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Icelandic nationalism

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Þjóðernishyggja is the Icelandic term for nationalism; nationmindedness is a rough translation of the term. Its use was instrumental in the Icelandic movement for independence from Denmark, led by Jón Sigurðsson.

Icelandic nationalism or Þjóðernishyggja is based upon the idea of resurrection of the Icelandic Free State, and its values (or what was believed to be its values): democracy, freedom of the individual, the need for the country to be independent, and respect for the cultural and religious traditions, specially the long preserved language. These ideas are often encoded in the popular phrase land, þjóð og tunga ('land, people, and language').[1] Historically, Icelanders have seen their current republic to be the reincarnation of the old Free State, and thus Icelandic nationalism today is based upon preserving what was gained by the independence movement. Thus Icelandic nationalist sentiment, having some aspects of civic and ethnic nationalism, is highly respectful of democratic parliamentary powers (see resurrected Althing) and skeptical of foreign control over Iceland, which is partly responsible for there being little will in Iceland for joining the European Union.

Icelandic nationalism primarily arose in the 19th century, during a time when it was under Danish hegemony. It arose not only due to pride in Iceland's achievements in the Middle Ages and a desire to embrace Icelandic cultural peculiarities, but also in reaction towards the increasing economic liberalism of the Danish government and thus a defense of Icelandic peasant life.[2] One towering figure was Jón Sigurðsson, who was the preeminent figure of Icelandic nationalism in the 19th century and on whose birthday, 17 June 1944, the modern Icelandic republic intentionally declared independence.[3]

Discover more about Icelandic nationalism related topics

Icelandic language

Icelandic language

Icelandic is a North Germanic language spoken by about 314,000 people, the vast majority of whom live in Iceland, where it is the national language. As a West Scandinavian language, it is most closely related to Faroese, extinct Norn, and western Norwegian dialects.

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central constituent of the Kingdom of Denmark, a constitutionally unitary state that includes the autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland in the North Atlantic Ocean. European Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, lying southwest of Sweden, south of Norway, and north of Germany.

Jón Sigurðsson

Jón Sigurðsson

Jón Sigurðsson was the leader of the 19th century Icelandic independence movement.

Icelandic Commonwealth

Icelandic Commonwealth

The Icelandic Commonwealth, also known as the Icelandic Free State, was the political unit existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king with the Old Covenant in 1262. With the probable exception of hermitic Irish monks known as Papar, Iceland was an uninhabited island until around 874.

Land, þjóð og tunga

Land, þjóð og tunga

Land, þjóð og tunga is an important phrase in Icelandic nationalism. It encapsulates the concept that these three factors define Iceland as a nation-state. The phrase is particularly noted for the prominence it gives to language in defining Icelandicness, which is not present in all other nationalisms.

Civic nationalism

Civic nationalism

Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in an inclusive form of nationalism that adheres to traditional liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, individual rights and has no ethnocentrism.

Ethnic nationalism

Ethnic nationalism

Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation and nationality are defined in terms of ethnicity, with emphasis on an ethnocentric approach to various political issues related to national affirmation of a particular ethnic group.

Althing

Althing

The Alþingi is the supreme national parliament of Iceland. It is one of the oldest surviving parliaments in the world. The Althing was founded in 930 at Þingvellir, situated approximately 45 kilometres (28 mi) east of what later became the country's capital, Reykjavík. Even after Iceland's union with Norway in 1262, the Althing still held its sessions at Þingvellir until 1800, when it was discontinued. It was restored in 1844 by royal decree and moved to Reykjavík. The restored unicameral legislature first came together in 1845 and after 1874 operated in two chambers with an additional third chamber taking on a greater role as the decades passed until 1991 when Althing became once again unicameral. The present parliament building, the Alþingishús, was built in 1881, made of hewn Icelandic stone. The unicameral parliament has 63 members, and is elected every four years based on party-list proportional representation. The current speaker of the Althing is Birgir Ármannsson.

European Union

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity combining the characteristics of both a federation and a confederation.

Kingdom of Iceland

Kingdom of Iceland

The Kingdom of Iceland was a sovereign and independent country under a constitutional and hereditary monarchy that was established by the Act of Union with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918. It lasted until 17 June 1944 when a national referendum established the Republic of Iceland in its place.

Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism is a political and economic ideology that supports a market economy based on individualism and private property in the means of production. Adam Smith is considered one of the primary initial writers on economic liberalism, and his writing is generally regarded as representing the economic expression of 19th-century liberalism up until the Great Depression and rise of Keynesianism in the 20th century. Historically, economic liberalism arose in response to feudalism and mercantilism.

Icelandic National Day

Icelandic National Day

Icelandic National Day is an annual holiday in Iceland which commemorates the foundation of The Republic of Iceland on 17 June 1944. This date also marks the end of Iceland's centuries old ties with Denmark. The date was chosen to coincide with the birthday of Jón Sigurðsson, a major figure of Icelandic culture and the leader of the 19th century Icelandic independence movement.

List of Icelandic nationalist parties

Source: "Icelandic nationalism", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_nationalism.

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References
  1. ^ Veturliði G. Óskarsson, 'Heilög þrenning: Land, þjóð og tunga. Hugleiðing um orðræðu', Tímarit Máls og menningar, 74.2 (June 2013), 37-45. (in Icelandic)
  2. ^ Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur (2000). "Þingvellir: An Icelandic "Lieu de Mémoire"". History and Memory. 12 (1): 4–29. doi:10.2979/his.2000.12.1.4. ISSN 0935-560X. JSTOR 10.2979/his.2000.12.1.4.
  3. ^ Rice, James G. (2007). "Icelandic Charity Donations: Reciprocity Reconsidered". Ethnology. 46 (1): 1–20. doi:10.2307/20456608. ISSN 0014-1828. JSTOR 20456608.

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