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Ice climbing

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ice climbing

Ice climbing is the activity of ascending inclined ice formations. Usually, ice climbing refers to roped and protected climbing of features such as icefalls, frozen waterfalls, and cliffs and rock slabs covered with ice refrozen from flows of water.[1]

For the purposes of climbing, ice can be broadly divided into two spheres, alpine ice and water ice. Alpine ice is found in a mountain environment, usually requires an approach to reach, and is often climbed in an attempt to summit a mountain. Water ice is usually found on a cliff or other outcropping beneath water flows. Alpine ice is frozen precipitation whereas water ice is a frozen liquid flow of water. Most alpine ice is generally one component of a longer route and often less technical, having more in common with standard glacier travel, while water ice is selected largely for its technical challenge. Technical grade is, however, independent of ice type and both types of ice vary greatly in consistency according to weather conditions. Ice can be soft, hard, brittle or tough.

Mixed climbing is ascent involving both ice climbing and rock climbing,[2][3] or at least stretches of exposed rocky terrain encountered while climbing ice, which may be dealt with using suitable techniques and the gear at hand.

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Climbing

Climbing

Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep topographical object. It is done for locomotion, recreation and competition, and within trades that rely on ascension; such as emergency rescue and military operations. It is done indoors and out, on natural and man-made structures.

Icefall

Icefall

An icefall is a portion of certain glaciers characterized by relatively rapid flow and chaotic crevassed surface, caused in part by gravity. The term icefall is formed by analogy with the word waterfall, which is a similar phenomenon of the liquid phase but at a more spectacular speed. When ice movement of a glacier is faster than elsewhere, because the glacier bed steepens or narrows, and the flow cannot be accommodated by plastic deformation, the ice fractures, forming crevasses. Where two fractures meet, seracs can be formed. When the movement of the ice slows down, the crevasses can coalesce, resulting in the surface of the glacier becoming smoother.

Waterfall

Waterfall

A waterfall is a point in a river or stream where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf.

Mixed climbing

Mixed climbing

Mixed climbing is a combination of ice climbing and rock climbing generally using ice climbing equipment such as crampons and ice tools. Mixed climbing has inspired its own specialized gear such as boots which are similar to climbing shoes but feature built-in crampons. Dry-tooling is mixed climbing's most specialized skill and has since evolved into a "sport" unto itself.

Rock climbing

Rock climbing

Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, across, or down natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climber's strength, endurance, agility and balance along with mental control. Knowledge of proper climbing techniques and the use of specialized climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes.

Techniques

Ice climbing during ascent to Tartu Ülikool 350 in 1982. Photo by Jaan Künnap
Ice climbing during ascent to Tartu Ülikool 350 in 1982. Photo by Jaan Künnap

Shallow and moderate stretches of ice such as those found in glacial travel and even steep pitches incidental to reaching a summit fall under the general sport of mountaineering.

For technical ice climbing, and ice climbing as a sport, double plastic mountaineering boots or their stiff leather equivalent are essential. These must be crampon compatible and stiff enough to support the climber and maintain ankle support. Vertical ice climbing is done with rigid "step-in" crampons and ice tools (specialized scaled-down ice axes). Climbers swing the picks of their tools to bed them in the ice, then kick the front points of their crampons into the ice to securely set them. This technique, leading with the picks and following with the legs, which bear most of the weight of the ascent, is known as front pointing. Embedment of either picks or front points of as little as 1/4 of an inch in sound ice can be sufficient to provide secure holds. If a climber is leading, they will place protection in the form of ice screws as they go (see climbing system).

Some important techniques and practices shared in common in rock climbing include knowledge of rope systems, tying in, belaying, leading, abseiling, and lowering. Beginners should learn these techniques before attempting to ice climb. It is highly recommended that one acquire knowledge from experts and experienced ice climbers.

Rope systems

Top-roping
Top-roping

There are three primary rope systems used in ice climbing: single rope, double rope and twin rope. The single rope system, which is suited for straight climbing routes, is the most commonly used rock climbing system in the world. Also often used in climbing is the double rope system which is a more flexible system than the single rope system. Lastly, the twin rope system, which uses two twin ropes in a single rope system, is used for longer multi-pitch routes. Double and twin rope technique is used more frequently in ice climbing because these systems are more redundant, an important consideration given the number of sharp edges in both the gear and environment. Impact force on ice is an issue, with double ropes gaining popularity over twins.[4]

Tying in

Tying in entails attaching the rope to the climbing harness. This technique is a must particularly when leading a climb or belaying. A commonly used tie-in knot is the Figure-of-eight follow through, but the bowline and Thumb (stopper) knot is often preferred, since it is easier to untie when frozen.

Belaying

In this climbing technique, either running belays or fixed belays are used. A running belay on ice is similar to a running belay on rock as well as snow. The leader of the climb puts protection and clips the rope through it. The next climber removes and stows the protection, known as "cleaning". There should be at least two points of protection between the leader and the next climber. Fixed belays, on the other hand, require a belayer, belay anchor, and points of protection. A belay anchor is attached to a cliff in supporting a belay or toprope.

Leading

Leading an ice climb involves placing specialized protection for the safety of the leader and anyone else on the rope. This characteristically includes the placement of ice screws and construction of belay anchors as required during any given pitch. A "second" belays the leader, who in turn belays them as they follow up. As they do, they remove protection placed below the belay anchor. The leader then resumes leading the climb, placing new protection as they go, with the second once again belaying them.

Abseiling

Abseiling (also called rappelling) is a means of rapid controlled descent which uses a securely fixed rope. Abseiling allows a climber to control his or her own rate of descent, whereas lowering (discussed below) is controlled by someone else. Abseiling is used to descend after a climb, when trying out new climbing routes, and when a climb can only be accessed from the top. Caution and careful execution are key when abseiling, as ropes or gear may jam and ropes be severed by sharp edges. A fireman's belay or auto block may be used for extra protection while abseiling.[5]

Lowering

Lowering involves a climber's descent being controlled by another climber handling the working end of the rope. The climber to be lowered is securely tied in, then a belayer either above or below them pays out rope while they descend.

Lowering is used to safely control the descent of injured climbers, when urgency requires speed and lowering one or more in a party, particularly the inexperienced, is both faster and safer than them controlling their own descents, and, when appropriate, mere convenience among capable climbers.

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Jaan Künnap

Jaan Künnap

Jaan Künnap is an Estonian mountaineer, photographer, and sports coach.

Glacier

Glacier

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. It acquires distinguishing features, such as crevasses and seracs, as it slowly flows and deforms under stresses induced by its weight. As it moves, it abrades rock and debris from its substrate to create landforms such as cirques, moraines, or fjords. Although a glacier may flow into a body of water, it forms only on land and is distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.

Mountaineering

Mountaineering

Mountaineering or alpinism, is a set of outdoor activities that involves ascending tall mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, skiing, and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing, and bouldering are also considered variants of mountaineering by some.

Mountaineering boot

Mountaineering boot

Mountaineering, expedition or high altitude boots are a type of footwear used in mountain climbing. They are designed specifically for moving over harsh terrain.

Ice tool

Ice tool

An ice tool is a specialized elaboration of the modern ice axe, used in ice climbing, mostly for the more difficult configurations. Ice tools are used two to a person for the duration of a pitch, and thus in some circumstances such as top-rope-anchored climbs, a pair may be shared among two or more people, where only one of them at a time is climbing. In contrast a classical "ice axe" is used one to a person for the hours or days a party is traveling across snow or glacier. In communities where it is common to refer to an "ice tool" simply as an "ice axe", classic "ice axes" are often referred to as "traveling axes", "walking axes", or "general mountaineering axes" to distinguish them from "tools".

Ice axe

Ice axe

An ice axe is a multi-purpose hiking and climbing tool used by mountaineers in both the ascent and descent of routes that involve snow, ice, or frozen conditions. Its use depends on the terrain: in its simplest role it is used like a walking stick, with the mountaineer holding the head in the center of their uphill hand. On steep terrain it is swung by its handle and embedded in snow or ice for security and an aid to traction. It can also be buried pick down, the rope tied around the shaft to form a secure anchor on which to bring up a second climber, or buried vertically to form a stomp belay. The adze is used to cut footholds, as well as scoop out compacted snow to bury the axe as a belay anchor.

Front pointing

Front pointing

Front pointing is a technique used to ascend moderate to steep ice slopes in mountaineering and ice climbing. Also referred to as the German technique, it relies on kicking the "front-points" of specialized ice climbing crampons to embed them in the ice and allow vertical ascent. While extremely secure in sound ice on steep grades, it is not appropriate on moderate grades, where the traditional technique of "flat-footing" is used.

Ice screw

Ice screw

An ice screw is a threaded tubular screw used as a running belay or anchor by climbers on steep ice surface such as steep waterfall ice or alpine ice during ice climbing or crevasse rescue, to hold the climber in the event of a fall, and at belays as anchor points.

Rock climbing

Rock climbing

Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, across, or down natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climber's strength, endurance, agility and balance along with mental control. Knowledge of proper climbing techniques and the use of specialized climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes.

Climbing rope

Climbing rope

A climbing rope is a rope that is used in climbing. It is a critical part of an extensive chain of protective equipment used by climbers to help prevent potentially fatal fall-related accidents.

Climbing harness

Climbing harness

A climbing harness is a device which allows a climber access to the safety of a rope. It is used in rock and ice climbing, abseiling, and lowering; this is in contrast to other activities requiring ropes for access or safety such as industrial rope work, construction, and rescue and recovery, which use safety harnesses instead.

Abseiling

Abseiling

Abseiling, also known as rappelling, is the controlled descent of a steep slope, such as a rock face, by moving down a rope. When abseiling the person descending controls their own movement down the rope, in contrast to lowering off in which the rope attached to the person descending is paid out by their belayer.

Competition

The International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA) organizes an annual Ice Climbing World Cup and bi-annual Ice Climbing World Championships.[6][7]

Climbers can compete in the categories Lead and Speed.[6]

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International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation

International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation

The International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, commonly known by its French name Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme, was founded in August 1932 in Chamonix, France when 20 mountaineering associations met for an alpine congress. Count Charles Egmond d’Arcis, from Switzerland, was chosen as the first president and it was decided by the founding members that the UIAA would be an international federation which would be in charge of the "study and solution of all problems regarding mountaineering". The UIAA Safety Label was created in 1960 and was internationally approved in 1965 and currently (2015) has a global presence on five continents with 86 member associations in 62 countries representing over 3 million people.

UIAA Ice Climbing World Cup

UIAA Ice Climbing World Cup

The Ice Climbing World Cup is an annual ice climbing competition organized by UIAA. The event is composed of a series of competitions that take place in countries around the world, culminating in a final competition.

UIAA Ice Climbing World Championships

UIAA Ice Climbing World Championships

The Ice Climbing World Championship is a bi-annual international competition of ice climbing.

Lead climbing

Lead climbing

Lead climbing is a climbing style, predominantly used in rock climbing. In a roped party one climber has to take the lead while the other climbers follow. The lead climber wears a harness attached to a climbing rope, which in turn is connected to the other climbers below the lead climber. While ascending the route, the lead climber periodically connects the rope to protection equipment for safety in the event of a fall. This protection can consist of permanent bolts, to which the climber clips quickdraws, or removable protection such as nuts and cams. One of the climbers below the lead climber acts as a belayer. The belayer gives out rope while the lead climber ascends and also stops the rope when the lead climber falls or wants to rest.

Speed climbing

Speed climbing

Speed climbing is a climbing discipline in which speed is the ultimate goal. Speed climbing is done on rocks, walls and poles and is only recommended for highly skilled and experienced climbers.

Climbing protection

Ice climbing anchor with two ice screws
Ice climbing anchor with two ice screws

The most common form of protection in ice climbing is the ice screw. It is a hollow metal threaded tube, typically aluminum, with cutting teeth on its base and a hanger eye on the opposite end. It is screwed into the ice and can provide very strong protection in solid conditions,[2] with its hold dependent both on the angle and quality of its placement and soundness of the ice.[8]

Ice itself is also used as protection. The two most common techniques for doing so are the V-Thread (also known as the "Abalakov anchor", named after the Russian climber who popularised the approach) and the ice bollard. In a V-thread two intersecting tunnels are bored into the ice to form a "V" shaped tunnel. A nylon webbing sling or cordelette is then threaded through the V and tied in a loop. The rope is passed through the sling, which remains left behind after use.[8]

An ice bollard involves chipping ice away to create a teardrop shaped anchor. A sling is placed around it, and the rope through the sling, which again is left behind.[9] When ice conditions permit the sling may be dispensed with.

Useful natural formations, ice hooks, and ice pitons are also used as protection anchors by ice climbers.

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Ice screw

Ice screw

An ice screw is a threaded tubular screw used as a running belay or anchor by climbers on steep ice surface such as steep waterfall ice or alpine ice during ice climbing or crevasse rescue, to hold the climber in the event of a fall, and at belays as anchor points.

Climbing protection

Climbing protection

Climbing protection is any of a variety of devices employed to reduce risk and protect others while climbing rock and ice. It includes such items as nylon webbing and metal nuts, cams, bolts, and pitons.

Abalakov thread

Abalakov thread

The Abalakov thread, also known as a V-thread, A-thread, or 0-thread, is an ice protection technique named after its innovator, Soviet climber Vitaly Abalakov. The Abalakov thread is a common method of protecting oneself while ice climbing because it is easy to create, does not require the sacrifice of expensive gear, and can be very safe when used properly. An Abalakov thread is often used in multi-pitch ice climbing routes. Because of its safety and convenience, the Abalakov thread is considered one of the most significant innovations in ice climbing. It significantly expanded the scope of possible routes and abseiling safety.

Bollard

Bollard

A bollard is a sturdy, short, vertical post. The term originally referred to a post on a ship or quay used principally for mooring boats. It now also refers to posts installed to control road traffic and posts designed to prevent automotive vehicles from colliding or crashing into pedestrians and structures, whether intentional from ram-raids and vehicle-ramming attacks, or unintentional losses of control.

Webbing

Webbing

Webbing is a strong fabric woven as a flat strip or tube of varying width and fibres, often used in place of rope. It is a versatile component used in climbing, slacklining, furniture manufacturing, automobile safety, auto racing, towing, parachuting, military apparel, load securing, and many other fields.

Piton

Piton

A piton in climbing is a metal spike that is driven into a crack or seam in the climbing surface using a climbing hammer, and which acts as an anchor for protecting the climber against the consequences of falling or to assist progress in aid climbing. Pitons are equipped with an eye hole or a ring to which a carabiner is attached; the carabiner can then be directly or indirectly connected to a climbing rope.

Grades

Lead climbing a frozen waterfall in the Canadian Rockies
Lead climbing a frozen waterfall in the Canadian Rockies

Waterfall ice grading

Ice grading is not merely subjective but, given the variability of ice, weather, and route usage, cannot reflect the difficulty of a given route in all conditions. In general, routes become easier the more they are climbed. This is due to the early or ongoing cleaning of chandeliered ice and the creation of "hooks" - convenient pockets formed by previous climbers' picks - which reduce the effort expended in cleaning routes and tool placement. Routes with high-flow seeps also tend to become easier as the season progresses, due to the increase in the volume of ice. Low-flow seeps, however (e.g. French Reality, Banff; Moonlight/Snowline, Kananaskis), often from early in the season (September–November) when the flow is good from the latent summer heat, and then slow down or even stop with the deepening winter frost; subsequent ablation (and destruction by climbing) of the ice often makes for thinner and brittler ice with time.

Grading in the Canadian Rockies, especially recently, focuses on the steepness of a pitch rather than the more subjective measures of difficulty (which include such considerations as protectability, exposure, commitment required, etc.) and "technical difficulty" (e.g. chandeliers, bonding, etc.) during the first ascent. This has resulted in the downgrading of several high-rated routes, e.g. Sea of Vapours, which were in poor conditions during the first ascents. A common use of the "+" designation is to indicate a higher level of technicality than is typical for the grade (e.g. chandeliers, poor bonding, etc.) that is consistent from year to year (i.e. Wicked Wanda, WI4+, has vicious mushrooms on an otherwise low-angled route, which persist from year to year).

Canadian Rockies WI grading does not regard pitch length - I.e. a 4-pitch WI5 is not rated WI6 just because it's long; its rating reflects the difficulty of its greatest challenge(s).

WI2 – low-angled (60-degree consistent ice), with good technique, can be easily climbed with one ice axe. Grades beyond this generally require the use of two ice tools.

WI3 – generally sustained in the 60–70 degree range with occasional near-vertical steps up to 4 metres (Cascade Waterfall, Banff; This House of Sky, Ghost River)

WI4 – near-vertical steps of up to 10 metres, generally sustained climbing requiring placing protection screws from strenuous stances (Professor's Falls, Banff; Weeping Wall Left, Icefields Parkway; Silk Tassle, Yoho; Moonlight & Snowline, Kananaskis)

WI4+ – highly technical WI4. (Wicked Wanda, Ghost River)

WI5 – near-vertical or vertical steps of up to 20 metres, sustained climbing requiring placing multiple protection screws from strenuous stances with very few good rests (Carlsberg Column, Field; The Sorcerer, Ghost River; Bourgeau Left Hand, Banff)

WI5+ – highly technical WI5 (Oh le Tabernac, Icefield Parkway; Hydrophobia, Ghost River; Sacre Bleu, Banff; Stairway to Heaven, Provo Canyon)

WI6 – vertical climbing for the entire pitch (e.g. 30–60 metres) with no rests. Requires excellent technique and/or a high level of fitness (The Terminator, Banff; Nemesis, Kootenay Park; Whiteman Falls, Kananaskis Country; Riptide, Banff)

WI6+ – vertical or overhanging with no rests, and highly technical WI6 (Fosslimonster, Norway; French Maid, Yoho; French Reality, Kootenay Park)

WI7 – sustained and overhanging with no rests. Rare; widely accepted testpiece examples of this grade do not exist in the Canadian Rockies (e.g. Sea of Vapours, Banff; Riptide, Icefield Parkway, Banff)

Modern ice-climbers have established even more severe grades for waterfall ice climbs that are largely severely overhanging, notable milestones being:[10]

WI10Spray On (first W10 climbed by Tim Emmett and Will Gadd in 2010 at Helmcken Falls).[10]

WI11Wolverine (first W11 climbed by Tim Emmett and Klemen Premrl in 2011 at Helmcken Falls).[10]

WI12Interstellar Spice (first W12 climbed by Tim Emmett and Klemen Premrl in 2016 at Helmcken Falls).[10][11]

WI13Misson to Mars (first W13 climbed Tim Emmett and Klemen Premrl in 2020 at Helmcken Falls).[11]

Mixed ice grading

YDS Hueco Mixed
5.8 V0− M4
5.9 V0 M5
5.10a V0+ M6
5.10b
5.10c V1
5.10d
5.11a V2 M7
5.11b
5.11c V3 M8
5.11d
5.12a V4
5.12b V5
5.12c M9
5.12d V6
5.13a V7
5.13b V8
5.13c M10
5.13d V9
5.14a V10
5.14b V11
5.14c V12 M11
5.14d V13
5.15a V14
5.15b V15 M12
5.15c V16 M13

Mixed climbing has its own grading scale that roughly follows the WI rating system with respect to its physical and technical demands. Typically starts at M4. Subgrades of "−" and "+" are commonly used, although the distinctions are typically very subjective. The following table makes a comparison with the WI system and the Yosemite Decimal System. Comparing these is rough, and only gives an idea of the relative difficulty; the reason different systems exist in the first place is because it's difficult to compare grades between climbing media.

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Exposure (heights)

Exposure (heights)

Exposure is a climbing and hiking term. Sections of a hiking path or climbing route are described as "exposed" if there is a high risk of injury in the event of a fall because of the steepness of the terrain. If such routes are negotiated without any protection, a false step can result in a serious fall. The negotiation of such routes can cause fear of falling because of the potential danger.

Ice axe

Ice axe

An ice axe is a multi-purpose hiking and climbing tool used by mountaineers in both the ascent and descent of routes that involve snow, ice, or frozen conditions. Its use depends on the terrain: in its simplest role it is used like a walking stick, with the mountaineer holding the head in the center of their uphill hand. On steep terrain it is swung by its handle and embedded in snow or ice for security and an aid to traction. It can also be buried pick down, the rope tied around the shaft to form a secure anchor on which to bring up a second climber, or buried vertically to form a stomp belay. The adze is used to cut footholds, as well as scoop out compacted snow to bury the axe as a belay anchor.

Ice tool

Ice tool

An ice tool is a specialized elaboration of the modern ice axe, used in ice climbing, mostly for the more difficult configurations. Ice tools are used two to a person for the duration of a pitch, and thus in some circumstances such as top-rope-anchored climbs, a pair may be shared among two or more people, where only one of them at a time is climbing. In contrast a classical "ice axe" is used one to a person for the hours or days a party is traveling across snow or glacier. In communities where it is common to refer to an "ice tool" simply as an "ice axe", classic "ice axes" are often referred to as "traveling axes", "walking axes", or "general mountaineering axes" to distinguish them from "tools".

Weeping Wall (Alberta)

Weeping Wall (Alberta)

The Weeping Wall is a set of cliffs, approximately 1000 feet high, located at the western base of Cirrus Mountain alongside Highway 93 in northern Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada, just south of the boundary with Jasper National Park.

Provo Canyon

Provo Canyon

Provo Canyon is located in unincorporated Utah County and Wasatch County, Utah. Provo Canyon runs between Mount Timpanogos on the north and Mount Cascade on the south. The canyon extends from Orem on the west end to Heber City on the east. Provo Canyon is situated to the east of Utah Valley and grants access to the valleys and Uinta Basin regions that lie beyond the Wasatch front.

Tim Emmett

Tim Emmett

Tim Emmett, is a British-born adventure climber and cimbing author, who practices to a high level in a diverse range of climbing disciplines, being ice-climbing, rock climbing, deep-water soloing and alpine climbing. Emmett has established the hardest waterfall ice-climbs in the world, and was the first to climb grades of W10 and above.

Will Gadd

Will Gadd

Will Gadd is a prominent Canadian ice climber and paraglider pilot. He formerly held the paragliding world distance record, with a flight of 423 km in Zapata, Texas.

Helmcken Falls

Helmcken Falls

Helmcken Falls is a 141 m (463 ft) waterfall on the Murtle River within Wells Gray Provincial Park in British Columbia, Canada. The protection of Helmcken Falls was one of the reasons for the creation of Wells Gray Provincial Park in 1939.

Grade (climbing)

Grade (climbing)

In rock climbing, mountaineering, and other climbing disciplines, climbers give a grade to a climbing route or boulder problem, intended to describe concisely the difficulty and danger of climbing it. Different types of climbing each have their own grading systems, and many nationalities developed their own, distinctive grading systems.

Grade (bouldering)

Grade (bouldering)

In the sport of bouldering, problems are assigned technical grades according to several established systems, which are often distinct from those used in roped climbing. Bouldering grade systems vary widely in use and include the Hueco "V" grades, Fontainebleau technical grades, route colors, Peak District grades, and British technical grades. Historically, the three-level "B" system and even the Yosemite Decimal System were also used.

Mixed climbing

Mixed climbing

Mixed climbing is a combination of ice climbing and rock climbing generally using ice climbing equipment such as crampons and ice tools. Mixed climbing has inspired its own specialized gear such as boots which are similar to climbing shoes but feature built-in crampons. Dry-tooling is mixed climbing's most specialized skill and has since evolved into a "sport" unto itself.

Source: "Ice climbing", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, October 21st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_climbing.

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References
  1. ^ Chouinard, Yvon (1978). Climbing Ice. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books. ISBN 978-0871562081.
  2. ^ a b Lowe, Jeff (1996). Ice World: Techniques and Experiences of Modern Ice Climbing. Seattle: The Mountaineers.
  3. ^ Gadd, Will; Roger Chayer (November 2003). Ice & Mixed Climbing: Modern Technique (First ed.). Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-769-X.
  4. ^ climbingextreme.com, Juho Risku (January 2012). "Climbing Extreme: Ice climbing, ropes and single vs. half". Archived from the original on 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
  5. ^ "Rappel Safety Tips". www.rockandice.com. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06.
  6. ^ a b "About Ice Climbing - UIAA". UIAA. Archived from the original on May 27, 2019.
  7. ^ "UIAA Ice Climbing – Results Archive – UIAA". UIAA. Archived from the original on Mar 16, 2018.
  8. ^ a b Steven M. Cox and Kris Fulsaas, ed. (2003) [1960]. Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills (7th ed.). Seattle: The Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-0898868289.
  9. ^ Institute, American Alpine. "The Ice Bollard". alpineinstitute.com. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d Gray, Will (9 December 2021). "These are the 10 hardest climbs in the world". RedBull. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  11. ^ a b Levy, Michael (19 February 2020). ""Mission to Mars" Is Tim Emmett and Klem Premrl's New WI 13 (What?!) at Helmcken Falls". Rock&Ice. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
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