Get Our Extension

House of Savoy

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
House of Savoy
Great coat of arms of the king of italy (1890-1946).svg
Country
Founded1003; 1019 years ago (1003)
FounderUmberto I of Savoy
Current headDisputed:
Final rulerUmberto II of Italy
Titles
Estate(s)
Deposition12 June 1946: Umberto II left Italy as a result of the constitutional referendum
Cadet branches

The House of Savoy (Italian: Casa Savoia) was a royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small Alpine county north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the Kingdom of Sicily from 1713 to 1720, when they were handed the island of Sardinia, over which they would exercise direct rule from then onward.

Through its junior branch of Savoy-Carignano, the House of Savoy led the Italian unification in 1860 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy until 1946; they also briefly ruled the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch reigned for a few weeks before being deposed following the institutional referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.[1]

Discover more about House of Savoy related topics

Italian language

Italian language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Together with Sardinian, Italian is the least divergent language from Latin. Spoken by about 85 million people (2022), Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria.

Dynasty

Dynasty

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in republics. A dynasty may also be referred to as a "house", "family" or "clan", among others. The longest surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC and historically attested from AD 781.

Savoy

Savoy

Savoy is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps.

Alps

Alps

The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately 1,200 km (750 mi) across seven Alpine countries : France, Switzerland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.

County of Savoy

County of Savoy

The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century. It was the cradle of the future Savoyard state.

Kingdom of Sicily

Kingdom of Sicily

The Kingdom of Sicily was a state that existed in the south of the Italian Peninsula and for a time the region of Ifriqiya from its founding by Roger II of Sicily in 1130 until 1816. It was a successor state of the County of Sicily, which had been founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of the southern peninsula. The island was divided into three regions: Val di Mazara, Val Demone and Val di Noto.

Sardinia

Sardinia

Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula, north of Tunisia and immediately south of the French island of Corsica.

House of Savoy-Carignano

House of Savoy-Carignano

The House of Savoy-Carignano originated as a cadet branch of the House of Savoy. It was founded by Thomas Francis of Savoy, Prince of Carignano (1596–1656), an Italian military commander who was the fifth son of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. His descendants were accepted as princes étrangers at the court of France, where some held prominent positions. They eventually came to reign as kings of Sardinia from 1831 to 1861, and as kings of Italy from 1861 until the dynasty's deposition in 1946. The Savoy-Carignano family also, briefly, supplied a king each to Spain and Croatia, as well as queens consort to Bulgaria and Portugal.

Kingdom of Italy

Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy was a state that existed from 1861, when Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy, until 1946, when civil discontent led to an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state resulted from a decades-long process, the Risorgimento, of consolidating the different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state. That process was influenced by the Savoy-led Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered Italy's legal predecessor state.

Umberto II of Italy

Umberto II of Italy

Umberto II, full name Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia, was the last King of Italy. He reigned for 34 days, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946, although he had been de facto head of state since 1944 and was nicknamed the May King.

1946 Italian institutional referendum

1946 Italian institutional referendum

An institutional referendum was held in Italy on 2 June 1946, a key event of Italian contemporary history.

Italy

Italy

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, in Southern Europe; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region. Italy is also considered part of Western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital and largest city, the country covers a total area of 301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland, Campione. With over 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.

History

The name derives from the historical region of Savoy in the Alpine region between what is now France and Italy. Over time, the House of Savoy expanded its territory and influence through judicious marriages and international diplomacy.[2] From rule of a region on the French–Italian border, the dynasty's realm grew to include nearly all of the Italian Peninsula by the time of its deposition.

Early history

The house descended from Humbert I, Count of Sabaudia (Umberto I "Biancamano"), (1003–1047 or 1048). Humbert's family is thought to have originated near Magdeburg in Saxony, with the earliest recording of the family being two 10th-century brothers, Amadeus and Humbert.[3] Though Sabaudia was originally a poor county, later counts were diplomatically skilled, and gained control over strategic mountain passes in the Alps. Two of Humbert's sons were commendatory abbots at the Abbey of St. Maurice, Agaunum, on the River Rhone east of Lake Geneva, and Saint Maurice is still the patron of the House of Savoy.

Humbert's son, Otto of Savoy succeeded to the title in 1051 after the death of his elder brother Amadeus I of Savoy and married the Marchioness Adelaide of Turin, passing the Marquessate of Susa, with the towns of Turin and Pinerolo, into the House of Savoy's possession.[4] This diplomatic skill caused the great powers such as France, England, and Spain to take the counts' opinions into account.

They once had claims on the modern canton of Vaud, where they occupied the Château of Chillon in Switzerland, but their access to it was cut by Geneva during the Protestant Reformation, after which it was conquered by Bern. Piedmont was later joined with Sabaudia, and the name evolved into "Savoy" (Italian: Savoia). The people of Savoy were descended from the Celts and Romans.

Hautecombe Abbey, where many of the dukes are buried.
Hautecombe Abbey, where many of the dukes are buried.

Expansion, retreat and prosperity

By the time Amadeus VIII came to power in the late 14th century, the House of Savoy had gone through a series of gradual territorial expansions and he was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund to the Duke of Savoy in 1416.[5]

A map of Italy in 1494.
A map of Italy in 1494.

In 1494, Charles VIII of France passed through Savoy on his way to Italy and Naples, which initiated the Italian War of 1494–98.[6] During the outbreak of the Italian war of 1521-1526, Emperor Charles V stationed imperial troops in Savoy.[7] In 1536, Francis I of France invaded Savoy and Piedmont, taking Turin by April of that year.[8] Charles III, Duke of Savoy, fled to Vercelli.[8]

When Emmanuel Philibert came to power in 1553 most of his family's territories were in French hands, so he offered to serve France's leading enemy the House of Habsburg, in the hope of recovering his lands. He served Philip II as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559.[9] In this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a victory at St. Quentin in 1557.[10] He took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to slowly regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin. He moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin.

The 17th century brought about economic development to the Turin area and the House of Savoy took part in and benefitted from that. Charles Emmanuel II developed the port of Nice and built a road through the Alps towards France. And through skillful political manoeuvres territorial expansion continued. In the early 18th century in the War of the Spanish Succession Victor Amadeus switched sides to assist the Habsburgs and via the Treaty of Utrecht they rewarded him with large pieces of land in northeastern Italy and a Crown in Sicily. Savoy rule over Sicily lasted only seven years (1713–20).

The Kingdom of Italy

A map of Italy in 1796.
A map of Italy in 1796.

The crown of Sicily, the prestige of being kings at last, and the wealth of Palermo helped strengthen the House of Savoy further. In 1720 they were forced to exchange Sicily for Sardinia as a result of the War of the Quadruple Alliance. On the mainland, the dynasty continued its expansionist policies as well. Through advantageous alliances during the War of the Polish Succession and War of the Austrian Succession, Charles Emmanuel III gained new lands at the expense of the Austrian-controlled Duchy of Milan.

In 1792 Piedmont-Sardinia joined the First Coalition against the French First Republic. It was beaten in 1796 by Napoleon and forced to conclude the disadvantageous Treaty of Paris (1796), giving the French army free passage through Piedmont. In 1798, Joubert occupied Turin and forced Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate and leave for the island of Sardinia. Eventually, in 1814 the kingdom was restored and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa by the Congress of Vienna.

In the meantime, nationalist figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini were influencing popular opinion. Mazzini believed that Italian unification could only be achieved through a popular uprising, but after the failure of the 1848 revolutions, the Italian nationalists began to look to the Kingdom of Sardinia and its prime minister Count Cavour as leaders of the unification movement. In 1848, Charles Albert conceded a constitution known as the Statuto Albertino to Piedmont-Sardinia, which remained the basis of the Kingdom's legal system even after Italian unification was achieved and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

The Kingdom of Italy was the first Italian state to include the Italian Peninsula since the fall of the Roman Empire. But when Victor Emmanuel was crowned King of Italy in 1861, his realm did not include the Venetia region (subject to Habsburg governance), Lazio (with Rome), Umbria, Marche and Romagna (with the Papal town of Bologna). Yet the House of Savoy continued to rule Italy for several decades, through the Italian Independence wars as Italian unification proceeded and even as the First World War raged on in the early 20th century.

Massacres

A map of Italy in 1843.
A map of Italy in 1843.

In April 1655, based on (perhaps false) reports of resistance by the Waldensians, a Protestant religious minority, to a plan to resettle them in remote mountain valleys, Charles Emmanuel II ordered their general massacre. The massacre was so brutal it aroused indignation throughout Europe. Oliver Cromwell, then ruler in England, began petitioning on behalf of the Waldensians, writing letters, raising contributions, calling a general fast in England, and threatening to send military forces to the rescue. The massacre prompted John Milton's famous sonnet, "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont".

In 1898, the Bava Beccaris massacre in Milan involved the use of cannons against unarmed protesters (including women and old people) during riots over the rising price of bread. King Umberto I of the House of Savoy congratulated General Fiorenzo Bava Beccaris for the massacre and decorated him with the medal of Great Official of Savoy Military Order, greatly outraging a large part of the public opinion. As a result, Umberto I was assassinated in July 1900 in Monza by Gaetano Bresci, the brother of one of the women massacred in the crowd, who had traveled back to Italy from the United States for the assassination. The king had previously been the target of failed assassination attempts by anarchists Giovanni Passannante and Pietro Acciarito.

Fascism and end of monarchy

When the First World War ended, the Treaty of Versailles fell short of what had been promised in the London Pact to Italy. As the economic conditions in Italy worsened after the war, popular resentment and along with it the seeds of Italian fascism began to grow and resulted in the March on Rome by Benito Mussolini.

General Pietro Badoglio advised King Victor Emmanuel III that he could easily sweep Mussolini and his rag-tag Blackshirt army to one side, but Victor Emmanuel decided to tolerate Mussolini and appointed him as prime minister on 28 October 1922. The king remained silent as Mussolini engaged in one abuse of power after another from 1924 onward, and did not intervene in 1925-26 when Mussolini dropped all pretense of democracy. By the end of 1928, the king's right to remove Mussolini from office was, at least theoretically, the only check on his power. Later, the King's failure, in the face of mounting evidence, to move against the Mussolini regime's abuses of power led to much criticism and had dire future consequences for Italy and for the monarchy itself.

Italy conquered Ethiopia in 1936 and Victor Emmanuel was crowned as Emperor of Ethiopia. He added the Albanian crown as well in 1939, but lost Ethiopia two years later, in 1941. However, as Mussolini and the Axis powers failed in the Second World War in 1943, several members of the Italian court began putting out feelers to the Allies, who in turn let it be known that Mussolini had to go. After Mussolini received a vote of no confidence from the Fascist Grand Council on 24 July, Victor Emmanuel dismissed him from office, relinquished the Ethiopian and Albanian crowns, and appointed Pietro Badoglio as prime minister. On 8 September the new government announced it had signed an armistice with the Allies five days earlier. However, Victor Emmanuel made another blunder when he and his government fled south to Brindisi, leaving his army without orders.

As the Allies and the Resistance gradually chased the Nazis and Fascists off the peninsula, it became apparent that Victor Emmanuel was too tainted by his earlier support of Mussolini to have any postwar role. Accordingly, Victor Emmanuel transferred most of his powers to his son, Crown Prince Umberto, in April 1944. Rome was liberated two months later, and Victor Emmanuel transferred his remaining powers to Umberto and named him Lieutenant General of the Realm. Within a year, public opinion pushed for a referendum to decide between retaining the monarchy or becoming a republic. On 9 May 1946, in a last-ditch attempt to save the monarchy, Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated in favour of his son, who became Umberto II. It did not work; the Italian constitutional referendum, 1946 was won by republicans with 54% of the vote. Victor Emmanuel went into exile in Egypt, dying there a year later.

On 12 June 1946, the Kingdom of Italy formally came to an end as Umberto transferred his powers to Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi and called for the Italian people to support the new republic. He then went into exile in Portugal, never to return; he died in 1983.

Under the Constitution of the Italian Republic, the republican form of government cannot be changed by constitutional amendment, thus forbidding any attempt to restore the monarchy short of adoption of an entirely new constitution. The constitution also forbade male descendants of the House of Savoy from entering Italy.[11] This provision was removed in 2002[12] but as part of the deal to be allowed back into Italy, Vittorio Emanuele, the last claimant to the House of Savoy, renounced all claims to the throne.[13]

House of Savoy today

The Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and the neighbourhood are protected as a World Heritage Site. Although the titles and distinctions of the Italian royal family are not legally recognised by the Italian Republic, the remaining members of the House of Savoy, like dynasties of other abolished monarchies, still use some of the various titles they acquired over the millennium of their reign prior to the republic's establishment, including Duke of Savoy, "Prince of Naples" previously conferred by Joseph Bonaparte to be hereditary on his children and grandchildren, Prince of Piedmont and Duke of Aosta

Before, the leadership of the House of Savoy was contested by two cousins: Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, who used to claim the title of King of Italy, and Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, who claimed the title of Duke of Savoy. Their rivalry has not always been peaceful — on 21 May 2004, following a dinner held by King Juan Carlos I of Spain on the eve of the wedding of his son Felipe, Prince of Asturias, Vittorio Emanuele punched Amedeo twice in the face.[14]

Some of the activities of members of the House of Savoy have evoked media coverage disappointing to Italian royalists.[15] In November 1991, after thirteen years of legal proceedings, the Paris Assize Court acquitted Vittorio Emanuele of the fatal wounding and unintentional homicide in August 1978 of Dirk Hamer, finding him guilty only of unauthorised possession of a firearm during the incident.[16] On 16 June 2006 Vittorio Emanuele was arrested in Varenna and imprisoned in Potenza on charges of corruption and recruitment of prostitutes for clients of the Casinò di Campione of Campione d'Italia.[17][18][19] After several days, Vittorio Emanuele was released and placed under house arrest instead.[20] He was released from house arrest on 20 July but was required to remain within the territory of the Republic.

When incarcerated in June 2006, Vittorio Emanuele was recorded admitting with regard to the killing of Dirk Hamer that "I was in the wrong, [...] but I must say I fooled them [the French judges]",[21] leading to a call from Hamer's sister Birgit for Vittorio Emanuele to be retried in Italy for the killing.[22] After a long legal fight, Birgit Hamer obtained the full video.[23] The story was broken in the press by aristocratic journalist Beatrice Borromeo,[24] who also wrote the preface for a book on the murder Delitto senza castigo by Birgit Hamer. Vittorio Emanuele sued the newspaper for defamation, claiming the video had been manipulated. In 2015, a court judgement ruled in favor of the newspaper.[25]

In 2007, lawyers representing Vittorio Emanuele and his son Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy wrote to Italian President Giorgio Napolitano seeking damages for their years in exile.[26] During a television interview, Emanuele Filiberto also requested that Roman landmarks such as the Quirinale palace and Villa Ada should be returned to the Savoy family. The Italian prime minister’s office has released a statement stating that the Savoys are not owed any damages and suggesting that Italy may demand damages from the Savoys for their collusion with Benito Mussolini. The Italian constitution contains a clause stripping the Savoys of their wealth on exile. Emanuele Filiberto acknowledged that his fiancée, whose pregnancy was revealed at the time of the couple's engagement, belonged to a more leftist milieu than his own, a fact which initially displeased his father.[27]

Judicially separated since 1976, civilly divorced in 1982, and their marriage religiously annulled in 1987, Amedeo of Aosta's first wife, Princess Claude d'Orléans, revealed that she was aware that her husband fathered a child by another woman during their marriage.[28] Aosta acknowledged paternity of another child, born out-of-wedlock in 2006 during his second marriage, but agreed to contribute financially to the child's care only after being directed to do so by court order.[29]

The patrilineal lineage of the House of Savoy was reduced to four males between 1996 and 2009. In 2008 Aimone of Savoy-Aosta married Princess Olga of Greece, his second cousin, and they became the parents of sons Umberto and Amedeo born, respectively, in 2009 and 2011.

In 2019, Vittorio Emanuele issued a formal decree that modified the medieval law restricting succession to male heirs to place his granddaughter, Vittoria Cristina Chiara Adelaide Marie, in the line of succession. Prince Aimone declared the change illegitimate.[30]

As of 2022, the House of Savoy has been in the process of trying to reclaim family jewels which have been owned by the Italian government since the abolition of the monarchy.[31]

Discover more about History related topics

Savoy

Savoy

Savoy is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps.

Magdeburg

Magdeburg

Magdeburg is the capital and second-largest city of the German state Saxony-Anhalt. The city is situated at the Elbe river.

Saxony

Saxony

Saxony, officially the Free State of Saxony, is a landlocked state of Germany, bordering the states of Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland and the Czech Republic. Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with more than 4 million inhabitants.

Alps

Alps

The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately 1,200 km (750 mi) across seven Alpine countries : France, Switzerland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.

Lake Geneva

Lake Geneva

Lake Geneva is a deep lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France. It is one of the largest lakes in Western Europe and the largest on the course of the Rhône. Sixty per cent of the lake belongs to Switzerland and forty per cent to France.

Saint Maurice

Saint Maurice

Saint Maurice was an Egyptian military leader who headed the legendary Theban Legion of Rome in the 3rd century, and is one of the favorite and most widely venerated saints of that martyred group. He is the patron saint of several professions, locales, and kingdoms.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a transcontinental country predominantly located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain close to 68 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, and Nice.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Spain

Spain

Spain, or the Kingdom of Spain, is a country primarily located in southwestern Europe with parts of territory in the Atlantic Ocean and across the Mediterranean Sea. The largest part of Spain is situated on the Iberian Peninsula; its territory also includes the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla in Africa. The country's mainland is bordered to the south by Gibraltar; to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north by France, Andorra and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the second-largest country in the European Union (EU) and, with a population exceeding 47.4 million, the fourth-most populous EU member state. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, Málaga, Murcia, Palma de Mallorca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Bilbao.

Switzerland

Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation;, is a landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe. It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities based in Bern.

Geneva

Geneva

Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated in the south west of the country, where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.

Orders of knighthood

The House of Savoy has held two dynastic orders since 1362[32] which were brought into the Kingdom of Italy as national orders. Although the Kingdom ceased to exist in 1946, King Umberto II did not abdicate his role as fons honorum over the two dynastic orders over which the family has long held sovereignty and grand mastership. Today, following the dispute, both Prince Vittorio Emanuele and Prince Aimone claim to be hereditary Sovereign and Grand Master of the following orders of the House of Savoy:

In addition to these, Vittorio Emanuele claims sovereignty over two more orders:

Recently, all three of Vittorio Emanuele's sisters (Princess Maria Pia, Princess Maria Gabriella, and Princess Maria Beatrice) resigned from the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation and the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, alleging that memberships in the orders had been sold to unworthy candidates, a newfound practice they could not abide.[36]

Discover more about Orders of knighthood related topics

Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples

Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples

Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy, Prince of Naples is the only son of Umberto II, the last King of Italy, and his wife Marie-José of Belgium. Vittorio Emanuele also uses the title Duke of Savoy and claims the headship of the House of Savoy. These claims were disputed by supporters of his third cousin, Prince Aimone, 6th Duke of Aosta.

Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta (born 1967)

Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta (born 1967)

Prince Aimone of Savoy-Aosta, 6th Duke of Aosta is one of two claimants to be head of the House of Savoy. Since November 2019, he has served as the Ambassador of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta to Russia.

Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation

Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation

The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry, originating in Savoy. It eventually was the pinnacle of the honours system in the Kingdom of Italy, which ceased to be a national order when the kingdom became a republic in 1946. Today, the order continues as a dynastic order under the jurisdiction of the Head of the House of Savoy.

Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus

Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus

The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the royal House of Savoy. It is the second-oldest order of knighthood in the world, tracing its lineage to AD 1098, and it is one of the rare orders of knighthood recognized by papal bull, in this case by Pope Gregory XIII. In that bull, Pope Gregory XIII bestowed upon Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and his Savoy successors, the right to confer this knighthood in perpetuity. The Grand Master is, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, also known as the Duke of Savoy, the eldest son of the last King of Italy, Umberto II of Italy. However Vittorio Emanuele's cousin once removed Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta claims to be grand master as his father claimed to be head of the house of Savoy.

Civil Order of Savoy

Civil Order of Savoy

The Civil Order of Savoy was founded as an order of knighthood in 1831 by the King of Sardinia, Charles Albert, Duke of Savoy. It is now replaced by the Order of Merit of Savoy.The intention was to reward those virtues not belonging to the existing Military Order of Savoy, founded by Vittorio Emanuele I in 1815. The order has one degree, that of Knight, and is limited to 70 members. Admission is in the personal gift of the head of the House of Savoy.

Order of the Crown of Italy

Order of the Crown of Italy

The Order of the Crown of Italy was founded as a national order in 1868 by King Vittorio Emanuele II, to commemorate the unification of Italy in 1861. It was awarded in five degrees for civilian and military merit. Today the Order of the Crown has been replaced by the Order of Merit of Savoy and is still conferred on new knights by the current head of the house of Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples.

Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma

Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma

Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma is the eldest daughter of Umberto II of Italy and Marie-José of Belgium. She is the older sister of Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, and Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy.

Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy

Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy

Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy is the middle daughter of Italy's last king, Umberto II, and Marie José of Belgium, the "May Queen". She is a historical writer.

Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy

Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy

Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy is the youngest daughter of Italy's last King, Umberto II, and his wife, Queen Marie José.

List of rulers

Counts of Savoy

  • Humbert I "Biancamano" ("White hand"), Count 1003–1047/1048 (c. 972/975–1047/48)

Dukes of Savoy [37]

Kings of Sicily

Kings of Sardinia [38][39]

  • Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy 1580–1630 (1562–1630)

Kings of Italy [40]

Emperors of Ethiopia

Kings of Albania

Kings of Spain

World War II Croatia

In 1941, in the fascist puppet state Independent State of Croatia, Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta, grandson of Amadeo I of Spain, was formally named as the king under the name Tomislav II, but never ruled in practice as he remained residing in Italy, and formally abdicated in 1943 when Italy ended participation with the Axis Powers.

Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia

In 1396, the title and privileges of the final king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Levon V, were transferred to James I, his cousin and king of Cyprus. The title of King of Armenia was thus united with the titles of King of Cyprus and King of Jerusalem.[41] The title was held to the modern day by the House of Savoy.

Discover more about List of rulers related topics

County of Savoy

County of Savoy

The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century. It was the cradle of the future Savoyard state.

Boniface, Count of Savoy

Boniface, Count of Savoy

Boniface (1245–1263) was Count of Savoy from 1253 to 1263, succeeding his father Amadeus IV. He never married and thus left no heir.

Peter II, Count of Savoy

Peter II, Count of Savoy

Peter II, called the Little Charlemagne, held the Honour of Richmond, Yorkshire, England, from April 1240 until his death, holder of the Honour of l’Aigle, and was Count of Savoy from 1263 until his death in 1268. Briefly, from 1241 until 1242 he was the castellan of Dover Castle and Keeper of the Coast. In 1243 he was granted land by the Thames in London where he later built the Savoy Palace.

Philip I, Count of Savoy

Philip I, Count of Savoy

Philip I was Count of Savoy from 1268 to 1285. Before this, he was Bishop of Valence (1241–1267) and Archbishop of Lyon (1245–1267).

Thomas, Count of Flanders

Thomas, Count of Flanders

Thomas II was the Lord of Piedmont from 1233 to his death, Count of Flanders jure uxoris from 1237 to 1244, and regent of the County of Savoy from 1253 to his death, while his nephew Boniface was fighting abroad. He was the son of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva.

Amadeus V, Count of Savoy

Amadeus V, Count of Savoy

Amadeus V was Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323.

Edward, Count of Savoy

Edward, Count of Savoy

Edward (1284–1329), surnamed the Liberal, was Count of Savoy from 1323 to 1329. He was the son of Amadeus V and his first wife Sybille of Bâgé.

Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy

Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy

Amadeus VI, nicknamed the Green Count was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383. He was the eldest son of Aymon, Count of Savoy, and Yolande Palaeologina of Montferrat. Though he started under a regency, he showed himself to be a forceful leader, continuing Savoy's emergence as a power in Europe politically and militarily. He participated in a crusade against the Turks who were moving into Europe.

Titles of the Crown of Sardinia

A map of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
A map of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

VITTORIO AMEDEO III, per la grazia di Dio Re di Sardegna, Cipro, Gerusalemme e Armenia; Duca di Savoia, Monferrato, Chablais, Aosta e Genevese; Principe di Piemonte ed Oneglia; Marchese in Italia, di Saluzzo, Susa, Ivrea, Ceva, Maro, Oristano, Sezana; Conte di Moriana, Nizza, Tenda, Asti, Alessandria, Goceano; Barone di Vaud e di Faucigny; Signore di Vercelli, Pinerolo, Tarantasia, Lumellino, Val di Sesia; Principe e Vicario perpetuo del Sacro Romano Impero in Italia.

The English translation is: Victor Amadeus III, by the Grace of God, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, Montferrat, Chablais, Aosta and Genevois, Prince of Piedmont and Oneglia, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy, of Saluzzo, Susa, Ivrea, Ceva, Maro, Oristano, Sezana, Count of Maurienne, Nice, Tende, Asti, Alessandria, Goceano, Baron of Vaud and Faucigny, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, Tarentaise, Lumellino, Val di Sesia, Prince and perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire in Italy.

Discover more about Titles of the Crown of Sardinia related topics

Kingdom of Sardinia

Kingdom of Sardinia

The Kingdom of Sardinia, also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sardinia, Piedmont-Sardinia, or Savoy-Piedmont-Sardinia during the Savoyard period, was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.

By the Grace of God

By the Grace of God

By the Grace of God is a formulaic phrase used especially in Christian monarchies as an introductory part of the full styles of a monarch. For example in England and later the United Kingdom, the phrase was formally added to the royal style in 1521 and continues to be used to this day. For example, on UK coinage, the abbreviation DG still appears.

Kingdom of Cyprus

Kingdom of Cyprus

The Kingdom of Cyprus was a state that existed between 1192 and 1489. It was ruled by the French House of Lusignan. It comprised not only the island of Cyprus, but it also had a foothold on the Anatolian mainland: Antalya between 1361 and 1373, and Corycus between 1361 and 1448.

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, also known as Cilician Armenia, Lesser Armenia, Little Armenia or New Armenia, and formerly known as the Armenian Principality of Cilicia, was an Armenian state formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. Located outside the Armenian Highlands and distinct from the Kingdom of Armenia of antiquity, it was centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta.

Chablais

Chablais

Chablais was a province of the Duchy of Savoy. Its capital was Thonon-les-Bains.

Duke of Aosta

Duke of Aosta

Duke of Aosta was a title in the Italian nobility. It was established in the 13th century when Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, made the County of Aosta a duchy. The region was part of the Savoyard state and the title was granted to various princes of the House of Savoy, second sons of the reigning king of Sardinia or king of Italy.

Genevois (province)

Genevois (province)

The Genevois is a former province of the Duchy of Savoy. Its capital is Annecy and other centres include Faverges, Thônes, and La Clusaz. It was bordered by the provinces of Carouge to the north-west, Faucigny to the north-east, and Savoy proper to the south-east and south-west.

Oneglia

Oneglia

Oneglia is a former town in northern Italy on the Ligurian coast, in 1923 joined to Porto Maurizio to form the Comune of Imperia. The name is still used for the suburb.

Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire, also known after 1512 as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Ivrea

Ivrea

Ivrea is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy. Situated on the road leading to the Aosta Valley, it straddles the Dora Baltea and is regarded as the centre of the Canavese area. Ivrea lies in a basin that in prehistoric times formed a large lake. Today five smaller lakes — Sirio, San Michele, Pistono, Nero and Campagna — are found in the area around the town.

Ceva

Ceva

Ceva, the ancient Ceba, is a small Italian town in the province of Cuneo, region of Piedmont, 49 kilometres (30 mi) east of Cuneo. It lies on the right bank of the Tanaro on a wedge of land between that river and the Cevetta stream.

Oristano

Oristano

Oristano is an Italian city and comune, and capital of the Province of Oristano in the central-western part of the island of Sardinia. It is located on the northern part of the Campidano plain. It was established as the provincial capital on 16 July 1974. As of December 2017, the city had 31,671 inhabitants.

Titles of the Crown of Italy

Victor Emmanuel II, by the Grace of God and the Will of the Nation, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, Count of Maurienne, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, Carignano, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, Prince bailiff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca, Bene, Brà, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea, Susa, del Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero e Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi con Tegerone, Migliabruna e Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane e Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhià Agliè, Centallo e Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, del Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant'Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud e del Faucigni, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, della Lomellina, della Valle Sesia, del marchesato di Ceva, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and 11/12th of Menton, Noble patrician of Venice, patrician of Ferrara.

These titles were used during the unified Kingdom of Italy which lasted from 1860–1946.[42]

Discover more about Titles of the Crown of Italy related topics

By the Grace of God

By the Grace of God

By the Grace of God is a formulaic phrase used especially in Christian monarchies as an introductory part of the full styles of a monarch. For example in England and later the United Kingdom, the phrase was formally added to the royal style in 1521 and continues to be used to this day. For example, on UK coinage, the abbreviation DG still appears.

King of Italy

King of Italy

King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a barbarian military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

Kingdom of Cyprus

Kingdom of Cyprus

The Kingdom of Cyprus was a state that existed between 1192 and 1489. It was ruled by the French House of Lusignan. It comprised not only the island of Cyprus, but it also had a foothold on the Anatolian mainland: Antalya between 1361 and 1373, and Corycus between 1361 and 1448.

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, also known as Cilician Armenia, Lesser Armenia, Little Armenia or New Armenia, and formerly known as the Armenian Principality of Cilicia, was an Armenian state formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. Located outside the Armenian Highlands and distinct from the Kingdom of Armenia of antiquity, it was centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta.

Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire, also known after 1512 as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Carignano, Piedmont

Carignano, Piedmont

Carignano is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Turin.

Oneglia

Oneglia

Oneglia is a former town in northern Italy on the Ligurian coast, in 1923 joined to Porto Maurizio to form the Comune of Imperia. The name is still used for the suburb.

Carmagnola

Carmagnola

Carmagnola is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located 29 kilometres (18 mi) south of Turin. The town is on the right side of the Po river. The nature of the soil determined over time how the river's sand accumulated.

Bailiff

Bailiff

A bailiff is a manager, overseer or custodian – a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given. Bailiffs are of various kinds and their offices and duties vary greatly.

Aosta

Aosta

Aosta is the principal city of Aosta Valley, a bilingual region in the Italian Alps, 110 km (68 mi) north-northwest of Turin. It is situated near the Italian entrance of the Mont Blanc Tunnel, at the confluence of the Buthier and the Dora Baltea, and at the junction of the Great and Little St Bernard Pass routes.

Chieri

Chieri

Chieri is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont (Italy), located about 11 kilometres southeast of Turin, 15 km (9 mi) by rail and 13 km (8 mi) by road. It borders the following municipalities: Baldissero Torinese, Pavarolo, Montaldo Torinese, Pino Torinese, Arignano, Andezeno, Pecetto Torinese, Riva presso Chieri, Cambiano, Santena, and Poirino.

Dronero

Dronero

Dronero is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southwest of Turin and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) northwest of Cuneo at the entrance of the Valle Maira.

Source: "House of Savoy", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Savoy.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

Notes
References
  1. ^ Ginsborg, Paul. A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 1943–1988, pg 98
  2. ^ Cox, Eugene (1999). McKitterick, Rosamond; Abulafia, David (eds.). The kingdom of Burgundy, the land of the house of Savoy and adjacent territories. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Vol. 5, C.1198–C.1300. Cambridge University Press. pp. 365–366.
  3. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Savoy" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  4. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Piedmont" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. ^ Introduction:The Sabaudian Lands and Sabaudian Studies, Matthew Vester, Sabaudian Studies: Political Culture, Dynasty, and Territory (1400–1700), ed. Matthew Vester, (Truman State University Press, 2013), 1.
  6. ^ Sabaudian Studies, Matthew Vester, Sabaudian Studies: Political Culture, Dynasty, and Territory (1400–1700), (Truman State University Press, 2013), 6.
  7. ^ Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw, The Italian Wars, 1494-1559, (Pearson Educational Limited, 2012), 154.
  8. ^ a b Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw, The Italian Wars, 1494-1559, 230-231.
  9. ^ Henry Kamen, Philip of Spain, (Yale University Press, 1997), 64.
  10. ^ Henry Kamen, Philip of Spain, 67.
  11. ^ “In order to prevail the thirteenth final provision of the Italian Constitution ( ... ) international law provides for the special instrument of " reserves " duly stamped by the Italian State at the time of its instrument of ratification deposit of the fourth Protocol” ECHR: Buonomo, Giampiero (2000). "Né l'Unione europea, né i diritti dell'uomo possono aprire le frontiere a Casa Savoia". Diritto&Giustizia. Archived from the original on 2019-12-11. Retrieved 2016-03-19.
  12. ^ Buonomo, Giampiero. "Sull'esilio dei Savoia". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ "Right royal punch-up at Spanish prince's wedding". the Guardian. 2004-05-29. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  14. ^ Hooper, John (28 May 2004). "Right royal punch-up at Spanish prince's wedding" – via The Guardian.
  15. ^ McIntosh, David (December 2005). "The Sad Demise of the House of Savoy". European Royal History Journal. Eurohistory. 8.6 (XLVIII): 3–6.
  16. ^ Summary of trial proceedings concerned the killing of Dirk Hamer. sim.law.uu.nl
  17. ^ "Arrestato Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia - Corriere della Sera".
  18. ^ "Arrested Italy prince goes from palace to jail". NBC News. 17 June 2006.
  19. ^ "THE PRINCE AND THE PROSTITUTES Independent, The (London) - Find Articles". 24 January 2007. Archived from the original on 24 January 2007. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  20. ^ "century 21 new york nyc at galleonpoint.com". 28 May 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  21. ^ (in Italian) Vittorio Emanuele, cimici in cella "Ho fregato i giudici francesi"
  22. ^ Prince's braggadocio spurs call for justice. galleonpoint.com. 12 September 2006
  23. ^ Follain, John Prince admits killing on video, The Sunday Times, 27 February 2011; http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/world_news/Europe/article563655.ece
  24. ^ "Il video che incastra Savoia". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  25. ^ "Beatrice Borromeo, el azote de Víctor Manuel de Saboya". HOLA (in Spanish). 2015-03-10. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  26. ^ "Wanted in Rome | Italy's news in English". Wanted in Rome. 2021-02-12. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  27. ^ "BBC NEWS - Europe - Italian 'prince' weds actress".
  28. ^ Anales De La Real Academia Matritense De Heráldica y Genealogía VI (2000–2001), Vol. VI, p. 230, footnote 116.
  29. ^ Amedeo padre di Ginevra. Lo dice il Dna. Corriere.it (18 February 2015). Retrieved 2015-08-17.
  30. ^ Horowitz, Jason (May 10, 2021). "Paris Teenager's New Gig: Would-Be Queen of Italy. A Nation Shrugs". The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  31. ^ Vanderhoof, Erin (28 January 2022). "The House of Savoy, Italy's Former Royal Family, Wants Their Crown Jewels Back". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2022-02-20.
  32. ^ a b "Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunciata". Ordini Dinastici della Real Casa Savoia. Archived from the original on 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  33. ^ "Ordine Militare e Religioso dei SS. Maurizio e Lazzaro". Ordini Dinastici della Real Casa Savoia. Archived from the original on 2015-03-09.
  34. ^ "Ordine Civile di Savoia". Ordini Dinastici della Real Casa Savoia. Archived from the original on 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  35. ^ "Ordine della Corona d'Italia". Ordini Dinastici della Real Casa Savoia. Archived from the original on 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  36. ^ Hooper, John (23 June 2006). "The fall of the house of Savoy" – via The Guardian.
  37. ^ "Savoy 3".
  38. ^ "Savoy 4".
  39. ^ "Savoy 5".
  40. ^ "Savoy 6".
  41. ^ Hadjilyra, Alexander-Michael (2009). The Armenians of Cyprus. New York: Kalaydjian Foundation. p. 12.
  42. ^ Velde, Francois R. "Royal Styles".
Further reading
  • Francesco Cognasso: I Savoia nella politica europea. Milano, 1941 (Storia e politica).
  • Robert Katz: The Fall of the House of Savoy. A Study in the Relevance of the Commonplace or the Vulgarity of History, London 1972.
  • Eugene L. Cox: The Eagles of Savoy. The House of Savoy in thirteenth-century Europe. Princeton, N.J., 1974.
  • Denis Mack Smith: Italy and its Monarchy, New Haven, 1992.
  • Toby Osborne: Dynasty and Diplomacy in the Court of Savoy. Political Culture and the Thirty Years' War (Cambridge Studies in Italian History and Culture), Cambridge 2002.
  • Paolo Cozzo: La geografia celeste dei duchi di Savoia. Religione, devozioni e sacralità in uno Stato di età moderna (secoli XVI-XVII), Bologna, il Mulino, 2006, 370 pp.
  • Enrico Castelnuovo (a cura di): La Reggia di Venaria e i Savoia. Arte, magnificenza e storia di una corte europea. Vol. 1–2. Turin, Umberto Allemandi & C., 2007, 364 + 309 pp.
  • Walter Barberis (a cura di): I Savoia. I secoli d'oro di una dinastia europea. Torino, Giulio Einaudi Editore, 2007, 248 pp.
External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.