferric chloride can result in serious morbidity and mortality. Inappropriate labeling and storage lead to accidental swallowing or misdiagnosis. Early diagnosis is important, especially in seriously poisoned patients.

Natural occurrence

The natural counterpart of FeCl3 is the rare mineral molysite, usually related to volcanic and other-type fumaroles.[34][35]

FeCl3 is also produced as an atmospheric salt aerosol by reaction between iron-rich dust and hydrochloric acid from sea salt. This iron salt aerosol causes about 5% of naturally-occurring oxidization of methane and is thought to have a range of cooling effects.[36]

The atmosphere of the planet Venus is approximately 1% FeCl3.[37][38]

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Fumarole

Fumarole

A fumarole is a vent in the surface of the Earth or other rocky planet from which hot volcanic gases and vapors are emitted, without any accompanying liquids or solids. Fumaroles are characteristic of the late stages of volcanic activity, but fumarole activity can also precede a volcanic eruption and has been used for eruption prediction. Most fumaroles die down within a few days or weeks of the end of an eruption, but a few are persistent, lasting for decades or longer. An area containing fumaroles is known as a fumarole field.

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride. It is a colorless solution with a distinctive pungent smell. It is classified as a strong acid. It is a component of the gastric acid in the digestive systems of most animal species, including humans. Hydrochloric acid is an important laboratory reagent and industrial chemical.

Methane

Methane

Methane ( MEH-thayn, MEE-thayn) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one carbon atom bonded to four hydrogen atoms). It is a group-14 hydride, the simplest alkane, and the main constituent of natural gas. The relative abundance of methane on Earth makes it an economically attractive fuel, although capturing and storing it poses technical challenges due to its gaseous state under normal conditions for temperature and pressure.

Venus

Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is sometimes called Earth's "sister" or "twin" planet as it is almost as large and has a similar composition. As an interior planet to Earth, Venus appears in Earth's sky never far from the Sun, either as morning star or evening star. Aside from the Sun and Moon, Venus is the brightest natural object in Earth's sky, capable of casting visible shadows on Earth at dark conditions and being visible to the naked eye in broad daylight.

Source: "Iron(III) chloride", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron(III)_chloride.

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Notes
  1. ^ An alternative GHS classification from the Japanese GHS Inter-ministerial Committee (2006)[7] notes the possibility of respiratory tract irritation from FeCl3 and differs slightly in other respects from the classification used here.
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Further reading
  1. Lide DR, ed. (1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (71st ed.). Ann Arbor, MI, USA: CRC Press. ISBN 9780849304712.
  2. Stecher PG, Finkel MJ, Siegmund OH, eds. (1960). The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs (7th ed.). Rahway, NJ, USA: Merck & Co.
  3. Nicholls D (1974). Complexes and First-Row Transition Elements, Macmillan Press, London, 1973. A Macmillan chemistry text. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9780333170885.
  4. Wells AF (1984). Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford science publications (5th ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198553700.
  5. March J (1992). Advanced Organic Chemistry (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 723. ISBN 9780471581482.
  6. Reich HJ, Rigby HJ, eds. (1999). Acidic and Basic Reagents. Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 9780471979258.

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