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Interstate 5

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Interstate 5 marker

Interstate 5

I-5 highlighted in red
Route information
Length1,381.29 mi[1] (2,222.97 km)
Existed1956–present
HistoryCompleted in 1979
Major junctions
South end Fed. 1 at the Mexican border at San Diego, CA
Major intersections
North end Hwy 99 at the Canadian border at Blaine, WA
Location
CountryUnited States
StatesCalifornia, Oregon, Washington
Highway system

Interstate 5 (I-5) is the main north–south Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running largely parallel to the Pacific coast of the contiguous U.S. from Mexico to Canada. It travels through the states of California, Oregon, and Washington, serving several large cities on the U.S. West Coast, including San Diego, Los Angeles, Sacramento, Portland, and Seattle. It is the only continuous Interstate highway to touch both the Mexican and the Canadian borders. Upon crossing the Mexican border at its southern terminus, I-5 continues to Tijuana, Baja California, as Mexico Federal Highway 1 (Fed. 1). Upon crossing the Canadian border at its northern terminus, it continues to Vancouver as British Columbia Highway 99 (BC 99).

I-5 was originally created in 1956 as part of the Interstate Highway System, but it was predated by several auto trails and highways built in the early 20th century. The Pacific Highway auto trail was built in the 1910s and 1920s by the states of California, Oregon, and Washington, and was later incorporated into U.S. Route 99 (US 99) in 1926. I-5 largely follows the route of US 99, with the exception of portions south of Los Angeles and in the Central Valley of California. The freeway was built in segments between 1956 and 1978, including expressway sections of US 99 that were built earlier to bypass various towns along the route. US 99 was removed in 1972.

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Interstate Highway System

Interstate Highway System

The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States. The system extends throughout the contiguous United States and has routes in Hawaii, Alaska, and Puerto Rico.

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federal republic comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital. Other major urban areas include Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.

Canada

Canada

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest binational land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay areas are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Oregon

Oregon

Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon is a part of the Western United States, with the Columbia River delineating much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho. The 42° north parallel delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada. The western boundary is formed by the Pacific Ocean.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, often referred to by its initials L.A., is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Southern California. Los Angeles is the largest city in the state of California, the second most populous city in the United States after New York City, and one of the world's most populous megacities. With a population of roughly 3.9 million residents within the city limits as of 2020, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic and cultural diversity, being the home of the Hollywood film industry, and its sprawling metropolitan area. The city lies in a basin in Southern California adjacent to the Pacific Ocean in the west and extending through the Santa Monica Mountains and north into the San Fernando Valley, with the city bordering the San Gabriel Valley to its east. It covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km2), and is the county seat of Los Angeles County, which is the most populous county in the United States with an estimated 9.86 million residents as of 2022.

Mexico–United States border

Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains, ranging from urban areas to deserts. The Mexico–United States border is the most frequently crossed border in the world, with approximately 350 million documented crossings annually. It is the tenth-longest border between two countries in the world.

Canada–United States border

Canada–United States border

The border between Canada and the United States is the longest international border in the world. The terrestrial boundary is 8,891 km (5,525 mi) long. The land border has two sections: Canada's border with the contiguous United States to its south, and with the U.S. state of Alaska to its west. The bi-national International Boundary Commission deals with matters relating to marking and maintaining the boundary, and the International Joint Commission deals with issues concerning boundary waters. The agencies currently responsible for facilitating legal passage through the international boundary are the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP).

British Columbia Highway 99

British Columbia Highway 99

Highway 99 is a provincial highway in British Columbia that serves Greater Vancouver and the Squamish–Lillooet corridor over a length of 377 kilometres (234 mi). It is a major north–south artery within Vancouver and connects the city to several suburbs as well as the U.S. border, where it continues south as Interstate 5. The central section of the route, also known as the Sea to Sky Highway, serves the communities of Squamish, Whistler, and Pemberton. Highway 99 continues through Lillooet and ends at a junction with Highway 97 near Cache Creek.

Auto trail

Auto trail

The system of auto trails was an informal network of marked routes that existed in the United States and Canada in the early part of the 20th century. Marked with colored bands on utility poles, the trails were intended to help travellers in the early days of the automobile.

Pacific Highway (United States)

Pacific Highway (United States)

Pacific Highway is the name of several north–south highways in the Pacific Coast region of the Western United States, either by legislation officially designating it as such or by common usage.

Central Valley (California)

Central Valley (California)

The Central Valley is a broad, elongated, flat valley that dominates the interior of California. It is 40–60 mi (60–100 km) wide and runs approximately 450 mi (720 km) from north-northwest to south-southeast, inland from and parallel to the Pacific coast of the state. It covers approximately 18,000 sq mi (47,000 km2), about 11% of California's land area. The valley is bounded by the Coast Ranges to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east.

Route description

Lengths
  mi[1] km
CA 796.53 1,281.89
OR 308.14 495.90
WA 276.62 445.18
Total 1,381.29 2,222.97
I-5 in the Newhall Pass Interchange where it intersects with I-210 and SR 14 near Santa ClaritaI-5 in the Central Valley, looking south near Derrick Avenue in Fresno CountyI-5 southbound, approaching Weed and Mount ShastaI-5 running adjacent to the Willamette River and passes by the Moda Center, and Oregon Convention Center in Downtown PortlandI-5 passing through Downtown Seattle
I-5 in the Newhall Pass Interchange where it intersects with I-210 and SR 14 near Santa Clarita
I-5 in the Newhall Pass Interchange where it intersects with I-210 and SR 14 near Santa ClaritaI-5 in the Central Valley, looking south near Derrick Avenue in Fresno CountyI-5 southbound, approaching Weed and Mount ShastaI-5 running adjacent to the Willamette River and passes by the Moda Center, and Oregon Convention Center in Downtown PortlandI-5 passing through Downtown Seattle
I-5 in the Central Valley, looking south near Derrick Avenue in Fresno County
I-5 in the Newhall Pass Interchange where it intersects with I-210 and SR 14 near Santa ClaritaI-5 in the Central Valley, looking south near Derrick Avenue in Fresno CountyI-5 southbound, approaching Weed and Mount ShastaI-5 running adjacent to the Willamette River and passes by the Moda Center, and Oregon Convention Center in Downtown PortlandI-5 passing through Downtown Seattle
I-5 southbound, approaching Weed and Mount Shasta
I-5 in the Newhall Pass Interchange where it intersects with I-210 and SR 14 near Santa ClaritaI-5 in the Central Valley, looking south near Derrick Avenue in Fresno CountyI-5 southbound, approaching Weed and Mount ShastaI-5 running adjacent to the Willamette River and passes by the Moda Center, and Oregon Convention Center in Downtown PortlandI-5 passing through Downtown Seattle
I-5 running adjacent to the Willamette River and passes by the Moda Center, and Oregon Convention Center in Downtown Portland
I-5 in the Newhall Pass Interchange where it intersects with I-210 and SR 14 near Santa ClaritaI-5 in the Central Valley, looking south near Derrick Avenue in Fresno CountyI-5 southbound, approaching Weed and Mount ShastaI-5 running adjacent to the Willamette River and passes by the Moda Center, and Oregon Convention Center in Downtown PortlandI-5 passing through Downtown Seattle
I-5 passing through Downtown Seattle

I-5 is a major Interstate Highway that spans 1,381 miles (2,223 km) and runs north–south through the West Coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington. It connects several major metropolitan areas as well as agricultural regions, seaports, and freight destinations. The freeway ranges from four lanes in some rural Washington sections to 22 lanes in Orange County, California, where it had been widened and reconstructed.[2]

California

The southern terminus of I-5 is at the Mexican border at the San Ysidro Port of Entry, the busiest land border crossing in the Western Hemisphere; the crossing handles a daily average of 70,000 vehicles and 20,000 pedestrians crossing northbound and connects with Mexican Federal Highway 1 in Tijuana.[3] The freeway splits in San Diego's San Ysidro neighborhood, with I-5 traveling northwest through Chula Vista and National City on the John J. Montgomery Freeway and I-805 serving the eastern neighborhoods.[4] I-5 follows the shore of San Diego Bay and intersects State Route 15 (a continuation of I-15) near Naval Station San Diego. The freeway then travels around Downtown San Diego and San Diego International Airport before reaching a junction with I-8.[5]

I-5 bisects the University of California, San Diego campus, merging with I-805 nearby, and follows the Pacific coastline through the northern suburbs of San Diego. Between Oceanside and San Clemente, an 18-mile (29 km) stretch of the San Diego Freeway passes through Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton before entering Orange County. At Dana Point, I-5 turns inland and heads north through Mission Viejo to the El Toro Y interchange in Irvine, where I-405 splits and carries the San Diego Freeway designation.[4] I-5 continues northwest as the Santa Ana Freeway through several Orange County and Los Angeles County suburbs and passes near Disneyland in Anaheim.[6] The freeway intersects I-605 in Downey and I-710 in Commerce before reaching the city of Los Angeles.[5] Southern Californians often refer to I-5 as "the 5" or as the Santa Ana Freeway in the Los Angeles area.[7][8]

At the East Los Angeles Interchange near Downtown Los Angeles, I-5 intersects US 101 and begins a short concurrency with I-10 on a section of the Golden State Freeway.[4] The freeway splits from I-10 and turns northwest to follow the Los Angeles River through Glendale and into Burbank. I-5 then leaves the river and travels across the San Fernando Valley, later crossing the Newhall Pass through the Santa Susana Mountains to reach the Santa Clarita Valley; the Newhall Pass interchange with State Route 14 is notable for having separate lanes for truck traffic. The freeway passes the city of Santa Clarita and ascends into the Sierra Pelona Mountains, where the northbound and southbound lanes separate and cross sides for approximately 5 miles (8.0 km). The northbound ascent includes a continuous 5 percent grade for 5 miles (8.0 km).[9] After passing Pyramid Lake, I-5 makes several turns as it follows a series of narrow valleys to reach the second-highest point of its entire length, Tejon Pass (elevation 4,144 ft or 1,263 m) in the Tehachapi Mountains.[5][9]

The freeway then traverses the narrow Grapevine Canyon and descends for 12 miles (19 km) into the San Joaquin Valley.[10] At Wheeler Ridge near the south end of the valley, State Route 99 splits from the freeway to serve Bakersfield and other major cities in the Central Valley, while I-5 stays to the west. Now named the West Side Freeway,[4] I-5 travels northwest along the edge of the Central Valley through farmland and avoids populated areas. The freeway is connected to several of the valley's main cities, including Fresno, Merced, and Modesto, by other highways.[5]

Near Tracy, I-580 splits from I-5 to provide the first of several connections to the San Francisco Bay Area; I-205 northeast of Tracy also provides a connection through I-580. The freeway continues north through Stockton to Sacramento, where it follows the Sacramento River through the southern suburbs and along the edge of downtown. I-5 intersects two transcontinental highways in the Sacramento area: US 50 (and unsigned I-305) south of downtown and I-80 in the northern suburbs. After an unsigned concurrency with State Route 99 in northern Sacramento, the freeway turns west to pass the city's airport and resumes its northwestern path at Woodland. It then intersects I-505, another Bay Area connector, near Dunnigan.[5]

The freeway continues north along the western edge of the Sacramento Valley, passing through farmland and several small towns before reaching the end of the valley at Red Bluff. I-5 then traverses the rugged Shasta Cascade region, passing through Redding and crossing Shasta Lake before beginning its ascent towards Mount Shasta. The freeway follows the Sacramento River upstream to the southwestern slopes of the mountain and turns northwest to reach Weed, where it intersects US 97, a major highway serving the Inland Northwest region. I-5 continues through Yreka in the Shasta Valley and follows the Klamath River into the Siskiyou Mountains, where it crosses into Oregon.[5]

Oregon

I-5 enters Oregon near Siskiyou Summit, which sits at 4,310 feet (1,310 m) and is the highest point on the highway.[11][12] From the summit, I-5 descends by 2,300 feet (700 m) over 6 miles (9.7 km) at a 6 percent grade to reach the Rogue Valley.[13] The freeway passes through Ashland and Medford, running parallel to Oregon Route 99, and turns west to follow the Rogue River to Grants Pass, where it intersects US 199. I-5 then turns north and crosses a series of passes in the Klamath Mountains to reach the Umpqua Valley, where it follows the South Umpqua River to Roseburg.[5][14]

The highway enters the Willamette Valley near Cottage Grove and forms the boundary between the cities of Eugene and Springfield. After crossing the Willamette River, I-5 intersects Oregon Route 126, which carries I-105, and Oregon Route 569; both highways provide connections to Eugene and Springfield. I-5 then travels due north through farmland on the east side of the Willamette River, passing a junction with US 20 in Albany, and bisects eastern Salem near the state capitol campus.[14] It is connected to downtown Salem by Oregon Route 22 and the Salem Parkway, which joins I-5 as the freeway crosses the 45th parallel near Keizer.[5][15]

From Salem, I-5 turns northeast and passes Woodburn before crossing the Willamette River on the Boone Bridge in Wilsonville, at the south end of the Portland metropolitan area. The freeway travels through the southern suburbs of Portland, intersecting I-205 in Tualatin and Oregon Route 217 in Tigard before entering the city proper. I-5 then turns northeast to follow Barbur Boulevard (part of Route 99W) and navigate the Terwilliger curves. The freeway continues north through the South Waterfront neighborhood, crossing under the Portland Aerial Tram and the western approach to the Ross Island Bridge (carrying US 26) before reaching an interchange with I-405.[5][14]

I-5 and I-405 form a complete loop around Downtown Portland, with I-5 crossing the Willamette River on the Marquam Bridge to run along the eastern riverfront. The freeway has interchanges with several major bridges crossing the Willamette, as well as the western terminus of I-84 near the Oregon Convention Center. From the I-84 interchange to a second junction with I-405 near the Fremont Bridge, I-5 is concurrent with US 30, which continues west towards Astoria.[14] Through North Portland, the freeway runs below street level until it crosses the Columbia Slough to bisect Delta Park. I-5 continues across Hayden Island to the Interstate Bridge, a pair of vertical-lift bridges which carry the highway over the Columbia River into Washington state.[5][16]

Washington

The highway enters Vancouver at the north end of the Interstate Bridge and immediately intersects Washington State Route 14 near the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. The freeway passes near downtown Vancouver and continues north through the city's suburbs before being rejoined by I-205 at Salmon Creek. I-5 travels north along the Columbia River to Kelso and Longview, where it switches to following the Cowlitz River between the Willapa Hills and Cascade foothills. The freeway then turns northwest to traverse a prairie and the adjacent cities of Chehalis and Centralia while concurrent with US 12.[5][17]

I-5 continues north to a junction with US 101 in Tumwater, near Olympia and the state capitol campus. The freeway skirts the southeast side of downtown Olympia and turns east to cross Joint Base Lewis–McChord (formerly Fort Lewis and McChord Air Force Base). I-5 then turns north to enter Tacoma but bends east to intersect I-705, a short spur into Downtown Tacoma. The freeway turns north again after leaving Tacoma and its nearby seaport near Fife to traverse the suburbs of South King County. I-5 intersects its eastern bypass of Seattle, I-405, in Tukwila near Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.[17]

The freeway generally follows the Green and Duwamish rivers into Seattle, passing Boeing Field and the industrial district in the process. I-5 intersects I-90 near Seattle's Chinatown–International District on the south side of Downtown Seattle. The freeway turns northwest and bisects Downtown Seattle in a trench, with some sections covered by Freeway Park and the Washington State Convention Center.[18] ​It then turns north to intersect Washington State Route 520 near Eastlake and crosses the Ship Canal Bridge over Portage Bay, which lies between Lake Union and Lake Washington. I-5 continues through northern Seattle, passing the University District near the University of Washington campus and Green Lake before leaving the city.[17] The section between Downtown Seattle and Northgate includes a set of reversible express lanes that add extra capacity in the peak direction of travel.[19]

I-5 continues through the northern suburbs of Seattle and turns northeasterly in Lynnwood, where it is rejoined by I-405, which serves the Eastside region. The freeway travels north through Everett, skirting the city's downtown and intersecting US 2, and leaves the Seattle metropolitan area for the rural Skagit Valley. I-5 descends into the valley and travels through Mount Vernon and Burlington before climbing into the Chuckanut Mountains, where it turns west towards Bellingham Bay (part of the Salish Sea). The freeway travels around downtown Bellingham and turns northwest to continue across the rural Fraser Lowland. I-5 terminates at the Peace Arch Border Crossing on the Canadian border, adjacent to the eponymous monument, in Blaine. The highway becomes British Columbia Highway 99, which continues northwest to Vancouver.[17]

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Mile

Mile

The mile, sometimes the international mile or statute mile to distinguish it from other miles, is a British imperial unit and United States customary unit of distance; both are based on the older English unit of length equal to 5,280 English feet, or 1,760 yards. The statute mile was standardised between the British Commonwealth and the United States by an international agreement in 1959, when it was formally redefined with respect to SI units as exactly 1,609.344 metres.

Interstate 5 in California

Interstate 5 in California

Interstate 5 (I-5) is a major north–south route of the Interstate Highway System in the United States, stretching from the Mexican border at the San Ysidro crossing to the Canadian border near Blaine, Washington. The segment of I-5 in California runs 796.77 miles (1,282.28 km) across the length of the state from San Ysidro to the Oregon state line south of the Medford-Ashland metropolitan area. It is the longest interstate in California, and accounts for more than half of I-5's total length.

Interstate 5 in Oregon

Interstate 5 in Oregon

Interstate 5 (I-5) in the U.S. state of Oregon is a major Interstate Highway that traverses the state from north to south. It travels to the west of the Cascade Mountains, connecting Portland to Salem, Eugene, Medford, and other major cities in the Willamette Valley and across the northern Siskiyou Mountains. The highway runs 308 miles (496 km) from the California state line near Ashland to the Washington state line in northern Portland, forming the central part of Interstate 5's route between Mexico and Canada.

Interstate 5 in Washington

Interstate 5 in Washington

Interstate 5 (I-5) is an Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States that serves as the region's primary north–south route. It spans 277 miles (446 km) across the state of Washington, from the Oregon state border at Vancouver, through the Puget Sound region, to the Canadian border at Blaine. Within the Seattle metropolitan area, the freeway connects the cities of Tacoma, Seattle, and Everett.

Fresno County, California

Fresno County, California

Fresno County, officially the County of Fresno, is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2020 Census, the population was 1,008,654. The county seat is Fresno, the fifth-most populous city in California.

Moda Center

Moda Center

Moda Center, formerly known as the Rose Garden, is the primary indoor sports arena in Portland, Oregon, United States. It is used for basketball, ice hockey, rodeos, circuses, conventions, ice shows, concerts, and dramatic productions. The arena has a capacity of 19,393 spectators when configured for basketball. It is equipped with state-of-the-art acoustics and other amenities.

Oregon Convention Center

Oregon Convention Center

The Oregon Convention Center is a convention center in Portland, Oregon. Completed in 1989 and opened in 1990, it is located on the east side of the Willamette River in the Lloyd District neighborhood. It is best known for the twin spire towers, which provide light into the building's interior and for housing the world's largest Foucault pendulum. The center is owned by Metro, the Portland area's regional government, and operated by the Metropolitan Exposition and Recreation Commission, a subsidiary of Metro.

Downtown Portland, Oregon

Downtown Portland, Oregon

Downtown Portland is the city center of Portland, Oregon, United States. It is on the west bank of the Willamette River in the northeastern corner of the southwest section of the city and where most of the city's high-rise buildings are found.

Downtown Seattle

Downtown Seattle

Downtown is the central business district of Seattle, Washington. It is fairly compact compared with other city centers on the U.S. West Coast due to its geographical situation, being hemmed in on the north and east by hills, on the west by Elliott Bay, and on the south by reclaimed land that was once tidal flats. It is bounded on the north by Denny Way, beyond which are Lower Queen Anne, Seattle Center, and South Lake Union; on the east by Interstate 5, beyond which is Capitol Hill to the northeast and Central District to the east; on the south by S Dearborn Street, beyond which is Sodo; and on the west by Elliott Bay, a part of Puget Sound.

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay areas are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Oregon

Oregon

Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon is a part of the Western United States, with the Columbia River delineating much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho. The 42° north parallel delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada. The western boundary is formed by the Pacific Ocean.

Orange County, California

Orange County, California

Orange County, often known by its initials O.C., is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in Southern California. As of the 2020 census, the population was 3,186,989, making it the third-most-populous county in California, the sixth-most-populous in the United States, and more populous than 19 American states and Washington, D.C. Although largely suburban, it is the second-most-densely-populated county in the state behind San Francisco County. The county's three most-populous cities are Anaheim, Santa Ana, and Irvine, each of which has a population exceeding 300,000. Santa Ana is also the county seat. Six cities in Orange County are on the Pacific coast: Seal Beach, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, and San Clemente.

History

The shield for US 99
The shield for US 99
A section of the 1915 Ridge Route in Lebec, California, abandoned when US 99 (later upgraded to I-5) was constructed over the Tejon Pass in order to make the travel straighter and safer.
A section of the 1915 Ridge Route in Lebec, California, abandoned when US 99 (later upgraded to I-5) was constructed over the Tejon Pass in order to make the travel straighter and safer.

An extensive section of this highway (over 600 mi (970 km)), from approximately Stockton, California, to Portland, Oregon, follows the track of the Siskiyou Trail.[20] This trail was based on an older network of Native American footpaths connecting the Pacific Northwest with California's Central Valley. By the 1820s, trappers from the Hudson's Bay Company were the first non-Native Americans to use the route of today's I-5 to move between today's Washington state and California. During the second half of the 19th century, mule trains, stagecoaches, and the Central Pacific railroad also followed the route of the Siskiyou Trail.[20] By the early 20th century, pioneering automobile roads were built along the path of the Siskiyou Trail, notably the Pacific Highway. The Pacific Highway ran from British Columbia to San Diego, California, and was the immediate predecessor of much of US 99. The route of US 99 was in turn used as a basis for much of the route of today's I-5.

A major deviation from the old US 99 route is the Westside Freeway portion of I-5 in California's Central Valley. To provide a faster and more direct north–south route through the state, the decision was made to build a new freeway to the west and bypass Fresno, Bakersfield, and the rest of population centers in the area instead of upgrading the existing highway (which was re-designated as part of SR 99).[21] This re-route through California's Central Valley was the last section of I-5 to be constructed, with the final segment dedicated and opened to traffic near Stockton, California, on October 12, 1979. Representatives from both Canada and Mexico attended the dedication to commemorate the first contiguous freeway connecting the North American countries.[22][23] It cost an estimated $2.3 billion in 1979 dollars (equivalent to $7.03 billion in 2021 dollars)[24] to construct all of I-5.[25] The Interstate became a common distribution channel for meth being manufactured by the Hells Angels in the 1980s.[26]

This direct route also bypasses San Francisco and the rest of the San Francisco Bay Area. Original plans called for a loop Interstate with a directional suffix, I-5W.[21] This route now roughly corresponds to I-580 from I-5 south of Tracy to Oakland, I-80 from Oakland to Vacaville, and I-505 from Vacaville to I-5 near Dunnigan. I-5W and most of the other Interstates around the country with directional suffixes were eventually renumbered or eliminated. Nevertheless, San Francisco is still listed as a control city on northbound I-5 between SR 99 and I-580.

By the early 21st century, sections of I-5 had deteriorated due to a maintenance backlog as well as high traffic volumes. Several bridges in Oregon were reconstructed or repaired to accommodate use by heavy freight vehicles.[2]

On May 23, 2013, a portion of a bridge on I-5 collapsed in Washington (near Mount Vernon, between Seattle and the Canada–US border at mile marker 228.3), sending two cars into the water and requiring traffic in both directions to bypass the crossing.[27] The Washington State Department of Transportation used a temporary structure to restore access across the river while a permanent bridge replacement was built. That process was completed September 15, 2013.[28]

On December 18, 2017, an Amtrak train derailed on an overpass crossing I-5 near Tacoma, Washington, and blocked several lanes of traffic.[29]

The I-5 corridor forms part of the West Coast Electric Highway, a partnership between the states of California, Oregon, and Washington to build and maintain a network of charging stations for electric vehicles. The pact was formed in 2009 and the first charging stations—spaced 25 to 50 miles (40 to 80 km) apart—opened in 2011.[30] In 2019, the three states also broke ground on a similar charging network for electric trucks along I-5 called the West Coast Clean Transit Corridor Initiative.[31] The program is a collaboration of nine utilities and two agencies representing municipal utilities, and aims to enable electric freight and delivery trucks to operate along the entire West Coast corridor.[32]

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Lebec, California

Lebec, California

Lebec is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in southwestern Kern County, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,468.

Hudson's Bay Company

Hudson's Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, it became the oldest corporation in Canada, and now owns and operates retail stores across the country. The company's namesake business division is Hudson's Bay, commonly referred to as The Bay.

Central Pacific Railroad

Central Pacific Railroad

The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) was a rail company chartered by U.S. Congress in 1862 to build a railroad eastwards from Sacramento, California, to complete the western part of the "First transcontinental railroad" in North America. Incorporated in 1861, CPRR ceased operation in 1885 when it was acquired by Southern Pacific Railroad as a leased line.

British Columbia

British Columbia

British Columbia, commonly abbreviated as BC, is the westernmost province of Canada, situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It has a diverse geography, with rugged landscapes that include rocky coastlines, sandy beaches, forests, lakes, mountains, inland deserts and grassy plains, and borders the province of Alberta to the east, the territories of Yukon and Northwest Territories to the north, and the US states of Washington, Idaho and Montana to the south and Alaska to the northwest. With an estimated population of 5.3 million as of 2022, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The capital of British Columbia is Victoria and its largest city is Vancouver. Vancouver is the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada; the 2021 census recorded 2.6 million people in Metro Vancouver.

Hells Angels

Hells Angels

The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC) is a worldwide outlaw motorcycle club whose members typically ride Harley-Davidson motorcycles. In the United States and Canada, the Hells Angels are incorporated as the Hells Angels Motorcycle Corporation. Common nicknames for the club are the "H.A.", "Red & White", "HAMC", and "81". With a membership between 3,000 and 3,600 and 467 chapters in 59 countries, the HAMC is one of the largest motorcycle clubs in the world.

Control city

Control city

A control city is a city, locality, or other location posted on a series of traffic signs along a particular stretch of road indicating destinations on that route. Together with route numbers and cardinal directions, these focal points aid the motorist navigating along a highway system. Such cities appear on signs at junctions to indicate where the intersecting road goes and where the road ahead goes. They are also typically used on distance signs.

I-5 Skagit River bridge collapse

I-5 Skagit River bridge collapse

On May 23, 2013, at approximately 7:00 pm PDT, a span of the bridge carrying Interstate 5 over the Skagit River in the U.S. state of Washington collapsed. Three people in two different vehicles fell into the river below and were rescued by boat, escaping serious injury. The cause of the catastrophic failure was determined to be an oversize load striking several of the bridge's overhead support beams, leading to an immediate collapse of the northernmost span.

Amtrak

Amtrak

The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is the national passenger railroad company of the United States. It operates inter-city rail service in 46 of the 48 contiguous U.S. states and three Canadian provinces. Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track.

2017 Washington train derailment

2017 Washington train derailment

On December 18, 2017, Amtrak Cascades passenger train 501 derailed near DuPont, Washington, United States. The National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) final report said regional transit authority Sound Transit failed to take steps to mitigate a curve at the accident location, and inadequately trained the train engineer. The train was making the inaugural run of the Point Defiance Bypass, a new passenger rail route south of Tacoma, Washington, operated by Amtrak in partnership with state and local authorities in Oregon and Washington, on right-of-way owned and operated by Sound Transit. The bypass was intended to reduce congestion and separate passenger and freight traffic, and was designed for faster speeds and shorter travel times, saving ten minutes from Seattle to Portland compared with the previous route used by Cascades.

Charging station

Charging station

A charging station, also known as a charge point or electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), is a piece of equipment that supplies electrical power for charging plug-in electric vehicles.

Electric vehicle

Electric vehicle

An electric vehicle (EV) is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors for propulsion. It can be powered by a collector system, with electricity from extravehicular sources, or it can be powered autonomously by a battery. EVs include, but are not limited to, road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electric spacecraft. For road vehicles, together with other emerging automotive technologies such as autonomous driving, connected vehicles and shared mobility, EVs form a future mobility vision called Connected, Autonomous, Shared and Electric (CASE) Mobility.

Electric truck

Electric truck

An electric truck is an electric vehicle powered by batteries designed to transport cargo, carry specialized payloads, or perform other utilitarian work.

Junction list

Aerial view of the I-5 and I-90 interchange in Seattle, seen from the Columbia Center.
Aerial view of the I-5 and I-90 interchange in Seattle, seen from the Columbia Center.
Aerial view of the former San Ysidro border crossing on the Mexican border, marking where I-5 continues south at Fed. 1
Aerial view of the former San Ysidro border crossing on the Mexican border, marking where I-5 continues south at Fed. 1
The Peace Arch monument on the Canadian border, marking where I-5 continues north as BC 99
The Peace Arch monument on the Canadian border, marking where I-5 continues north as BC 99
California[33]
Fed. 1 at the Mexican border in San Ysidro
I-805 in San Ysidro
SR 905 on the Nestor–San Ysidro–Otay Mesa West neighborhood line (future I-905)
SR 15 on the Barrio LoganSouthcrestLogan Heights neighborhood line (future I-15)
I-8 in San Diego
I-805 in San Diego
I-405 in Irvine
I-605 on the DowneySanta Fe Springs city line
I-710 in Commerce
US 101 in Los Angeles
I-10 in Boyle Heights. The highways travel concurrently through Boyle Heights.
I-405 on the Mission HillsGranada Hills neighborhood line
I-210 in Sylmar
SR 99 in Wheeler Ridge (Former US 99, future I-7 or I-9)
I-580 southwest of Vernalis
I-205 south-southwest of Lathrop
I-305 / US 50 in Sacramento
I-80 in Sacramento
I-505 south-southeast of Dunnigan
US 97 in Weed
Oregon[14]
US 199 east of Grants Pass
I-105 on the EugeneSpringfield city line
US 20 in Albany
I-205 in Tualatin
US 26 in Portland
I-405 in Portland
I-84 / US 30 in Portland. I-5/US 30 travels concurrently through Portland.
I-405 / US 30 in Portland
Washington[33]
I-205 on the Salmon CreekMount Vista CDP line
US 12 south-southeast of Napavine. The highways travel concurrently to Grand Mound.
US 101 in Tumwater
I-705 in Tacoma
I-405 in Tukwila
I-90 in Seattle
SR 520 in Seattle
I-405 in Lynnwood
US 2 in Everett
Hwy 99 at the Canada–US border in Blaine

Discover more about Junction list related topics

Interstate 90 in Washington

Interstate 90 in Washington

Interstate 90 (I-90), designated as the American Veterans Memorial Highway, is a transcontinental Interstate Highway that runs from Seattle, Washington, to Boston, Massachusetts. It crosses Washington state from west to east, traveling 298 miles (480 km) from Seattle across the Cascade Mountains and into Eastern Washington, reaching the Idaho state line east of Spokane. I-90 intersects several of the state's other major highways, including I-5 in Seattle, I-82 and U.S. Route 97 (US 97) near Ellensburg, and US 395 and US 2 in Spokane.

Columbia Center

Columbia Center

The Columbia Center, formerly named the Bank of America Tower and Columbia Seafirst Center, is a skyscraper in downtown Seattle, Washington, United States. The 76-story structure is the tallest building in Seattle and the state of Washington, reaching a height of 933 ft (284 m). At the time of its completion, the Columbia Center was the tallest structure on the West Coast; as of 2017, it is the fourth-tallest, behind buildings in Los Angeles and San Francisco.

Mexican Federal Highway 1

Mexican Federal Highway 1

Federal Highway 1 is a free (libre) part of the federal highway corridors of Mexico, and the highway follows the length of the Baja California Peninsula from Tijuana, Baja California, in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, in the south. The road connects with Via Rapida, which merges into the American Interstate 5 (I-5) at the San Ysidro Port of Entry, which crosses the international border south of San Ysidro, California.

Mexico–United States border

Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains, ranging from urban areas to deserts. The Mexico–United States border is the most frequently crossed border in the world, with approximately 350 million documented crossings annually. It is the tenth-longest border between two countries in the world.

Interstate 805

Interstate 805

Interstate 805 (I-805) is a major north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass auxiliary route of I-5, running roughly through the center of the Greater San Diego region from San Ysidro near the Mexico–U.S. border to near Del Mar. The southern terminus of I-805 at I-5 in San Ysidro is less than 1 mi (1.6 km) north of the Mexican border. I-805 then traverses the cities of Chula Vista and National City before reentering San Diego. The freeway passes through the San Diego neighborhoods of North Park, Mission Valley, Clairemont, and University City before terminating at I-5 in the Sorrento Valley neighborhood near the Del Mar city limit.

California State Route 905

California State Route 905

State Route 905 (SR 905), also known as the Otay Mesa Freeway, is an 8.964-mile-long (14.426 km) state highway in San Diego, in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of California. It connects I-5 and I-805 in San Ysidro to the Mexican border at Otay Mesa. The entire highway from I-5 to the international border is a freeway with a few exits that continues east from the I-805 interchange before turning southeast and reaching the border.

Barrio Logan, San Diego

Barrio Logan, San Diego

Barrio Logan is a neighborhood in south central San Diego, California. It is bordered by the neighborhoods of East Village and Logan Heights to the north, Shelltown and Southcrest to the east, San Diego Bay to the southwest, and National City to the southeast. Interstate 5 forms the northeastern boundary. The Barrio Logan Community Plan Area comprises approximately 1,000 acres, of which slightly more than half is under the jurisdiction of the Port of San Diego or the United States Navy rather than the city of San Diego. The community is subject to the California Coastal Act. Though located near the City's Central core, it has long been considered part of Southeast San Diego by many locals, being directly Southeast of Downtown, and with previous historical records labeling it as part of "Western Southeast San Diego."

Logan Heights, San Diego

Logan Heights, San Diego

Logan Heights is an urban neighborhood in central San Diego, California. It is bordered by Interstate 5 on the south and west, Interstate 15 on the east, and Imperial Avenue on the north. It is part of the Southeastern Planning Area.

Interstate 8

Interstate 8

Interstate 8 (I-8) is an Interstate Highway in the southwestern United States. It runs from the southern edge of Mission Bay at Sunset Cliffs Boulevard in San Diego, California, almost at the Pacific Ocean, to the junction with I-10, just southeast of Casa Grande, Arizona. In California, the freeway travels through the San Diego metropolitan area as the Ocean Beach Freeway and the Mission Valley Freeway before traversing the Cuyamaca Mountains and providing access through the Imperial Valley, including the city of El Centro. Crossing the Colorado River into Arizona, I-8 continues through the city of Yuma across the Sonoran Desert to Casa Grande, in between the cities of Phoenix and Tucson.

Interstate 405 (California)

Interstate 405 (California)

Interstate 405 (I-405) is a major north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway in Southern California. The entire route is known as the northern segment of the San Diego Freeway. I-405 is a bypass auxiliary route of I-5, running along the southern and western parts of the Greater Los Angeles urban area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north.

Irvine, California

Irvine, California

Irvine is a master-planned city in southern Orange County, California, United States, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The Irvine Company started developing the area in the 1960s and the city was formally incorporated on December 28, 1971. The 66-square-mile (170 km2) city had a population of 307,670 at the 2020 census.

Interstate 605

Interstate 605

Interstate 605 is a 27-mile-long (43 km) major north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway in the Greater Los Angeles urban area of Southern California. It runs from I-405 and State Route 22 (SR 22) in Seal Beach to I-210 in Duarte. The San Gabriel River Freeway closely parallels the San Gabriel River for most of its alignment, hence its name, which is one of the few Southern California freeways not named after a city along its route.

Auxiliary routes

I-5 will have a complete set of auxiliary routes (i.e. 105, 205, 305, 405, 505, 605, 705, 805, 905), with the completion of I-905 in San Diego County. Currently, I-80 and I-90 are the only two Interstates to have complete sets of auxiliary routes.

Several routes, including I-305 and I-505 in Oregon, were planned but left unbuilt due to local opposition.

Discover more about Auxiliary routes related topics

Interstate 805

Interstate 805

Interstate 805 (I-805) is a major north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway in Southern California. It is a bypass auxiliary route of I-5, running roughly through the center of the Greater San Diego region from San Ysidro near the Mexico–U.S. border to near Del Mar. The southern terminus of I-805 at I-5 in San Ysidro is less than 1 mi (1.6 km) north of the Mexican border. I-805 then traverses the cities of Chula Vista and National City before reentering San Diego. The freeway passes through the San Diego neighborhoods of North Park, Mission Valley, Clairemont, and University City before terminating at I-5 in the Sorrento Valley neighborhood near the Del Mar city limit.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, often referred to by its initials L.A., is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Southern California. Los Angeles is the largest city in the state of California, the second most populous city in the United States after New York City, and one of the world's most populous megacities. With a population of roughly 3.9 million residents within the city limits as of 2020, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic and cultural diversity, being the home of the Hollywood film industry, and its sprawling metropolitan area. The city lies in a basin in Southern California adjacent to the Pacific Ocean in the west and extending through the Santa Monica Mountains and north into the San Fernando Valley, with the city bordering the San Gabriel Valley to its east. It covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km2), and is the county seat of Los Angeles County, which is the most populous county in the United States with an estimated 9.86 million residents as of 2022.

Interstate 105 (California)

Interstate 105 (California)

Interstate 105 (I-105) is an east–west auxiliary Interstate Highway in the Greater Los Angeles urban area of Southern California. It runs from State Route 1 (SR 1) near El Segundo and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) to I-605 in the City of Norwalk. It is commonly known as the Century Freeway after Century Boulevard which it parallels, and also officially known as the Glenn Anderson Freeway after the late congressman Glenn M. Anderson who advocated for its construction.

Orange County, California

Orange County, California

Orange County, often known by its initials O.C., is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in Southern California. As of the 2020 census, the population was 3,186,989, making it the third-most-populous county in California, the sixth-most-populous in the United States, and more populous than 19 American states and Washington, D.C. Although largely suburban, it is the second-most-densely-populated county in the state behind San Francisco County. The county's three most-populous cities are Anaheim, Santa Ana, and Irvine, each of which has a population exceeding 300,000. Santa Ana is also the county seat. Six cities in Orange County are on the Pacific coast: Seal Beach, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, and San Clemente.

Interstate 605

Interstate 605

Interstate 605 is a 27-mile-long (43 km) major north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway in the Greater Los Angeles urban area of Southern California. It runs from I-405 and State Route 22 (SR 22) in Seal Beach to I-210 in Duarte. The San Gabriel River Freeway closely parallels the San Gabriel River for most of its alignment, hence its name, which is one of the few Southern California freeways not named after a city along its route.

Interstate 405 (California)

Interstate 405 (California)

Interstate 405 (I-405) is a major north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway in Southern California. The entire route is known as the northern segment of the San Diego Freeway. I-405 is a bypass auxiliary route of I-5, running along the southern and western parts of the Greater Los Angeles urban area from Irvine in the south to near San Fernando in the north.

Interstate 205 (California)

Interstate 205 (California)

Interstate 205 (I-205) is an east–west auxiliary Interstate Highway in the San Joaquin Valley in Northern California. It runs from I-5 west to I-580. Along with those highways, I-205 forms the north side of a triangle around the city of Tracy. The route provides access from the San Francisco Bay Area to the northern San Joaquin Valley.

Eugene, Oregon

Eugene, Oregon

Eugene is a city in the U.S. state of Oregon. It is located at the southern end of the Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, about 50 miles (80 km) east of the Oregon Coast.

Oregon Route 126

Oregon Route 126

Oregon OR 126 (OR 126) is a 204.63-mile-long (329.32 km) state highway that connects coastal, western, and central parts of the U.S. state of Oregon. A short freeway section of OR 126 in Eugene and Springfield is concurrent with Interstate 105 (I-105).

Portland, Oregon

Portland, Oregon

Portland is a port city in the Pacific Northwest and the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon. Situated at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers, Portland is the county seat of Multnomah County, the most populous county in Oregon. As of 2020, Portland had a population of 652,503, making it the 26th-most populated city in the United States, the sixth-most populous on the West Coast, and the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest, after Seattle. Approximately 2.5 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous in the United States. About half of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area.

Interstate 405 (Oregon)

Interstate 405 (Oregon)

Interstate 405 (I-405), also known as the Stadium Freeway No. 61, is a short north–south Interstate Highway in Portland, Oregon. It forms a loop that travels around the west side of Downtown Portland, between two junctions with I-5 on the Willamette River near the Marquam Bridge to the south and Fremont Bridge to the north.

Interstate 205 (Oregon–Washington)

Interstate 205 (Oregon–Washington)

Interstate 205 (I-205) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the Portland metropolitan area of Oregon and Washington, United States. The north–south freeway serves as a bypass route of I-5 along the east side of Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, Washington. It intersects several major highways and serves Portland International Airport.

Source: "Interstate 5", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstate_5.

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References
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  11. ^ LaLande, Jeff (March 17, 2018). "Siskiyou Pass". The Oregon Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  12. ^ Fattig, Paul (October 30, 2012). "ODOT plans to use rock salt for I-5 ice melt". Mail Tribune. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
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  14. ^ a b c d e Oregon 2019–2021 Official State Map (PDF) (Map). Oregon Department of Transportation. April 2019. Portland and Vicinity inset. Retrieved December 17, 2021. {{cite map}}: External link in |inset= (help)
  15. ^ Brown, K. Williams (July 10, 2011). "The beauty of halfwayism". Statesman Journal. p. 5D. Retrieved December 16, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
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  19. ^ Giordano, Lizz (July 22, 2019). "A driver can dream: Can I-5 express lanes be more nimble?". The Everett Herald. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
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  23. ^ Engellenner, Jon (October 13, 1979). "1,000 See I-5 Opened From Border To Border". The Sacramento Bee. pp. A1, A12. Retrieved December 17, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
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  28. ^ Staff. "I-5–Skagit River Bridge Replacement". Washington State Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
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