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Iron(II) sulfate

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Iron(II) sulfate
Skeletal formula of iron(II) sulfate
Iron(II) sulfate when dissolved in water
Structure of iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
Sample of iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
Names
IUPAC name
Iron(II) sulfate
Other names
Iron(II) sulphate; Ferrous sulfate, Green vitriol, Iron vitriol, Ferrous vitriol, Copperas, Melanterite, Szomolnokite,
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.867 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • anhydrous: 231-753-5
RTECS number
  • anhydrous: NO8500000 (anhydrous)
    NO8510000 (heptahydrate)
UNII
UN number 3077
  • InChI=1S/Fe.H2O4S/c;1-5(2,3)4/h;(H2,1,2,3,4)/q+2;/p-2 checkY
    Key: BAUYGSIQEAFULO-UHFFFAOYSA-L checkY
  • anhydrous: InChI=1/Fe.H2O4S/c;1-5(2,3)4/h;(H2,1,2,3,4)/q+2;/p-2
    Key: BAUYGSIQEAFULO-NUQVWONBAS
  • anhydrous: [O-]S(=O)(=O)[O-].[Fe+2]
Properties
FeSO4
Molar mass 151.91 g/mol (anhydrous)
169.93 g/mol (monohydrate)
241.99 g/mol (pentahydrate)
260.00 g/mol (hexahydrate)
278.02 g/mol (heptahydrate)
Appearance White crystals (anhydrous)
White-yellow crystals (monohydrate)
Blue-green crystals (heptahydrate)
Odor Odorless
Density 3.65 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
3 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
2.15 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)[1]
1.934 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)[2]
1.895 g/cm3 (heptahydrate)[3]
Melting point 680 °C (1,256 °F; 953 K)
(anhydrous) decomposes[5]
300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)
(monohydrate) decomposes
60–64 °C (140–147 °F; 333–337 K)
(heptahydrate) decomposes[3][10]
Monohydrate:
44.69 g/100 mL (77 °C)
35.97 g/100 mL (90.1 °C)
Heptahydrate:
15.65 g/100 mL (0 °C)
19.986 g/100 mL (10 °C)
29.51 g/100 mL (25 °C)
39.89 g/100 mL (40.1 °C)
51.35 g/100 mL (54 °C)[4]
Solubility Negligible in alcohol
Solubility in ethylene glycol 6.38 g/100 g (20 °C)[5]
Vapor pressure 1.95 kPa (heptahydrate)[6]
1.24×10−2 cm3/mol (anhydrous)
1.05×10−2 cm3/mol (monohydrate)
1.12×10−2 cm3/mol (heptahydrate)[3]
+10200×10−6 cm3/mol
1.591 (monohydrate)[7]
1.526–1.528 (21 °C, tetrahydrate)[8]
1.513–1.515 (pentahydrate)[1]
1.468 (hexahydrate)[2]
1.471 (heptahydrate)[9]
Structure
Orthorhombic, oP24 (anhydrous)[11]
Monoclinic, mS36 (monohydrate)[7]
Monoclinic, mP72 (tetrahydrate)[8]
Triclinic, aP42 (pentahydrate)[1]
Monoclinic, mS192 (hexahydrate)[2]
Monoclinic, mP108 (heptahydrate)[3][9]
Pnma, No. 62 (anhydrous) [11]
C2/c, No. 15 (monohydrate, hexahydrate)[2][7]
P21/n, No. 14 (tetrahydrate)[8]
P1, No. 2 (pentahydrate)[1]
P21/c, No. 14 (heptahydrate)[9]
2/m 2/m 2/m (anhydrous)[11]
2/m (monohydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate, heptahydrate)[2][7][8][9]
1 (pentahydrate)[1]
a = 8.704(2) Å, b = 6.801(3) Å, c = 4.786(8) Å (293 K, anhydrous)[11]
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 90°
Octahedral (Fe2+)
Thermochemistry
100.6 J/mol·K (anhydrous)[3]
394.5 J/mol·K (heptahydrate)[12]
107.5 J/mol·K (anhydrous)[3]
409.1 J/mol·K (heptahydrate)[12]
−928.4 kJ/mol (anhydrous)[3]
−3016 kJ/mol (heptahydrate)[12]
−820.8 kJ/mol (anhydrous)[3]
−2512 kJ/mol (heptahydrate)[12]
Pharmacology
B03AA07 (WHO)
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS07: Exclamation mark[6]
Warning
H302, H315, H319[6]
P305+P351+P338[6]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
237 mg/kg (rat, oral)[10]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1 mg/m3[13]
Related compounds
Other cations
Cobalt(II) sulfate
Copper(II) sulfate
Manganese(II) sulfate
Nickel(II) sulfate
Related compounds
Iron(III) sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula Fe SO4·xH2O. These compounds exist most commonly as the heptahydrate (x = 7) but several values for x are known. The hydrated form is used medically to treat iron deficiency, and also for industrial applications. Known since ancient times as copperas and as green vitriol (vitriol is an archaic name for sulfate), the blue-green heptahydrate (hydrate with 7 molecules of water) is the most common form of this material. All the iron(II) sulfates dissolve in water to give the same aquo complex [Fe(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry and is paramagnetic. The name copperas dates from times when the copper(II) sulfate was known as blue copperas, and perhaps in analogy, iron(II) and zinc sulfate were known respectively as green and white copperas.[15]

It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[16] In 2020, it was the 116th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 5 million prescriptions.[17][18]

Discover more about Iron(II) sulfate related topics

British English

British English

British English (BrE) is, according to Oxford Dictionaries, "English as used in Great Britain, as distinct from that used elsewhere". More narrowly, it can refer specifically to the English language in England, or, more broadly, to the collective dialects of English throughout the British Isles taken as a single umbrella variety, for instance additionally incorporating Scottish English, Welsh English, and Northern Irish English. Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English acknowledges that British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions [with] the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

Salt (chemistry)

Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is a chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, which results in a compound with no net electric charge. A common example is table salt, with positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions.

Iron

Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table. It is, by mass, the most common element on Earth, right in front of oxygen, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust.

Sulfate

Sulfate

The sulfate or sulphate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO2−4. Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid.

Hydrate

Hydrate

In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood.

Iron deficiency

Iron deficiency

Iron deficiency, or sideropenia, is the state in which a body lacks enough iron to supply its needs. Iron is present in all cells in the human body and has several vital functions, such as carrying oxygen to the tissues from the lungs as a key component of the hemoglobin protein, acting as a transport medium for electrons within the cells in the form of cytochromes, and facilitating oxygen enzyme reactions in various tissues. Too little iron can interfere with these vital functions and lead to morbidity and death.

Metal aquo complex

Metal aquo complex

In chemistry, metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand. These complexes are the predominant species in aqueous solutions of many metal salts, such as metal nitrates, sulfates, and perchlorates. They have the general stoichiometry [M(H2O)n]z+. Their behavior underpins many aspects of environmental, biological, and industrial chemistry. This article focuses on complexes where water is the only ligand, but of course many complexes are known to consist of a mix of aquo and other ligands.

Octahedral molecular geometry

Octahedral molecular geometry

In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry, also called square bipyramidal, describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands symmetrically arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of an octahedron. The octahedron has eight faces, hence the prefix octa. The octahedron is one of the Platonic solids, although octahedral molecules typically have an atom in their centre and no bonds between the ligand atoms. A perfect octahedron belongs to the point group Oh. Examples of octahedral compounds are sulfur hexafluoride SF6 and molybdenum hexacarbonyl Mo(CO)6. The term "octahedral" is used somewhat loosely by chemists, focusing on the geometry of the bonds to the central atom and not considering differences among the ligands themselves. For example, [Co(NH3)6]3+, which is not octahedral in the mathematical sense due to the orientation of the N−H bonds, is referred to as octahedral.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system. The list is frequently used by countries to help develop their own local lists of essential medicines. As of 2016, more than 155 countries have created national lists of essential medicines based on the World Health Organization's model list. This includes both developed and developing countries.

Uses

Industrially, ferrous sulfate is mainly used as a precursor to other iron compounds. It is a reducing agent, and as such is useful for the reduction of chromate in cement to less toxic Cr(III) compounds. Historically ferrous sulfate was used in the textile industry for centuries as a dye fixative. It is used historically to blacken leather and as a constituent of iron gall ink.[19] The preparation of sulfuric acid ('oil of vitriol') by the distillation of green vitriol (Iron(II) sulfate) has been known for at least 700 years.

Medical use

Plant growth

Iron(II) sulfate is sold as ferrous sulfate, a soil amendment[20] for lowering the pH of a high alkaline soil so that plants can access the soil's nutrients.[21]

In horticulture it is used for treating iron chlorosis.[22] Although not as rapid-acting as ferric EDTA, its effects are longer-lasting. It can be mixed with compost and dug into the soil to create a store which can last for years.[23] Ferrous sulfate can be used as a lawn conditioner.[23] It can also be used to eliminate silvery thread moss in golf course putting greens.[24]

Pigment and craft

Ferrous sulfate can be used to stain concrete and some limestones and sandstones a yellowish rust color.[25]

Woodworkers use ferrous sulfate solutions to color maple wood a silvery hue.

Green vitriol is also a useful reagent in the identification of mushrooms.[26]

Historical uses

Ferrous sulfate was used in the manufacture of inks, most notably iron gall ink, which was used from the middle ages until the end of the 18th century. Chemical tests made on the Lachish letters (c. 588–586 BCE) showed the possible presence of iron.[27] It is thought that oak galls and copperas may have been used in making the ink on those letters.[28] It also finds use in wool dyeing as a mordant. Harewood, a material used in marquetry and parquetry since the 17th century, is also made using ferrous sulfate.

Two different methods for the direct application of indigo dye were developed in England in the 18th century and remained in use well into the 19th century. One of these, known as china blue, involved iron(II) sulfate. After printing an insoluble form of indigo onto the fabric, the indigo was reduced to leuco-indigo in a sequence of baths of ferrous sulfate (with reoxidation to indigo in air between immersions). The china blue process could make sharp designs, but it could not produce the dark hues of other methods.

In the second half of the 1850s ferrous sulfate was used as a photographic developer for collodion process images.[29]

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Cement

Cement

A cement is a binder, a chemical substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel (aggregate) together. Cement mixed with fine aggregate produces mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel, produces concrete. Concrete is the most widely used material in existence and is behind only water as the planet's most-consumed resource.

Iron gall ink

Iron gall ink

Iron gall ink is a purple-black or brown-black ink made from iron salts and tannic acids from vegetable sources. It was the standard ink formulation used in Europe for the 1400-year period between the 5th and 19th centuries, remained in widespread use well into the 20th century, and is still sold today.

Iron supplement

Iron supplement

Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia. For prevention they are only recommended in those with poor absorption, heavy menstrual periods, pregnancy, hemodialysis, or a diet low in iron. Prevention may also be used in low birth weight babies. They are taken by mouth, injection into a vein, or injection into a muscle. While benefits may be seen in days, up to two months may be required until iron levels return to normal.

Horticulture

Horticulture

Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of plant cultivation. It includes the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and ornamental trees and plants. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture, ornamental trees and lawns.

Chlorosis

Chlorosis

In botany, chlorosis is a condition in which leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll. As chlorophyll is responsible for the green color of leaves, chlorotic leaves are pale, yellow, or yellow-white. The affected plant has little or no ability to manufacture carbohydrates through photosynthesis and may die unless the cause of its chlorophyll insufficiency is treated and this may lead to a plant diseases called rusts, although some chlorotic plants, such as the albino Arabidopsis thaliana mutant ppi2, are viable if supplied with exogenous sucrose.

Ferric EDTA

Ferric EDTA

Ferric EDTA is the coordination complex formed from ferric ions and EDTA. EDTA has a high affinity for ferric ions. It is a yellow solid that gives yellowish aqueous solutions.

Lawn

Lawn

A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses and other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes. Lawns are usually composed only of grass species, subject to weed and pest control, maintained in a green color, and are regularly mowed to ensure an acceptable length. Lawns are used around houses, apartments, commercial buildings and offices. Many city parks also have large lawn areas. In recreational contexts, the specialised names turf, pitch, field or green may be used, depending on the sport and the continent.

Bryum argenteum

Bryum argenteum

Bryum argenteum, the silvergreen bryum moss or silvery thread moss, is a species of moss in the family Bryaceae. It is one of the most common mosses of urban areas and can be easily recognized without a microscope.

Maple

Maple

Acer is a genus of trees and shrubs commonly known as maples. The genus is placed in the family Sapindaceae. There are approximately 132 species, most of which are native to Asia, with a number also appearing in Europe, northern Africa, and North America. Only one species, Acer laurinum, extends to the Southern Hemisphere. The type species of the genus is the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, the most common maple species in Europe. Maples usually have easily recognizable palmate leaves and distinctive winged fruits. The closest relatives of the maples are the horse chestnuts. Maple syrup is made from the sap of some maple species. It is one of the most common genera of trees in Asia.

Ink

Ink

Ink is a gel, sol, or solution that contains at least one colorant, such as a dye or pigment, and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing or writing with a pen, brush, reed pen, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letterpress and lithographic printing.

Lachish letters

Lachish letters

The Lachish Letters or Lachish Ostraca, sometimes called Hoshaiah Letters, are a series of letters written in carbon ink containing Canaanite inscriptions in Aramaic on clay ostraca. The letters were discovered at the excavations at Lachish.

Dye

Dye

A dye is a colored substance that chemically bonds to the substrate to which it is being applied. This distinguishes dyes from pigments which do not chemically bind to the material they color. Dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.

Hydrates

Iron(II) sulfate can be found in various states of hydration, and several of these forms exist in nature or were created synthetically.

Anhydrous iron(II) sulfate
Anhydrous iron(II) sulfate

The tetrahydrate is stabilized when the temperature of aqueous solutions reaches 56.6 °C (133.9 °F). At 64.8 °C (148.6 °F) these solutions form both the tetrahydrate and monohydrate.[4]

Mineral forms are found in oxidation zones of iron-bearing ore beds, e.g. pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, etc. They are also found in related environments, like coal fire sites. Many rapidly dehydrate and sometimes oxidize. Numerous other, more complex (either basic, hydrated, and/or containing additional cations) Fe(II)-bearing sulfates exist in such environments, with copiapite being a common example.[38]

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Hydrate

Hydrate

In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood.

Szomolnokite

Szomolnokite

Szomolnokite (Fe2+SO4·H2O) is a monoclinic iron sulfate mineral forming a complete solid solution with magnesium end-member kieserite (MgSO4·H2O). In 1877 szomolnokite's name was derived by Joseph Krenner from its type locality of oxidized sulfide ore containing iron in Szomolnok, Slovakia (Hungary at the time).

Monoclinic crystal system

Monoclinic crystal system

In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the seven crystal systems. A crystal system is described by three vectors. In the monoclinic system, the crystal is described by vectors of unequal lengths, as in the orthorhombic system. They form a parallelogram prism. Hence two pairs of vectors are perpendicular, while the third pair makes an angle other than 90°.

Triclinic crystal system

Triclinic crystal system

In crystallography, the triclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. A crystal system is described by three basis vectors. In the triclinic system, the crystal is described by vectors of unequal length, as in the orthorhombic system. In addition, the angles between these vectors must all be different and may not include 90°.

Rozenite

Rozenite

Rozenite is a hydrous iron sulfate mineral, Fe2+SO4•4(H2O).

Siderotil

Siderotil

Siderotil is an iron(II) sulfate hydrate mineral with formula: FeSO4·5H2O which forms by the dehydration of melanterite. Copper commonly occurs substituting for iron in the structure. It typically occurs as fibrous or powdery encrustations, but may also occur as acicular triclinic crystals.

Melanterite

Melanterite

Melanterite is a mineral form of hydrous iron(II) sulfate: FeSO4·7H2O. It is the iron analogue of the copper sulfate chalcanthite. It alters to siderotil by loss of water. It is a secondary sulfate mineral which forms from the oxidation of primary sulfide minerals such as pyrite and marcasite in the near-surface environment. It often occurs as a post mine encrustation on old underground mine surfaces. It also occurs in coal and lignite seams exposed to humid air and as a rare sublimate phase around volcanic fumaroles. Associated minerals include pisanite, chalcanthite, epsomite, pickeringite, halotrichite and other sulfate minerals.

Pyrite

Pyrite

The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron (II) disulfide). Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral.

Marcasite

Marcasite

The mineral marcasite, sometimes called “white iron pyrite”, is iron sulfide (FeS2) with orthorhombic crystal structure. It is physically and crystallographically distinct from pyrite, which is iron sulfide with cubic crystal structure. Both structures do have in common that they contain the disulfide S22− ion, having a short bonding distance between the sulfur atoms. The structures differ in how these di-anions are arranged around the Fe2+ cations. Marcasite is lighter and more brittle than pyrite. Specimens of marcasite often crumble and break up due to the unstable crystal structure.

Chalcopyrite

Chalcopyrite

Chalcopyrite ( KAL-kə-PY-ryte, -⁠koh-) is a copper iron sulfide mineral and the most abundant copper ore mineral. It has the chemical formula CuFeS2 and crystallizes in the tetragonal system. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Its streak is diagnostic as green-tinged black.

Copiapite

Copiapite

Copiapite is a hydrated iron sulfate mineral with formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2·20(H2O). Copiapite can also refer to a mineral group, the copiapite group.

Production and reactions

In the finishing of steel prior to plating or coating, the steel sheet or rod is passed through pickling baths of sulfuric acid. This treatment produces large quantities of iron(II) sulfate as a by-product.[39]

Fe + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2

Another source of large amounts results from the production of titanium dioxide from ilmenite via the sulfate process.

Ferrous sulfate is also prepared commercially by oxidation of pyrite:[40]

2 FeS2 + 7 O2 + 2 H2O → 2 FeSO4 + 2 H2SO4

It can be produced by displacement of metals less reactive than Iron from solutions of their sulfate:

CuSO4 + Fe → FeSO4 + Cu

Reactions

Iron(II) sulfate outside a titanium dioxide factory in Kaanaa, Pori, Finland.
Iron(II) sulfate outside a titanium dioxide factory in Kaanaa, Pori, Finland.

Upon dissolving in water, ferrous sulfates form the metal aquo complex [Fe(H2O)6]2+, which is an almost colorless, paramagnetic ion.

On heating, iron(II) sulfate first loses its water of crystallization and the original green crystals are converted into a white anhydrous solid. When further heated, the anhydrous material decomposes into sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide, leaving a reddish-brown iron(III) oxide. Thermolysis of iron(II) sulfate begins at about 680 °C (1,256 °F).

Like other iron(II) salts, iron(II) sulfate is a reducing agent. For example, it reduces nitric acid to nitrogen monoxide and chlorine to chloride:

6 FeSO4 + 3 H2SO4 + 2 HNO3 → 3 Fe2(SO4)3 + 4 H2O + 2 NO
6 FeSO4 + 3 Cl2 → 2 Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 FeCl3

Its mild reducing power is of value in organic synthesis.[41] It is used as the iron catalyst component of Fenton's reagent.

Ferrous sulfate can be detected by the cerimetric method, which is the official method of the Indian Pharmacopoeia. This method includes the use of ferroin solution showing a red to light green colour change during titration.[42]

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Steel

Steel

Steel is an alloy made up of iron with added carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to other forms of iron. Many other elements may be present or added. Stainless steels that are corrosion- and oxidation-resistant typically need an additional 11% chromium. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, steel is used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, trains, cars, machines, electrical appliances, weapons, and rockets. Iron is the base metal of steel. Depending on the temperature, it can take two crystalline forms : body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic. The interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties.

Pickling (metal)

Pickling (metal)

Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, and rust or scale from ferrous metals, copper, precious metals and aluminum alloys. A solution called pickle liquor, which usually contains acid, is used to remove the surface impurities. It is commonly used to descale or clean steel in various steelmaking processes.

Ilmenite

Ilmenite

Ilmenite is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula FeTiO3. It is a weakly magnetic black or steel-gray solid. Ilmenite is the most important ore of titanium and the main source of titanium dioxide, which is used in paints, printing inks, fabrics, plastics, paper, sunscreen, food and cosmetics.

Pyrite

Pyrite

The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron (II) disulfide). Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral.

Iron

Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table. It is, by mass, the most common element on Earth, right in front of oxygen, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust.

Pori

Pori

Pori is a city and municipality on the west coast of Finland. The city is located some 10 kilometres (6 mi) from the Gulf of Bothnia, on the estuary of the Kokemäki River, 110 kilometres (68 mi) west of Tampere, 140 kilometres (87 mi) north of Turku and 241 kilometres (150 mi) north-west of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Pori was established in 1558 by Duke John, who later became King John III of Sweden.

Metal aquo complex

Metal aquo complex

In chemistry, metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand. These complexes are the predominant species in aqueous solutions of many metal salts, such as metal nitrates, sulfates, and perchlorates. They have the general stoichiometry [M(H2O)n]z+. Their behavior underpins many aspects of environmental, biological, and industrial chemistry. This article focuses on complexes where water is the only ligand, but of course many complexes are known to consist of a mix of aquo and other ligands.

Anhydrous

Anhydrous

A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water. Many processes in chemistry can be impeded by the presence of water; therefore, it is important that water-free reagents and techniques are used. In practice, however, it is very difficult to achieve perfect dryness; anhydrous compounds gradually absorb water from the atmosphere so they must be stored carefully.

Chemical decomposition

Chemical decomposition

Chemical decomposition, or chemical breakdown, is the process or effect of simplifying a single chemical entity into two or more fragments. Chemical decomposition is usually regarded and defined as the exact opposite of chemical synthesis. In short, the chemical reaction in which two or more products are formed from a single reactant is called a decomposition reaction.

Iron(III) oxide

Iron(III) oxide

Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron(II) oxide (FeO), which is rare; and iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4), which also occurs naturally as the mineral magnetite. As the mineral known as hematite, Fe2O3 is the main source of iron for the steel industry. Fe2O3 is readily attacked by acids. Iron(III) oxide is often called rust, and to some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition; however, in chemistry, rust is considered an ill-defined material, described as Hydrous ferric oxide.

Nitric acid

Nitric acid

Nitric acid is the inorganic compound with the formula HNO3. It is a highly corrosive mineral acid. The compound is colorless, but older samples tend to be yellow cast due to decomposition into oxides of nitrogen. Most commercially available nitric acid has a concentration of 68% in water. When the solution contains more than 86% HNO3, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present, fuming nitric acid is further characterized as red fuming nitric acid at concentrations above 86%, or white fuming nitric acid at concentrations above 95%.

Chlorine

Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the revised Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

Source: "Iron(II) sulfate", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron(II)_sulfate.

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See also
References
  1. ^ a b c d e f "Siderotil Mineral Data". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Ferrohexahydrite Mineral Data". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0.
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