Get Our Extension

Hong Kong International Airport

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Hong Kong International Airport

香港國際機場
HongKongAirportlogo.svg
A bird's eye view of Hong Kong International Airport.JPG
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorAirport Authority Hong Kong
ServesHong Kong
LocationChek Lap Kok, New Territories, Hong Kong
Opened6 July 1998; 24 years ago (1998-07-06)
Hub forPassenger Cargo
Focus city for
Time zoneHong Kong Time (+08:00)
Elevation AMSL8.5 m / 27 ft
Coordinates22°18′32″N 113°54′52″E / 22.30889°N 113.91444°E / 22.30889; 113.91444Coordinates: 22°18′32″N 113°54′52″E / 22.30889°N 113.91444°E / 22.30889; 113.91444
Websitewww.hongkongairport.com
Maps
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
07R/25L 3,800 12,467 Asphalt concrete
07C/25C[1] 3,800 12,467 Asphalt concrete
07L/25R[2] 3,800 12,467 Asphalt concrete
Statistics (2021)
Source: Hong Kong International Airport[3]

Hong Kong International Airport (IATA: HKG, ICAO: VHHH) is Hong Kong's main airport, built on reclaimed land on the island of Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong. The airport is also referred to as Chek Lap Kok International Airport or Chek Lap Kok Airport, to distinguish it from its predecessor, the former Kai Tak International Airport.

Having been in commercial operation since 1998, Hong Kong International Airport is one of the largest trans-shipment centres, passenger hubs and gateways for destinations in Hong Kong, greater China, Asia and the world. The airport is the world's busiest cargo gateway and one of the world's busiest passenger airports.[4] It is also home to one of the world's largest passenger terminal buildings (the largest when opened in 1998).

The airport is operated by the Airport Authority 24 hours a day and is the primary hub for Cathay Pacific (the flag carrier of Hong Kong), Greater Bay Airlines, Hong Kong Airlines, HK Express and Air Hong Kong (cargo carrier). The airport is one of the hubs of Oneworld alliance, and also one of the Asia-Pacific cargo hubs for UPS Airlines.[5] It is a focus city for China Airlines and China Eastern Airlines. Ethiopian Airlines utilise Hong Kong as a stopover point for their flights.

HKIA is an important contributor to Hong Kong's economy, with approximately 65,000 employees. More than 100 airlines operate flights from the airport to over 180 cities across the globe. In 2015, HKIA handled 68.5 million passengers,[4] making it the 8th busiest airport worldwide by passenger traffic and the 4th busiest airport worldwide by international passenger traffic.[6] Since 2010, it has also surpassed Memphis International Airport to become the world's busiest airport by cargo traffic (except in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic).[7]

The airport is managed and operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong (AA), which was established on 1 December 1995.[8]

To facilitate the increased traffic due to the third runway, Terminal 2 has been undergoing redevelopment since 2019 and will not reopen until at least 2024.

Discover more about Hong Kong International Airport related topics

Airport

Airport

An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports usually consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off and to land or a helipad, and often includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers, hangars and terminals, to maintain and monitor aircraft. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, and emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, airports also typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation.

Chek Lap Kok

Chek Lap Kok

Chek Lap Kok is an island in the western waters of Hong Kong's New Territories. Unlike the smaller Lam Chau, it was only partially leveled when it was assimilated via land reclamation into the 12.48 square kilometres (4.82 sq mi) island for the current Hong Kong International Airport, which opened for commercial aviation in 1998. The airport is popularly referred to as Chek Lap Kok Airport to distinguish it from the former Hong Kong International Airport, now commonly known as Kai Tak Airport (啟德機場).

Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a city and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China. With 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Hong Kong is also a major global financial centre and one of the most developed cities in the world.

Airport Authority Hong Kong

Airport Authority Hong Kong

The Airport Authority Hong Kong is the statutory body of the government of Hong Kong that is responsible for the operations of the Hong Kong International Airport.

Cathay Pacific

Cathay Pacific

Cathay Pacific Airways Limited (CPA), more widely known as Cathay Pacific, is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline's operations and subsidiaries have scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 190 destinations and present in more than 60 countries worldwide including codeshares and joint ventures. Cathay Pacific operates a fleet consisting of Airbus A321, Airbus A321neo, Airbus A330, Airbus A350, and Boeing 777 aircraft. Cathay Pacific Cargo operates two models of the Boeing 747. Defunct wholly owned subsidiary airline Cathay Dragon, which ceased operations in 2020, previously flew to 44 destinations in the Asia-Pacific region from its Hong Kong base. In 2010, Cathay Pacific and Cathay Pacific Cargo, together with Dragonair, carried nearly 27 million passengers and over 1.8 million tons of cargo and mail.

Greater Bay Airlines

Greater Bay Airlines

Greater Bay Airlines Company Limited, is a Hong Kong-based airline established as Donghai Airlines in 2010, and rebranded in July 2020 as Greater Bay Airlines. The company's inaugural passenger flight was conducted in July 2022.

HK Express

HK Express

Hong Kong Express Airways Limited, commonly known as Hong Kong Express or HK Express, is a Hong Kong–based low-cost airline fully owned by Cathay Pacific Airways. It provides scheduled air service to 27 destinations in Asia, including Cambodia, China, Japan, South Korea, the Northern Mariana Islands, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. The airline's main hub at Hong Kong International Airport uses a fleet that consists exclusively of the Airbus A320 family. The company slogan is Your Move.

Air Hong Kong

Air Hong Kong

AHK Air Hong Kong Limited is an all-cargo airline based in Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong, with its main hub at Hong Kong International Airport. The airline operates an express freight network to 12 destinations in nine countries, including China, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam. It has a fleet of Airbus A300-600F General Freighters, which the airline was the launch customer of this new variant. Its head office is located on the fourth floor of the South Tower of Cathay Pacific City.

Asia-Pacific

Asia-Pacific

Asia-Pacific (APAC) is the part of the world near the western Pacific Ocean. The Asia-Pacific region varies in area depending on context, but it generally includes East Asia, Russian Far East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia and Pacific Islands.

China Airlines

China Airlines

China Airlines is the state-owned flag carrier of the Republic of China (Taiwan), and one of its two major airlines along with EVA Air. It is headquartered in Taoyuan International Airport and operates over 1,400 flights weekly to 102 cities across Asia, Europe, North America, and Oceania. Carrying over 19 million passengers and 5700 tons of cargo in 2017, the carrier was the 33rd largest airline in the world in terms of revenue passenger kilometers (RPK) and 10th largest in terms of freight revenue ton kilometers (FRTK).

China Eastern Airlines

China Eastern Airlines

China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited, also known as China Eastern, is an airline headquartered in the China Eastern Airlines Building, on the grounds of Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport in Changning District, Shanghai. It is one of the "Big Three" airlines of the People's Republic of China, operating international, domestic and regional routes. Hongqiao airport, along with the larger Shanghai Pudong International Airport, are China Eastern's main hubs, with secondary hubs in Beijing Daxing, Kunming, and Xi'an.

Ethiopian Airlines

Ethiopian Airlines

Ethiopian Airlines, formerly Ethiopian Air Lines (EAL), is the flag carrier of Ethiopia, and is wholly owned by the country's government. EAL was founded on 21 December 1945 and commenced operations on 8 April 1946, expanding to international flights in 1951. The firm became a share company in 1965 and changed its name from Ethiopian Air Lines to Ethiopian Airlines.

History

View of the airport from the Ngong Ping 360 cable car
View of the airport from the Ngong Ping 360 cable car
Map showing the reclaimed land of Lantau Island, Lam Chau and Chek Lap Kok.
Map showing the reclaimed land of Lantau Island, Lam Chau and Chek Lap Kok.
A front view of Hong Kong Airport
A front view of Hong Kong Airport
The exterior of Hong Kong International Airport at night
The exterior of Hong Kong International Airport at night

Chek Lap Kok Airport was designed as a replacement for the former Hong Kong International Airport (commonly known as Kai Tak Airport) built in 1925. Located in the densely built-up Kowloon City District with a single runway extending into Kowloon Bay, Hong Kong airport had turned on the runway lights for expansion to cope with steadily increasing air traffic. By the 1990s, Kai Tak had become one of the world's busiest airports – it far exceeded its annual passenger and cargo design capacities, and one out of every three flights experienced delays, largely due to lack of space for aircraft, gates, and a second runway.[9] In addition, noise mitigation measures restricted nighttime flights, as severe noise pollution (exceeding 105 dB(A) in Kowloon City) adversely affected an estimated total of at least 340,000 people.[10][11]

A 1974 planning study by the Civil Aviation and Public Works departments identified the small island of Chek Lap Kok, off Lantau Island, as a possible airport replacement site. Away from the congested city centre, flight paths would be routed over the South China Sea rather than populous urban areas, enabling efficient round-the-clock operation of multiple runways. The Chek Lap Kok (CLK) airport master plan and civil engineering studies were completed towards the end of 1982 and 1983 respectively. In February 1983, however, the government shelved the project for financial and economic reasons. In 1988, the Port & Airport Development Strategy (PADS) Study was undertaken by consultants, headed by Mott MacDonald Hong Kong Limited, reporting in December 1989. This study looked at forecasts for both airport and port traffic to the year 2011 and came up with three recommended strategies for overall strategic development in Hong Kong. One of the three assumed maintaining the existing airport at Kai Tak; a second assumed a possible airport in the Western Harbour between Lantau Island and Hong Kong Island, and the third assumed a new airport at Chek Lap Kok. The consultants produced detailed analyses for each scenario, enabling Government to consider these appraisals for each of the three "Recommended Strategies". In October 1989, the Governor of Hong Kong announced to the Legislative Council that a decision had been made on the long-term port and airport development strategy for the territory. The strategy to be adopted was that which included a replacement airport at Chek Lap Kok and incorporating new container terminals 8 and 9 at Stonecutters Island and east of the island of Tsing Yi respectively.[12]

In the PADS study, the consultants advised that the earliest the airport could be opened was January 1998.[13] However, in reaching the government's decision, this date was modified to January 1997, six months prior to the handover of Hong Kong to China. Construction of the new airport began in 1991.[14] As construction progressed, an agreement was reached with China that as much as possible of the airport would be completed before the handover to China in July 1997. In the event, British Prime Minister John Major opened the Tsing Ma Bridge, the main access to Lantau Island and the airport and its supporting community in May 1997, prior to the transfer of sovereignty to China. The airport itself was opened in July 1998.

The construction period was very rushed; specialists considered that only a 10–20-year period was sufficient for this massive project. Another cause for this rush was due to the uncertain future of the airport construction after the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China. Shortly after the then-British colonial government of Hong Kong announced plans to construct the new airport, the Chinese government in Beijing began voicing objections to various aspects of the massive project, which prompted financial institutions to delay extending project finance. Without access to this financing, many of the companies who had secured contracts to build various portions of the project halted construction, resulting in delays that pushed the actual opening of the airport, originally planned to take place before the transition in sovereignty until one year after. As agreements were reached with the government in China, Beijing removed most of its objections and work then continued, albeit behind schedule.

Hong Kong International Airport was built on a large artificial island formed by flattening and levelling Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau islands (3.02 square kilometres (1.17 sq mi) and 0.08 km2 (0.031 sq mi) respectively) and reclaiming 9.38 km2 (3.62 sq mi) of the adjacent seabed. The 12.48-square-kilometre (4.82 sq mi) airport site, with its reclamation, added nearly 1% to Hong Kong's total surface area, connecting to the north side of Lantau Island near Tung Chung new town.[15]

Construction of the new airport was only part of the Airport Core Programme, which also involved the construction of new roads and rail links to the airport, with associated bridges and tunnels, and major land reclamation projects on both Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon. The project is the most expensive airport project ever, according to Guinness World Records. Construction of the new airport was voted as one of the Top 10 Construction Achievements of the 20th Century at the ConExpo conference in 1999.[16]

The detailed design for the airport terminal was awarded to a consortium led by Mott Connell (the Hong Kong office of UK consultant Mott MacDonald) with British Airports Authority as specialist designers for airport related aspects, Foster and Partners as architects and Ove Arup as specialist structural designers for the roof. Mott Connell were the designers for foundations, all other structural components and the mechanical and electrical work. The sides of the terminals, predominantly glass, were designed to break during high speed winds, relieving pressure and allowing the terminal to withstand an intense typhoon.[17]

The airport was officially opened in an opening ceremony by the President of the People's Republic of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party Jiang Zemin at noon Hong Kong Time on 2 July 1998. Hours later, Air Force One, carrying the President of the United States Bill Clinton, landed at the new airport and became the first foreign visitor to arrive at the new airport.[18] The actual operation of the airport commenced on 6 July 1998, concluding the six-year construction that cost US$20 billion. On that day at 06:25 Hong Kong Time, Cathay Pacific Flight CX 889 from New York JFK Airport became the first commercial flight to land at the airport, pipping the original CX 292 from Rome which was the scheduled first arrival.[19] However, the airport had already started to experience some technical difficulties on the first day of opening. The flight information display system (FIDS) had suddenly shut down which caused long delays. Shortly afterwards, the cargo-communication link with Kai Tak, where all the necessary data was stored (some still stored there then), went down. During the same period of time, someone had accidentally deleted an important database for cargo services. This meant that cargo had to be manually stored. At one point, the airport had to turn away all air cargo and freight headed for and exported from Hong Kong (except food and medical supplies) while it sorted out the huge mess. HKIA simply could not keep up without an automated assistant-computer system.[17] For three to five months after its opening, it suffered various severe organisational, mechanical and technical problems that almost crippled the airport and its operations. Computer glitches were mostly to blame for the major crisis. Lau Kong-wah, a Hong Kong politician, was quoted saying "This was meant to be a first-class project but it has turned into a ninth-class airport and a disgrace. Our airport has become the laughing stock of the world."[20][21] At one time, the government reopened the cargo terminal at Kai Tak Airport to handle freight traffic because of a breakdown at the new cargo terminal, named Super Terminal One (ST1).[22] However, after six months the airport started to operate normally.

On 31 July 2000, Todd Salimuchai, a regularised illegal immigrant in Hong Kong with no provable nationality, forced his way through a security checkpoint using a fake pistol, took a woman hostage, and boarded a Cathay Pacific aircraft. He demanded to be flown to Burma, which he claimed was his native country but had refused to admit him due to his lack of documents. He surrendered to police two and a half hours later.[23]

Officially opened in June 2007, the second airport terminal, called T2, (check-in facility only) is linked with the MTR Airport Express on a new platform. The terminal also features a new shopping mall, SkyPlaza, providing a large variety of shops and restaurants, together with a few entertainment facilities. T2 also houses a 36-bay coach-station for buses to and from mainland China and 56 airline check-in counters, as well as customs and immigration facilities.

Besides T2, the SkyCity Nine Eagles Golf Course has been opened in 2007 whereas the second airport hotel, the Hong Kong SkyCity Marriott Hotel; and a permanent cross-boundary ferry terminal, the Skypier, began operations in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Development around T2 also includes the AsiaWorld-Expo which has started operation in late 2005.[24] A second passenger concourse, the North Satellite Concourse (NSC), opened in 2010, followed by the Midfield Concourse in December 2015.[25]

During August 2019, the airport was shut down multiple times as demonstrations were held inside the airport during the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, over 160 flights were cancelled as both the arrivals and departures sections of the airport were occupied.[26]

Discover more about History related topics

Ngong Ping 360

Ngong Ping 360

Ngong Ping 360 is a bicable gondola lift on Lantau Island in Hong Kong. Intended to improve tourism to the area, the aerial lift was previously known as Tung Chung Cable Car Project before acquiring the Ngong Ping 360 brand in April 2005. It consists of the Ngong Ping Cable Car, formerly known as the Ngong Ping 360 Skyrail, and the Ngong Ping Village, a retail and entertainment centre adjacent to the cable car's upper station. Ngong Ping 360 connects Tung Chung, on the north coast of Lantau and itself linked to central Hong Kong by the Tung Chung line, with the Ngong Ping area in the hills above. This is home to the Po Lin Monastery and the Tian Tan Buddha, both already significant tourist attractions in their own right. Before Ngong Ping 360's opening, the only access was via a mountain road and bus service.

Aviation history of Hong Kong

Aviation history of Hong Kong

The Aviation history of Hong Kong began in Sha Tin on 18 March 1911, when Belgian pilot Charles den Born successfully took off on an aeroplane retrospectively named Spirit of Sha Tin. A replica of the aircraft is hung at the new Chep Lap Kok airport above the arrivals hall.

Kowloon City District

Kowloon City District

Kowloon City District is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in the city of Kowloon. It had a population of 381,352 in 2001, and increased to 418,732 in 2016. The district has the third most educated residents while its residents enjoy the highest income in Kowloon. It borders all the other districts in Kowloon, with Kwun Tong district to the east, Wong Tai Sin district to its northeast, Sham Shui Po district to its northwest, and Yau Tsim Mong district to its southwest.

Kowloon Bay

Kowloon Bay

Kowloon Bay is a body of water within Victoria Harbour and an area within Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Noise pollution

Noise pollution

Noise pollution, also known as environmental noise or sound pollution, is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them are harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport, and propagation systems. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise disintegration or pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Some of the main sources of noise in residential areas include loud music, transportation, lawn care maintenance, construction, electrical generators, wind turbines, explosions, and people.

Kowloon City

Kowloon City

Kowloon City is an area in New Kowloon, Hong Kong. It is part of Kowloon City District.

Civil Aviation Department (Hong Kong)

Civil Aviation Department (Hong Kong)

The Civil Aviation Department (CAD) is the civil aviation authority of Hong Kong, headquartered at Hong Kong International Airport. The department is responsible for providing air traffic control services to all aircraft operating within the Hong Kong Flight Information Region. It reports to the Transport and Logistics Bureau of the Hong Kong Government. The current Director-General of Civil Aviation is Victor Liu Chi-yung.

Lantau Island

Lantau Island

Lantau Island is the largest island in Hong Kong, located West of Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula, and is part of the New Territories. Administratively, most of Lantau Island is part of the Islands District of Hong Kong. A small northeastern portion of the island is located in the Tsuen Wan District.

Mott MacDonald

Mott MacDonald

The Mott MacDonald Group is a consultancy headquartered in the United Kingdom. It employs 16,000 staff in 150 countries. Mott MacDonald is one of the largest employee-owned companies in the world.

Handover of Hong Kong

Handover of Hong Kong

Sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China (PRC) at midnight on 1 July 1997. This event ended 156 years of British rule in the former colony. Hong Kong was established as a special administrative region of China (SAR) for 50 years, maintaining its own economic and governing systems from those of mainland China during this time, although influence from the central government in Beijing increased after the passing of the Hong Kong national security law in 2020.

John Major

John Major

Sir John Major is a British former politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997, and as Member of Parliament (MP) for Huntingdon, formerly Huntingdonshire, from 1979 to 2001. Prior to becoming prime minister, he served as Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer in the third Thatcher government.

Artificial island

Artificial island

An artificial island is an island that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means. Artificial islands may vary in size from small islets reclaimed solely to support a single pillar of a building or structure to those that support entire communities and cities. Early artificial islands included floating structures in still waters or wooden or megalithic structures erected in shallow waters.

Composition

Airport Layout as of 2016 (before expansion)
Airport Layout as of 2016 (before expansion)

Hong Kong International Airport covers an area of 1,255 hectares (4.85 sq mi). The airport has a total of 90 boarding gates,[27] with 77 jet bridge gates (1–21, 23–36, 40–50, 60–71, 201–219) and 12 virtual gates (228–230, 511–513, 520–525) which are used as assembly points for passengers, who are then ferried to the aircraft by apron buses. Of the 66 jet bridges, five (Gates 5, 23, 60, 62, 64) are capable of handling the Airbus A380, the current users of which are Asiana Airlines, British Airways, Emirates, Qantas and Singapore Airlines. Korean Air and China Southern Airlines previously operated a route to HKIA from Seoul and Beijing respectively using the Airbus A380, but these airlines decided to not use them due to unprofitable nature of the aircraft type. Air France, Lufthansa and Thai Airways International previously operated services to Hong Kong from Paris, Frankfurt and Bangkok using the Airbus A380, though they retired the aircraft types early due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In addition to Chek Lap Kok, the airport occupies what was Lam Chau.[28]

Terminal 1

Terminal 1 of the HKIA, with an area measuring 570,000 square metres (6,100,000 sq ft), is one of the largest passenger airport terminal buildings in the world, after the likes of Dubai International Airport Terminal 3 and Beijing Capital International Airport Terminal 3.[29]

Opened on 6 July 1998, Terminal 1 was the largest airport passenger terminal building, with a total gross floor area of 531,000 square metres (5,720,000 sq ft). It briefly conceded the status to Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport (563,000 m2 (6,060,000 sq ft)) when the latter opened on 15 September 2006, but reclaimed the title when the East Hall was expanded, bringing the total area to its current size of 570,000 square metres (6,100,000 sq ft). Terminal 1's title as the world's largest was surrendered to Beijing Capital International Airport Terminal 3 on 29 February 2008.

Starting from late 2021, the air side of Hong Kong airport Terminal 1 start segregating Mainland Chinese flights and other international flights into two separate zones, "Green zone" and "Orange zone", for the purpose of reducing the risk of cross infection of novel coronavirus between travellers and airport workers serving different destinations.[30]

In November 2022, the Sky Bridge opened as part of a wider HK$9 billion airport upgrade, connecting Terminal 1 to the North Satellite Concourse (NSC). Lined with glass floor panels at the edges, the 200 metre long, 28 metre high bridge, the largest of its kind, is high enough for an Airbus A380 to pass underneath.[31]

Terminal 2

Terminal 2 with an area measuring 140,000 m2 (1,500,000 sq ft), together with the SkyPlaza, opened on 28 February 2007 along with the opening of the Airport station's Platform 3.[32] It was only a check-in and processing facility for departing passengers with no gates or arrival facilities (passengers were transported underground to gates at Terminal 1). The SkyPlaza was situated within Terminal 2. Terminal 2 was temporarily closed in November 2019 for expansion to provide departure and arrival facilities for the new satellite terminal from the three-runway system.[33] Before its temporary closure most low-cost carriers and some full-service carriers had relocated their check-in operations to T2.

North Satellite Concourse

In 2007, HKIA began the construction of a two-storey North Satellite Concourse (NSC), which opened in December 2009.[34] This concourse was designed for narrow-body aircraft and is equipped with 10 jet bridges. The concourse has a floor area of 20,000 square metres (220,000 sq ft) and will be able to serve more than five million passengers annually. There is a shuttle bus service between the NSC and Terminal 1 every four minutes. The North Satellite Concourse was built so the airport could accommodate at least 90 percent of its passengers by aerobridges. It has two levels (one for departures and one for arrivals). A new Sky Bridge connecting Terminal 1 and NSC opened in November 2022, allowing passengers to walk above taxiing planes, saving time from taking the airport shuttle bus.[35][36]

Midfield Concourse

On 25 January 2011, Airport Authority Hong Kong (AA) unveiled phase 1 of its midfield development project which was targeted for completion by the end of 2015. The midfield area is located to the west of Terminal 1 between the two existing runways. It was the then last piece of land on the airport island available for large-scale development. This includes 20 aircraft parking stands, three of these are wide enough to serve the Airbus A380 and cater for an additional 10 million passengers annually. Passengers reach the concourse through an extension of the underground automated people mover.[37] A joint venture of Mott MacDonald and Arup led the design of the project.[38] Gammon Construction undertook the construction work.[39] The Concourse began operations on 28 December 2015, and the first flight that used it was the HX658 operated by the Hong Kong Airlines flying from Hong Kong to Okinawa. On 31 March 2016, the Concourse was officially inaugurated in a ceremony marking its full commissioning.[40]

Other buildings

Cathay Pacific City, the head office of Cathay Pacific and Air Hong Kong, is located on the airport island.[41] CNAC House, the office for Air China is also located in the airport complex, together with the Civil Aviation Department headquarters.[42] HAECO also has its head office on the airport property.[43] HK Express has its head office on the airport property,[44] in what was previously the Dragonair House, head office of Cathay Dragon.[45]

The Government Flying Service (GFS) has its head office building in the airport.[46] Additionally the head office of the Air Accident Investigation Authority (AAIA) is in the Facility Building on the airport property.[47]

Discover more about Composition related topics

Jet bridge

Jet bridge

A jet bridge is an enclosed, movable connector which most commonly extends from an airport terminal gate to an airplane, and in some instances from a port to a boat or ship, allowing passengers to board and disembark without going outside and being exposed to harsh weather. Depending on building design, sill heights, fueling positions, and operational requirements, a jet bridge may be fixed or movable, swinging radially, and/or extending in length. The jetway was invented by Frank Der Yuen.

Airbus A380

Airbus A380

The Airbus A380 is a large wide-body airliner that was developed and produced by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airliner and only full-length double-deck jet airliner. Airbus studies started in 1988, and the project was announced in 1990 to challenge the dominance of the Boeing 747 in the long-haul market. The then-designated A3XX project was presented in 1994; Airbus launched the €9.5 billion ($10.7 billion) A380 programme on 19 December 2000. The first prototype was unveiled in Toulouse on 18 January 2005, with its first flight on 27 April 2005. It then obtained its type certificate from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on 12 December 2006. Due to difficulties with the electrical wiring, the initial production was delayed by two years and the development costs almost doubled.

Asiana Airlines

Asiana Airlines

Asiana Airlines Inc. is a South Korean airline headquartered in Seoul. In 2019, it accounted for 25% of South Korea's international aviation market and 20% of its domestic market. It maintains its international hub at Seoul's Incheon International Airport, Gimhae International Airport in Busan and its domestic hubs at Gimpo International Airport, also in Seoul.

British Airways

British Airways

British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in London, England, near its main hub at Heathrow Airport.

Emirates (airline)

Emirates (airline)

Emirates is one of two flag carriers of the United Arab Emirates. Based in Garhoud, Dubai, the airline is a subsidiary of The Emirates Group, which is owned by the government of Dubai's Investment Corporation of Dubai. As of 2019, it was also the largest airline in the Middle East, operating over 3,600 flights per week from its hub at Terminal 3 of Dubai International Airport. It operates to more than 150 cities in 80 countries across 6 continents through its fleet of nearly 300 aircraft. Cargo activities are undertaken by Emirates SkyCargo.

China Southern Airlines

China Southern Airlines

China Southern Airlines Company Limited is an airline headquartered in Baiyun District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province and is the largest airline in China. Established on 1 July 1988 following the restructuring of the CAAC Airlines that acquired and merged a number of domestic airlines, the airline became one of China's "Big Three" airlines, the world's sixth-largest airline measured by passengers carried and Asia's largest airline in fleet size, revenue, and passengers carried. With its main hubs at Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and Beijing Daxing International Airport, the airline operates more than 2,000 flights to more than 200 destinations daily and was a member of SkyTeam until 1 January 2019. The airline started a frequent flyer program partnership with American Airlines in March 2019. The logo of the airline consists of a kapok flower on a blue tail fin. The company slogan is Fly towards your dreams.

Incheon International Airport

Incheon International Airport

Incheon International Airport is the largest airport in South Korea. It is the primary airport serving the Seoul Capital Area and one of the largest and busiest airports in the world.

Beijing Capital International Airport

Beijing Capital International Airport

Beijing Capital International Airport is one of two international airports serving Beijing, the other one being Beijing Daxing International Airport (PKX). It is located 32 km (20 mi) northeast of Beijing's city center, in an exclave of Chaoyang District and the surroundings of that exclave in suburban Shunyi District. The airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital International Airport Company Limited, a state-controlled company. The airport's IATA Airport code, PEK, is based on the city's former romanized name, Peking.

Air France

Air France

Air France, stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the flag carrier of France headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance. As of 2013, Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 175 destinations in 78 countries and also carried 46,803,000 passengers in 2019. The airline's global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport as the primary domestic hub. Air France's corporate headquarters, previously in Montparnasse, Paris, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris.

Charles de Gaulle Airport

Charles de Gaulle Airport

Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport or Roissy Airport, is the principal airport serving the French capital, Paris, and the largest international airport in France. Opened in 1974, it is in Roissy-en-France, 23 km (14 mi) northeast of Paris and is named after statesperson Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970).

Frankfurt Airport

Frankfurt Airport

Frankfurt Airport is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, the fifth-largest city of Germany and one of the world's leading financial centres. It is operated by Fraport and serves as the main hub for Lufthansa, including Lufthansa CityLine and Lufthansa Cargo as well as Condor and AeroLogic. The airport covers an area of 2,300 hectares of land and features two passenger terminals with capacity for approximately 65 million passengers per year; four runways; and extensive logistics and maintenance facilities.

COVID-19 pandemic

COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Attempts to contain failed, allowing the virus to spread to other areas of Asia and later worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 28 November 2022, the pandemic had caused more than 641 million cases and 6.63 million confirmed deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.

Airport expansion projects

In June 2010, the Airport Authority unveiled plans to develop in stages the vast midfield site of the airport island. Stage 1 will involve the construction of a new 20-gate passenger concourse to be built in 2 phases (completion 2015 and 2020) with 11 gates in phase 1 growing to 20 gates in phase 2. The configuration of the new concourse is similar to those at Atlanta, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Berlin (Terminal 1), Chicago–O'Hare (Global Terminal), Denver, Detroit (McNamara Terminal), London–Heathrow (Terminals 2 and 5), Los Angeles (TBIT), Munich (Terminal 2), Salt Lake City, Seoul–Incheon, Washington–Dulles and Mexico City Santa Lucía Airport (Zumpango). After stage 1 of midfield development is completed in 2020, there will be sufficient lands remaining for further new concourses to be built as and when demand for them materialises.[48]

Master Plan 2030

One year after, on 2 June 2011, the Airport Authority announced and released their latest version of a 20-year blueprint for the airport's development, the Hong Kong International Airport Master Plan 2030.[49] The study took three years and according to the authority, nine consulting organisations have been hired for the research, observation, planning and advice. The main focus is to improve the overall capacity and aircraft handling ability of the airport. Based on this, two options have been developed.

Option 1: Two-runway system

To maintain the current two-runway system, there will be enhancements to the terminal and apron facilities to increase the airport's capacity. This option will enable the airport to handle a maximum of 420,000 flight movements per year, with annual passenger and cargo throughput increased to 74 million and six million tonnes respectively. The approximate cost of this plan is $23.4 billion Hong Kong dollars in 2010 prices, or HK$42.5 billion in money-of-the-day prices. The Airport Authority estimates that the airport will reach its maximum runway capacity sometime around 2020 if no extra runway is added.

Option 2: Three-runway system

This plan will focus on adding a third runway to the north of the Chek Lap Kok, the existing island the airport is built on, by land reclamation, using deep cement mixing, of about 650 hectares (1,600 acres). Associated facilities, additional terminals, airfield and apron facilities, will be built as well, and, combined with the new runway, it is estimated that the airport would be able to handle a maximum of 620,000 flights per year (102 per hour, or about one flight every 36 seconds), and meet forecast annual passenger and cargo throughput of about 97 million and 8.9 million tonnes by 2030 respectively.[50]

There are possible drawbacks. Development costs are a concern: although the proposal would increase the number of direct jobs associated with HKIA to 150,000 by 2030 and generate an ENPV of HK$912 billion (in 2009 dollars), the estimated cost is approximately $86.2 billion (2010) Hong Kong Dollars, or HK$141.5 billion (at money-of-the-day prices).[51] There are also environmental and local noise pollution concerns.

On 20 March 2012, the Hong Kong Government adopted this option as the official expansion plan.[52]

The third runway, with its own dedicated passenger concourse (T2 Concourse), was built parallel to the current two runways on reclaimed land directly north of the existing airport island. The third runway (referred as the North runway) began operations in July 2022, while the original North runway (re-designated as the Centre runway) was closed for reconfiguration and is expected to be completed by 2024, alongside other facilities of the Three-runway system project including the T2 expansion, new T2 Concourse, automatic people mover, and baggage handling system.[53][54][55][56]

Discover more about Airport expansion projects related topics

Airport Authority Hong Kong

Airport Authority Hong Kong

The Airport Authority Hong Kong is the statutory body of the government of Hong Kong that is responsible for the operations of the Hong Kong International Airport.

Berlin Brandenburg Airport

Berlin Brandenburg Airport

Berlin Brandenburg Airport Willy Brandt is an international airport in Schönefeld, just south of the German capital Berlin in the state of Brandenburg. Named after the former West Berlin mayor and West German chancellor Willy Brandt, it is located 18 kilometres (11 mi) south-east of the city centre and serves as a base for easyJet, Eurowings and Ryanair. It mostly has flights to European metropolitan and leisure destinations as well as a number of intercontinental services.

O'Hare International Airport

O'Hare International Airport

Chicago O'Hare International Airport, typically referred to as Chicago O'Hare International Airport, O'Hare International Airport, O'Hare Airport, Chicago O'Hare, or simply O'Hare, is the main international airport serving Chicago, Illinois, located on the city's Northwest Side, approximately 17 miles (27 km) northwest of the Loop business district. Operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation and covering 7,627 acres (3,087 ha), O'Hare has non-stop flights to 210 destinations in North America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, and the North Atlantic region as of November 2022. As of 2022, O'Hare is considered the world's most connected airport.

Denver International Airport

Denver International Airport

Denver International Airport, locally known as DIA, is an international airport in the Western United States, primarily serving metropolitan Denver, Colorado, as well as the greater Front Range Urban Corridor. At 33,531 acres, it is the largest airport in North America by land area and the second largest in the world, behind King Fahd International Airport. Runway 16R/34L, with a length of 16,000 feet, is the longest public use runway in North America and the seventh longest in the world. The airport is 25 miles (40 km) driving distance from Downtown Denver, 19 miles (31 km) further than the former Stapleton International Airport, the facility DEN replaced: the airport is actually closer to the City of Aurora than central Denver, and many airport-related services, such as hotels, are located in Aurora.

Heathrow Airport

Heathrow Airport

Heathrow Airport, called London Airport until 1966 and now known as London Heathrow, is a major international airport in London, England. It is the largest of the six international airports serving Greater London. The airport facility is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings. In 2021, it was the seventh-busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic and eighth-busiest in Europe by total passenger traffic.

Los Angeles International Airport

Los Angeles International Airport

Los Angeles International Airport, commonly referred to as LAX, is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles, California and its surrounding metropolitan area. LAX is located in the Westchester neighborhood of Los Angeles, 18 miles (30 km) southwest of Downtown Los Angeles, with the commercial and residential areas of Westchester to the north, the city of El Segundo to the south and the city of Inglewood to the east. LAX is the closest airport to the Westside and the South Bay.

Munich Airport

Munich Airport

Munich International Airport- Franz Josef Strauß is an international airport serving Munich and Upper Bavaria. It is the second-busiest airport in Germany in terms of passenger traffic after Frankfurt Airport, and the ninth-busiest airport in Europe, handling 47.9 million passengers in 2019. It is the world's 15th-busiest airport in terms of international passenger traffic, and was the 38th-busiest airport worldwide in 2018. It serves as hub for Lufthansa including its subsidiaries Lufthansa CityLine, Air Dolomiti and Eurowings as well as a base for Condor and TUI fly Deutschland.

Incheon International Airport

Incheon International Airport

Incheon International Airport is the largest airport in South Korea. It is the primary airport serving the Seoul Capital Area and one of the largest and busiest airports in the world.

Hong Kong International Airport Master Plan 2030

Hong Kong International Airport Master Plan 2030

Hong Kong International Airport ("HKIA"), is connected to about 180 destinations, through over 1,000 daily flights by more than 100 airlines. In order to meet future demand until 2030 and beyond, the Airport Authority Hong Kong ("AAHK") proposed the expansion of HKIA into a three-runway system ("3RS") to support the two currently operated runways, through the introduction of Master Plan 2030 in 2011. Facing a projected increase in air traffic, the Airport Authority Hong Kong promulgated the Hong Kong International Airport Master Plan 2030 on 2 June 2011. Its main project aimed at expanding the current airport infrastructure to a Third-Runway System to maintain the position of Hong Kong International Airport as a leading international and regional aviation hub.

Hong Kong dollar

Hong Kong dollar

The Hong Kong dollar is the official currency of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. It is subdivided into 100 cents or 1000 mils. The Hong Kong Monetary Authority is the monetary authority of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong dollar.

Chek Lap Kok

Chek Lap Kok

Chek Lap Kok is an island in the western waters of Hong Kong's New Territories. Unlike the smaller Lam Chau, it was only partially leveled when it was assimilated via land reclamation into the 12.48 square kilometres (4.82 sq mi) island for the current Hong Kong International Airport, which opened for commercial aviation in 1998. The airport is popularly referred to as Chek Lap Kok Airport to distinguish it from the former Hong Kong International Airport, now commonly known as Kai Tak Airport (啟德機場).

Deep cement mixing

Deep cement mixing

Deep cement mixing (DCM) is a civil engineering deep foundation technique where a binder material, typically cement, is injected into the ground for ground stabilization and land reclamation. In ground stabilization applications it is typically used to obtain a better load bearing capability of the existing soil, e.g. in order to bear buildings and other structures. In land reclamation applications it is typically used when cheaper techniques such as dredging or draining cannot be applied because of environmental concerns due to contaminated soil that these two techniques would release. The expansion of the Hong Kong International Airport and Tokyo's Haneda Airport are examples of this.

Airlines and destinations

Passenger

AirlinesDestinations
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo (suspended)[57]
AirAsia Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–International
Air Busan Busan
Air Canada Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver
Air China Beijing–Capital, Chengdu–Shuangliu, Chongqing
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle (resumes 3 January 2023)[58]
Air India Delhi
Air Mauritius Mauritius
Air New Zealand Auckland
Air Niugini Port Moresby
All Nippon Airways Osaka–Kansai, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
Batik Air Malaysia Kuala Lumpur–International
British Airways London–Heathrow[59]
Cathay Pacific Adelaide, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bangalore,[60] Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Boston, Brisbane, Cebu, Chengdu–Shuangliu, Chicago–O'Hare (resumes 1 April 2023), Chennai, Chongqing, Delhi, Denpasar, Dhaka (resumes 3 December 2022), Dubai–International,[61] Frankfurt, Fukuoka (resumes 16 December 2022),[62] Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Kaohsiung, Kathmandu, Komatsu (suspended), Kuala Lumpur–International, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Manchester, Manila, Melbourne, Milan–Malpensa, Mumbai,[63] Nagoya–Centrair (resumes 1 January 2023),[64] New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Penang (resumes 1 December 2022), Perth, Phnom Penh, Phuket (begins 1 January 2023), Qingdao, Rome–Fiumicino, San Francisco, Sapporo–Chitose (resumes 1 December 2022),[65] Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Surabaya, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tel Aviv, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver, Wuhan, Xiamen, Zhengzhou, Zürich (resumes 1 December 2022)
Seasonal: Christchurch[66]
Cebu Pacific Manila
China Airlines Kaohsiung, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Kunming, Nanjing, Ningbo (begins 30 November 2022),[67] Shanghai–Pudong, Wuhan (begins 1 December 2022)[67]
China Southern Airlines Wuhan, Shenyang
Egyptair Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Cairo
El Al Tel Aviv (resumes 4 February 2023)[68]
Emirates Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Dubai–International
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan
Fiji Airways Nadi
Finnair Helsinki
Garuda Indonesia Denpasar, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta
Greater Bay Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Taipei–Taoyuan (begins 1 December 2022),[69] Tokyo–Narita (begins 12 January 2023)[69]
Hainan Airlines Haikou[70]
HK Express Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi,[71] Busan (resumes 22 January 2023),[72] Chiang Mai (resumes 4 December 2022),[73] Da Nang (resumes 4 December 2022), Fukuoka, Hiroshima, Ishigaki, Jeju (resumes 22 January 2023),[74] Kagoshima (resumes 5 June 2023), Kaohsiung, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Nagoya–Centrair, Naha, Nha Trang, Ningbo, Osaka–Kansai, Phuket, Saipan, Seoul–Incheon, Shimojishima, Siem Reap, Singapore,[75] Taichung, Taipei–Taoyuan, Takamatsu (resumes 16 April 2023), Tokyo–Haneda (resumes 4 December 2022),[76] Tokyo–Narita
Hong Kong Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital,[77] Chengdu–Shuangliu, Chongqing (resumes 2 December 2022),[78] Denpasar, Guiyang, Haikou, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Kagoshima, Malé, Manila (resumes 14 December 2022),[79] Naha, Nanchang, Nanjing, Nanning, Osaka–Kansai, Sanya, Sapporo–Chitose, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Hongqiao, Shanghai–Pudong, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Jeju Air Jeju, Seoul–Incheon
Jetstar Japan Osaka–Kansai, Tokyo–Narita
Jin Air Seoul–Incheon
Juneyao Airlines Nanjing
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon
Loong Air Hangzhou[80]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International
Mandarin Airlines Taichung
MIAT Mongolian Airlines Ulaanbaatar
Myanmar National Airlines Yangon
Nepal Airlines Kathmandu
Peach Aviation Osaka–Kansai (resumes 21 January 2023)[81]
Philippine Airlines Manila
Seasonal: Clark (begins 9 December 2022)[82]
Philippines AirAsia Manila
Qantas Brisbane, Melbourne, Sydney
Qatar Airways Doha
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi (both resume 28 March 2023)[83]
S7 Airlines[84] Novosibirsk, Vladivostok (both suspended)[85]
Scoot Singapore
Shandong Airlines Jinan[86]
Shanghai Airlines Hangzhou
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu–Shuangliu
Singapore Airlines Singapore
Spring Airlines Fuzhou
SriLankan Airlines Colombo–Bandaranaike
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
Thai AirAsia Bangkok–Don Mueang, Chiang Mai (resumes 26 March 2023), Phuket (resumes 26 March 2023)
Thai Airways International Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Tianjin Airlines Tianjin (begins 3 December 2022)[87]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Newark (resumes 26 March 2023),[88] San Francisco (resumes 4 March 2023)[89]
VietJet Air Ho Chi Minh City, Phu Quoc
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
XiamenAir Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Tianjin, Xiamen[90]

Cargo

AirlinesDestinations
AeroLogic Bangalore, Leipzig/Halle,[91] Singapore[92]
Air France Cargo Bahrain, Dammam, Dubai–International, Jeddah, Kuwait City, Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Air Hong Kong Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Cebu, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Manila, Nagoya, Osaka–Kansai, Penang, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
AirBridgeCargo Airlines Almaty, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Krasnoyarsk, Moscow–Domodedovo, Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Moscow–Vnukovo, Singapore, Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg (all suspended)
ANA Cargo Nagoya–Centrair, Naha, Osaka–Kansai, Tokyo–Narita
Asiana Cargo Seoul–Incheon
ASL Airlines Belgium Dubai–International, Liège
CAL Cargo Air Lines Liège, Tel Aviv[93]
Cargolux Abu Dhabi, Almaty, Amman–Queen Alia, Baku, Barcelona, Beirut, Budapest, Chicago–O'Hare, Columbus–Rickenbacker, Dammam, Doha, Dubai–International, Helsinki, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Karaganda, Komatsu, Kuwait City, London–Stansted, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, New York–JFK, Riyadh, Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan, Upington, Vienna
Cargolux Italia Almaty, Dubai–International, Milan–Malpensa, Osaka–Kansai
Cathay Pacific Cargo Amsterdam, Anchorage, Atlanta, Bangalore, Calgary,[94] Chengdu, Chennai, Chicago–O'Hare, Chongqing, Colombo–Bandaranaike, Columbus, Dallas, Delhi, Dhaka, Dubai–Al Maktoum, Frankfurt, Guadalajara, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Houston, Hyderabad, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Kolkata, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Malpensa, Mumbai, New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Penang, Phnom Penh, Portland (OR), Riyadh, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita, Toowoomba, Toronto–Pearson, Xiamen, Zhengzhou
China Airlines Cargo Manila, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Cargo Airlines Qingdao, Shanghai–Hongqiao, Shanghai–Pudong
DHL Aviation Anchorage,[95] Bagram, Bahrain,[96] Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi,[97] Beijing–Capital,[98] Cincinnati,[99] Delhi,[100] Dubai–International,[101] Ho Chi Minh City,[102] Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Leipzig/Halle,[103] Los Angeles,[104] Manila,[105] Nagoya–Centrair,[106] Osaka–Kansai,[107] Penang,[102] Seoul–Incheon,[108] Shanghai–Pudong,[109] Singapore,[110] Taipei–Taoyuan,[111] Tokyo–Narita[112]
Donghai Airlines Chengdu–Shuangliu, Shenzhen
Emirates SkyCargo Delhi, Dubai–Al Maktoum, Kabul, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram
Ethiopian Airlines Cargo[113] Addis Ababa, Chennai, Maastricht/Aachen[114]
Etihad Cargo Abu Dhabi, Amsterdam, Chicago–O'Hare, Chittagong, Delhi, Dhaka, Miami
EVA Air Cargo Taipei–Taoyuan[115]
FedEx Express Almaty, Anchorage, Delhi, Manila, Memphis, Osaka–Kansai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Seoul–Incheon, Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
Flexport Los Angeles[116]
Garuda Cargo Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
Hong Kong Airlines Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Dhaka, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Osaka–Kansai, Kuala Lumpur–International, Nanning, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan, Xiamen, Zhengzhou[117]
IAG Cargo
operated by Qatar Airways Cargo
London–Stansted[118]
KLM Cargo Amsterdam, Chennai, Dubai–Al Maktoum, Kuwait City, Mumbai
Korean Air Cargo Seoul–Incheon
K-Mile Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi[119]
Lufthansa Cargo Almaty, Bahrain, Bangalore, Frankfurt, Leipzig/Halle
MASkargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi,[120] Kuala Lumpur–International, Manila, Penang
Nippon Cargo Airlines Tokyo–Narita[121]
Polar Air Cargo Singapore
Qantas Freight[122] Auckland, Cairns, Sydney
Qatar Airways Cargo Doha, Singapore,[123] Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Saudia Cargo Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh
SF Airlines Ningbo, Shenzhen,[124] Wuhan,[125] Xiamen[126]
Silk Way Airlines Baku
Singapore Airlines Cargo[127] Anchorage, Seattle/Tacoma, Sharjah, Singapore
SpiceXpress Guwahati,[128] Kolkata
Suparna Airlines Chengdu, Hangzhou, Qingdao, Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin, Zhengzhou
Transmile Air Services Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuala Lumpur–Subang
Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Cebu, Clark
Turkish Cargo Almaty, Bishkek, Delhi, Istanbul[129]
ULS Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Manila, Nagoya–Centrair, Osaka–Kansai, Penang, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
UPS Airlines Anchorage, Clark, Cologne/Bonn, Dubai–International, Honolulu, London–Stansted, Louisville, Mumbai, Ontario, Osaka–Kansai, Philadelphia, Sapporo–Chitose, Seoul–Incheon, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan

Discover more about Airlines and destinations related topics

Aeroflot

Aeroflot

PJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines, commonly known as Aeroflot, is the flag carrier and the largest airline of Russia. The airline was founded in 1923, making Aeroflot one of the oldest active airlines in the world. Aeroflot is headquartered in the Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow, with its hub being Sheremetyevo International Airport.

AirAsia

AirAsia

Capital A Berhad, operating as AirAsia is a Malaysian multinational low-cost airline headquartered near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is the largest airline in Malaysia by fleet size and destinations. AirAsia operates scheduled domestic and international flights to more than 165 destinations spanning 25 countries. Its main base is klia2, the low-cost carrier terminal at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) in Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia. Its affiliate airlines Thai AirAsia, Indonesia AirAsia, Philippines AirAsia have bases in Bangkok–Don Mueang, Jakarta–Soekarno-Hatta, Manila–Ninoy Aquino airports respectively, while its sister airline, AirAsia X, focuses on long-haul routes. AirAsia's registered office and head office is at Kuala Lumpur International Airport.

Air Busan

Air Busan

Air Busan Co., Ltd., operating as Air Busan is a low-cost airline based in Busanjin-gu, Busan, South Korea. It is a subsidiary of Asiana Airlines. The airline began its operation in 2007 as Busan International Airlines Company ; it launched service in October 2008.

Air Canada

Air Canada

Air Canada is the flag carrier and the largest airline of Canada by the size and passengers carried. Air Canada maintains its headquarters in the borough of Saint-Laurent, Montreal, Quebec. The airline, founded in 1937, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 222 destinations worldwide. It is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Air Canada's major hubs are at Montréal–Trudeau International Airport (YUL), Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ), Calgary International Airport (YYC), and Vancouver International Airport (YVR). The airline's regional service is Air Canada Express.

Air China

Air China

Air China Limited is the flag carrier of the People's Republic of China and one of the "Big Three" mainland Chinese airlines. Air China's headquarters are in Shunyi District, Beijing. Air China's flight operations are based primarily at Beijing Capital International Airport. In 2017, the airline carried 102 million domestic and international passengers with an average load factor of 81%. The airline joined Star Alliance in 2007.

Beijing Capital International Airport

Beijing Capital International Airport

Beijing Capital International Airport is one of two international airports serving Beijing, the other one being Beijing Daxing International Airport (PKX). It is located 32 km (20 mi) northeast of Beijing's city center, in an exclave of Chaoyang District and the surroundings of that exclave in suburban Shunyi District. The airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital International Airport Company Limited, a state-controlled company. The airport's IATA Airport code, PEK, is based on the city's former romanized name, Peking.

Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport

Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport

Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport is one of two international airports serving Chengdu, the capital of China's Sichuan province, the other one being Chengdu Tianfu International Airport (TFU), and a major air hub. Located about 16 kilometres (10 mi) southwest of downtown Chengdu to the north of Shuangliu District, Shuangliu airport is an important aviation hub for Western China. Shuangliu Airport is one of the two core hubs for Air China, together with Beijing, as well as the main hub and headquarters for Sichuan Airlines and Chengdu Airlines. China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Lucky Air and Tibet Airlines also have bases at Shuangliu Airport.

Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport

Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport

Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport is located in Yubei District, Chongqing, China. The airport's IATA Airport code, CKG, is derived from the city's former romanized name, Chungking. Jiangbei airport is also a 128-hour transit visa-free airport for foreigners from many countries. It was awarded first place in the "Best Airport in the 25–40 Million Passenger Size" category by Airports Council International in 2017 and again in 2018.

Air France

Air France

Air France, stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the flag carrier of France headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance. As of 2013, Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 175 destinations in 78 countries and also carried 46,803,000 passengers in 2019. The airline's global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport as the primary domestic hub. Air France's corporate headquarters, previously in Montparnasse, Paris, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris.

Charles de Gaulle Airport

Charles de Gaulle Airport

Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport or Roissy Airport, is the principal airport serving the French capital, Paris, and the largest international airport in France. Opened in 1974, it is in Roissy-en-France, 23 km (14 mi) northeast of Paris and is named after statesperson Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970).

Air India

Air India

Air India is the flag carrier airline of India, headquartered at New Delhi. It is owned by Talace Private Limited, a Special-Purpose Vehicle (SPV) of Tata Sons, after Air India Limited's former owner, the Government of India, completed the sale. Air India operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving 102 domestic and international destinations. The airline has its hub at Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi, alongside several focus cities across India. Air India is the largest international carrier out of India with an 18.6% market share. Over 60 international destinations are served by Air India across four continents. The airline became the 27th member of Star Alliance on 11 July 2014.

Air Mauritius

Air Mauritius

Air Mauritius is the flag carrier airline of Mauritius. The airline is headquartered in Port Louis, Mauritius, with its hub based at Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport. The company was placed in voluntary administration on 22 April 2020 in wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and exited administration mid-2021

Statistics

Operations and Statistics[130][131][132][133]
Year Passenger
movements
Airfreight
(tonnes)
Aircraft
movements
1998 28,631,000 1,628,700 163,200
1999 30,394,000 1,974,300 167,400
2000 33,374,000 2,240,600 181,900
2001 33,065,000 2,074,300 196,800
2002 34,313,000 1,637,797 206,700
2003 27,433,000 2,642,100 187,500
2004 37,142,000 3,093,900 237,300
2005 40,740,000 3,402,000 263,500
2006 44,443,000 3,580,000 280,000
2007 47,783,000 3,742,000 295,580
2008 48,582,000 3,627,000 301,000
2009 45,499,604 3,440,581 273,505
2010 50,410,819 4,112,416 306,535
2011 53,909,000 3,939,000 333,760
2012 56,057,751 4,062,261 352,000
2013 59,913,000 4,122,000 372,040
2014 63,367,000 4,376,000 390,955
2015 68,488,000 4,380,000 406,000
2016 70,502,000 4,521,000 411,530
2017 72,866,000 4,937,000 421,000
2018 74,672,000 5,121,000 428,000
2019 71,500,000 4,800,000 419,730
2020 8,836,000 4,468,000 161,000
2021 1,351,000 5,025,000 145,000
Capacity
Passenger (current) 70,502,000
Passenger (ultimate) 70,000,000
Cargo (current) 4.5m tons
Cargo (ultimate) 7.4m tons
Apron (current) 96
Number of destinations
air 154
water 6


Annual passenger traffic at HKG airport. See Wikidata query.

Operations

The airport control tower and a taxiing Cathay Pacific Cargo Boeing 747-8F
The airport control tower and a taxiing Cathay Pacific Cargo Boeing 747-8F
The view of the airport from the control tower, with an EVA Air Boeing 747 on a nearby taxiway
The view of the airport from the control tower, with an EVA Air Boeing 747 on a nearby taxiway
The interior of the airport control tower
The interior of the airport control tower

The airport is operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong, a statutory body wholly owned by the Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.[134]

The airport has two parallel runways, both of which are 3,800 metres (12,500 ft) in length and 60 metres (200 ft) wide. The south runway has a Category II Precision Approach, while the centre runway has the higher Category IIIA rating, which allows pilots to land in only 200-metre (660 ft) visibility. The two runways have a capacity of over 60 aircraft movements an hour. The airport is upgrading ATC and runways so that they can handle 68 movements per hour. Normally, the centre runway (07C/25C; until 1 December 2021 the north runway 07L/25R)[135][136] is used for landing passenger planes. The south runway (07R/25L) is used for passenger planes taking off and cargo flights due to its proximity to the cargo terminal.[131] A third runway (to be designated 07L/25R) to their north has been paved and is expected to be opened in mid-2022.

There are 49 frontal stands at the main passenger concourse, 28 remote stands and 25 cargo stands. There are also five parking bays at the Northwest Concourse. A satellite concourse with 10 frontal stands for narrow body aircraft has been commissioned to the north of the main concourse at the end of 2009, bringing the total number of frontal stands at the airport to 59.

The airport was the busiest for passenger traffic in Asia in 2010, and the world's busiest airport for cargo traffic in 2010. In terms of international traffic, the airport is the third busiest for passenger traffic and the busiest for cargo since its operation in 1998. There are over 95 international airlines providing about 900 scheduled passenger and all-cargo flights each day between Hong Kong and some 160 destinations worldwide. About 76 percent of these flights are operated with wide-body jets. There is also an average of approximately 31 non-scheduled passenger and cargo flights each week.[137]

The operation of scheduled air services to and from Hong Kong is facilitated by air services agreements between Hong Kong and other countries. Since the opening of HKIA, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has implemented a policy of progressive liberalisation of air services. Many low-cost airlines have started various regional routes to compete head-on with full-service carriers on trunk routes.[138]

The airport's long term expansion opportunities are subject to variables. The airport opened its third runway in July 2022 as part of a HK$141.5 billion expansion project that would increase its land footprint by 50%.[139] On the other hand, there exists only one airway between Hong Kong and mainland China, and this single route is often and easily backed up causing delays on both sides. In addition, China requires that aircraft flying the single air route between Hong Kong and the mainland must be at an altitude of at least 15,000 feet. Talks are underway to persuade the Chinese military to relax its airspace restriction in view of worsening air traffic congestion at the airport. Other than that, Hong Kong Airport Authority is co-operating with other airports in the area to relieve air traffic and in the future, Shenzhen may act as a regional airport while Hong Kong receives all the international flights.[140]

Discover more about Operations related topics

EVA Air

EVA Air

EVA Airways Corporation, of which "EVA" stands for Evergreen Airways, is a Taiwanese international airline based at Taoyuan International Airport near Taipei, Taiwan, operating passenger and dedicated cargo services to over 40 international destinations in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. EVA Air is largely privately owned and flies a fully international route network. It is a 5-star airline, rated by Skytrax. It is the second largest Taiwanese airline. EVA Air is headquartered in Luzhu, Taoyuan City, Taiwan. The company slogan is "Sharing the World, Flying Together" (分享世界,比翼雙飛).

Airport Authority Hong Kong

Airport Authority Hong Kong

The Airport Authority Hong Kong is the statutory body of the government of Hong Kong that is responsible for the operations of the Hong Kong International Airport.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a city and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China. With 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Hong Kong is also a major global financial centre and one of the most developed cities in the world.

Government of Hong Kong

Government of Hong Kong

The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, commonly known as the Hong Kong Government or HKSAR Government, refers to the executive authorities of Hong Kong SAR. It was formed on 1 July 1997 in accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1983, an international treaty lodged at the United Nations. This government replaced the former British Hong Kong Government (1842–1997). The Chief Executive and the principal officials, nominated by the chief executive, are appointed by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The Government Secretariat is headed by the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, who is the most senior principal official of the Government. The Chief Secretary and the other secretaries jointly oversee the administration of Hong Kong, give advice to the Chief Executive as members of the Executive Council, and are accountable for their actions and policies to the Chief Executive and the Legislative Council.

Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport

Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport

Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport is the airport serving Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. It is located on the east bank of the Pearl River near Huangtian and Fuyong villages in Bao'an District, and is 32 km (20 mi) northwest of the city centre. It is a hub for Shenzhen Airlines and Shenzhen Donghai Airlines and for cargo airline SF Airlines, and a focus city for China Southern Airlines and Hainan Airlines. The airport also serves as an Asian-Pacific cargo hub for UPS Airlines. The airport is undergoing major expansions with a second runway completed and opened in 2011 and a new terminal which opened in 2013.

Air traffic

The Government Flying Service provides short and long range search and rescue services, police support, medical evacuation and general purpose flights for the Government.

Passenger facilities

Despite its size, the passenger terminal was designed for convenience. The layout and signage, moving walkways and the automated people mover help passengers move through the building. The HKIA Automated People Mover, a driverless people mover system with 3 stations transports passengers between the check-in area and the gates. The trains travel at 62 kilometres per hour (39 mph). The airport also contains an IMAX theatre that has the largest screen in Hong Kong. The theatre is located in Terminal 2, level 6 and can seat 350 persons at a time.[141]

Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre

Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre
Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre

The Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre (HKBAC) is located within the airport and has its own terminal and facilities separate from the public terminal. It provides services for executive aircraft and passengers, including a passenger lounge, private rooms and showers, business centre facilities, ground handling, baggage handling, fuelling, security, customs and flight planning. Designated spaces and hangars are also provided at the HKBAC for private aircraft. HKBAC has broken ground on a HK$400 million ($51 million) expansion. The project, which will double the airport's handling capacity for business jet movements, is expected to be completed in 2025.[142]

Intermodal transportation hub

To sustain the growth of passengers, the Airport Authority formulated a "push and pull through" strategy to expand its connections to new sources of passengers and cargo. This means adapting the network to the rapidly growing markets in China and in particular to the Pearl River Delta region (PRD). In 2003, a new Airport-Mainland Coach Station opened. The coach station has a 230-square-metre (2,500 sq ft) waiting lounge and sheltered bays for ten coaches. Many buses operate each day to transport passengers between HKIA and major cities in the Mainland.[143]

The Coach Station was relocated to the ground floor (level 3) of Terminal 2 in 2007. The 36 bays at the new Coach Station allow cross-border coaches to make 320 trips a day carrying passengers between the airport and 90 cities and towns in the PRD. Local tour and hotel coaches also operate from T2. The coach station at T2 has shops and waiting lounges as well as a mainland coach service centre which gathers all operators together.[144]

In late September 2003, the SkyPier high-speed ferry terminal opened. Passengers arriving at the SkyPier board buses to the terminal and arriving air passengers board ferries at the pier for their ride back to the PRD. Passengers travelling both directions can bypass custom and immigration formalities, which reduces transit time. Four ports – Shekou, Shenzhen, Macau and Humen (Dongguan) – were initially served. As of August 2007, SkyPier serves Shenzhen's Shekou and Fuyong, Dongguan's Humen, Macau, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. Passengers travelling from Shekou and Macau can complete airline check-in procedures with participating airlines before boarding the ferries and go straight to the boarding gate for the flight at HKIA.

In 2009, the permanent SkyPier Terminal opened.[145] The permanent ferry terminal is equipped with four berths, but the terminal is designed to accommodate eight berths. Transfer desks and baggage handling facilities are included, and the terminal is directly connected to the airport automatic people mover system.

Terminal 1
Terminal 1
Baggage Reclaim Hall
Baggage Reclaim Hall

Baggage and cargo facilities

SuperTerminal 1
SuperTerminal 1
Asia Airfreight Terminal
Asia Airfreight Terminal
DHL Central Asia Hub
DHL Central Asia Hub

Ramp handling services are provided by Hong Kong Airport Services Limited (HAS), Jardine Air Terminal Services Limited and SATS HK Limited. Their services include the handling of mail and passenger baggage, transportation of cargo, aerobridge operations and the operation of passenger stairways. The airport has an advanced baggage handling system (BHS), the main section of which is located in the basement level of the passenger terminal, and a separate remote transfer facility at the western end of the main concourse for the handling of tight connection transfer bags.

HKIA handles over five million tonnes of cargo annually.[146] Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminals Limited operates one of the two air cargo terminals at the airport. Its headquarters, the 328,000-square-metre (3,530,000 sq ft) SuperTerminal 1,[147] is the world's second largest stand-alone air cargo handling facility, after the opening of the West Cargo Handling Area of the Shanghai Pudong International Airport on 26 March 2008. The designed capacity is 2.6 million tonnes of freight a year. The second air cargo terminal is operated by Asia Airfreight Terminal Company Limited, and has a capacity of 1.5 million tonnes a year.[148] DHL operates the DHL Central Asia Hub cargo facility which handles 35,000 parcels and 40,000 packages per hour. Hongkong Post operates the Air Mail Centre (AMC) and processes 700,000 packages per day. It is envisaged that HKIA's total air cargo capacity per annum will reach nine million tonnes ultimately.[149]

Aircraft maintenance services

Both line and base maintenance services are undertaken by Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company (HAECO), while China Aircraft Services Limited (CASL) and Pan Asia Pacific Aviation Services Limited carry out line maintenance. Line maintenance services include routine servicing of aircraft performed during normal turnaround periods and regularly scheduled layover periods. Base maintenance covers all airframe maintenance services and for this HAECO has a three-bay hangar, which can accommodate up to three Boeing 747-400 aircraft and two Airbus A320 aircraft, and an adjoining support workshop. HAECO also has the world's largest mobile hangar, weighing over 400 tons. It can be used to enclose half of a wide-body aeroplane so that the whole facility can fully enclose four 747s when the mobile hangar is used.

On 29 May 2009, CASL opened its first aircraft maintenance hangar in the maintenance area of the airport. The new hangar occupies an area of about 10,000 square metres (110,000 sq ft) and can accommodate one wide-body and one narrow-body aircraft at the same time; the hangar also has an about 10,000-square-metre (110,000 sq ft) area in its annexe building. CASL specialises in Airbus A320 family and Boeing 737 Next Generation series heavy maintenance.[150]

Airport based ground services

The Air Traffic Control Complex (ATCX), located at the centre of the airfield, is the nerve centre of the entire air traffic control system. Some 370 air traffic controllers and supporting staff work around the clock to provide air traffic control services for the Hong Kong Flight Information Region (FIR). At the Air Traffic Control Tower, controllers provide 24-hour aerodrome control services to aircraft operating at the airport. A backup Air Traffic Control Centre/Tower constructed to the north of the ATCX is available for operational use in the event normal services provided in the ATCX are disrupted by unforeseen circumstances. Apart from serving as an operational backup, the facilities are also used for air traffic control training.

The Airport Meteorological Office (AMO) of the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) provides weather services for the aviation community. The AMO issues alerts of low-level windshear and turbulence. Windshear detection is made using traditional doppler weather radars as well as the more effective doppler LIDAR, of which Hong Kong International Airport was the first to introduce. Doppler LIDAR systems use lasers to detect windshear and wind direction even when atmospheric conditions are too dry for Doppler radar to work.

Fire and rescue services

Rescue and fire fighting services within the airport are covered by the Airport Fire Contingent of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department. The contingent has 282 members, operating three fire stations and two rescue berths for 24-hour emergency calls. It is equipped with 14 fire appliances which can respond to incidents within two minutes in optimum conditions of visibility and surface conditions, satisfying the relevant recommendation of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Two high capacity rescue boats, supported by eight speed boats, form the core of sea rescue operations. One ambulance is assigned at each of the airport fire stations.

Discover more about Air traffic related topics

Government Flying Service

Government Flying Service

The Government Flying Service (GFS) is a disciplined unit and paramilitary flying organisation of the Government of Hong Kong.

Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover

Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover

The Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover is a driverless people mover located within Hong Kong International Airport. It operates in two segments within Terminal 1 and the Midfield Concourse, and between Terminals 1, Terminals 2, and also connects to the Skypier.

People mover

People mover

A people mover or automated people mover (APM) is a type of small scale automated guideway transit system. The term is generally used only to describe systems serving relatively small areas such as airports, downtown districts or theme parks.

IMAX

IMAX

IMAX is a proprietary system of high-resolution cameras, film formats, film projectors, and theaters known for having very large screens with a tall aspect ratio and steep stadium seating.

Pearl River Delta

Pearl River Delta

The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea. It is one of the most densely urbanized regions in the world, and is often considered a megacity. It is now the wealthiest region in South China and one of the wealthiest in the whole of China along with the Yangtze River Delta in East China and Jingjinji in North China. The region's economy is referred to as Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. It is also part of the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau Greater Bay Area.

Shenzhen

Shenzhen

Shenzhen, also historically known as Sham Chun, is a major sub-provincial city and one of the special economic zones of China. The city is located on the east bank of the Pearl River estuary on the central coast of southern province of Guangdong, bordering Hong Kong to the south, Dongguan to the north, and Huizhou to the northeast. With a population of 17.56 million as of 2020, Shenzhen is the third most populous city by urban population in China after Shanghai and Beijing. Shenzhen is a global center in technology, research, manufacturing, business and economics, finance, tourism and transportation, and the Port of Shenzhen is the world's fourth busiest container port.

Humen Town

Humen Town

Humen Town (simplified Chinese: 虎门镇; traditional Chinese: 虎門鎮; pinyin: Hǔmén zhèn; Jyutping: Fu2mun4 zan3), formerly Fumun, is a town in Dongguan city on the eastern side of the Humen strait on the Pearl River Delta, in Guangdong province, China. The former town of Taiping was incorporated into Humen Town in 1985. The population was 577,548 in the 2000 census, making it the second most populous town (zhèn) in China (after Chang'an in Dongguan as well).

Dongguan

Dongguan

Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. An important industrial city in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. It is part of the Pearl River Delta built-up area with more than 65.57 million inhabitants as of the 2020 census spread over nine municipalities across an area of 19,870 square kilometres (7,670 sq mi).

Shekou

Shekou

Shekou is an area at the southern tip of Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. It faces Yuen Long, Hong Kong across the Shenzhen Bay. It has been designated as a Free Trade Zone by the government, alongside Qianhai, Hengqin and Nansha New Area.

Humen

Humen

The Humen, also Bocca Tigris or Bogue, is a narrow strait in the Pearl River Delta that separates Shiziyang in the north and Lingdingyang in the south near Humen Town in China's Guangdong Province. It is the site of the Pearl River's discharge into the South China Sea. It contains the Port of Humen at Humen Town. The strait is formed by the islands of Chuenpi and Anunghoy on the eastern side, and Taikoktow on the western side. Since 1997, the strait has been traversed by the Humen Pearl River Bridge. Bocca Tigris was the entry to China's only trading city, Kanton.

Macau

Macau

Macau or Macao, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), is a city and special administrative region of China in the western Pearl River Delta by the South China Sea. With a population of about 680,000 and an area of 32.9 km2 (12.7 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world.

Zhongshan

Zhongshan

Zhongshan is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, China. As of the 2020 census, the whole city with 4,418,060 inhabitants is now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation with 65,565,622 inhabitants. The city-core subdistricts used to be called Shiqi or Shekki.

Ground transport

The Airport is connected to inner Hong Kong by the Route 8 in Hong Kong North Lantau Highway on Lantau Island.

There is an automated people mover, operated by the Airport Authority and maintained by MTR Corporation, connecting the East Hall to the Midfield Concourse via West Hall and Terminal 2. It was extended to SkyPier in late 2009 and extended to Midfield Concourse in 2015.

Bus

Cross-boundary coach bus terminal located in terminal 2
Cross-boundary coach bus terminal located in terminal 2

Citybus (CityFlyer for Airport services), New Lantau Bus, Long Win Bus and Discovery Bay Transit Services (Permits required) operate more than 25 bus routes to the airport from various parts of Hong Kong, available at the Airport Ground Transportation Centre and Cheong Tat Road. The bus companies also offer 10 overnight "N" Bus lines (a.k.a. Night services).[151]

Passengers can also take bus route number S1[152] to the Tung Chung MTR station. From there they can board the MTR Tung Chung line which follows the same route as the MTR Airport Express Line to Central Station with cheaper fare but longer journey time.

There is bus service to Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge Control Point. Which services between Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong to Zhuhai, China and Macau. Coach services are also available to major cities and towns in Guangdong Province, China. such as Dongguan, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. And Also for HZMBus to Macau[153]

Ferry

Skypier
Skypier

Direct ferry services are available from the airport to various destinations throughout the Pearl River Delta in China and Macau via Skypier. Passengers using these services are treated as transit passengers and are not considered to have entered Hong Kong for immigration purposes. For this reason, access to the ferry terminal is before immigration in the airport for arriving passengers. Check-in services are available at these piers. Four ports – Shekou, Shenzhen Airport (Fuyong) and Humen (Dongguan) in China, and Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal in Macau– were initially served, extending to Guangzhou and Zhongshan at the end of 2003. The Zhuhai service began on 10 July 2007 while a Nansha service started on 14 July 2009.[154]

Rail

Airport Express, which connects the airport and the central business district of Central.
Airport Express, which connects the airport and the central business district of Central.
Airport Express connecting between the airport and the central business district of Central.
Airport Express connecting between the airport and the central business district of Central.
Airport Express – Airport station
Airport Express – Airport station

The fastest service from the city to the airport is the Airport Express, which was a part of the Hong Kong Rail Network in Hong Kong. A dedicated rapid-speed rail link as part of the MTR rapid transit network. The line serves between Asia-World-Expo and Hong Kong (Central) Station makes intermediate stops at the following stations...

  1. Tsing Yi Station (Located in the Northeastern Part of Tsing Yi Island, Kwai Tsing District, Tsing Yi [which is 1 of 3 Communes which form the Tsuen Wan New Town {the other 2 are Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung}], this station mostly served passengers from the western Part of the New Territories. Transfers are available for the Tung Chung Line. Connections are also available for taxis and public/private buses at the local Maritime Square)
  2. Kowloon Station (Located in the Yau Tsim Mong District on the Western Part of the Kowloon Peninsula, this station is the major transfer hub in the Kowloon Peninsula, with stunning landmarks such as West Kowloon Cultural District, the M+ Art Museum, Hong Kong Palace Museum, Avenue of Stars and many more. Transfers are available for the Tung Chung Line [and Tuen Ma Line (Formerly called the West Rail Line) in Austin Station] for passengers for the East Kowloon and the New Territories. Since Autumn 2018, the High Speed Rail Network Line operates in West Kowloon Station which connects to the National Rail Network of China. Connections are also available for taxis, MTR Shuttle Buses and public/private buses at Elements. In-town check-in services for major airlines are provided.
  3. Hong Kong Station, the terminus, is located at the northern coast of Central and Western District on Hong Kong Island. It takes approximately 24 minutes to reach the airport from Hong Kong Station.[155] Transfers are available for the Tung Chung Line (and Island Line and Tsuen Wan Line at Central Station, where travellators link the 2 stations.) Connections are also available such as free MTR shuttle bus services between Airport Express stations and hotels in the area, and free transfers to and from other MTR lines with a valid Octopus card (which is not available to Single Ride Ticket users). Hong Kong Station also provides in-town check-in services for major airlines. (Passengers can ride 1 stop of the Island Line or Tsuen Wan Line to Admiralty Station, where transfers are available for the South Island Line [Opened on December 28, 2016, located on Platforms 5 and 6 {towards South Horizons}] and the East Rail Line [Opened on May 15, 2022, located on Platforms 7 {towards Lo Wu and Lok Ma Chau Border Crossing Stations} and 8 {terminating platform}.])
  4. The Airport Express line originally terminated at Airport station, where trains open doors on both sides, allowing direct access to either Terminal 1 or Terminal 2. It was later extended to AsiaWorld–Expo station on 20 December 2005 to facilitate the opening of the nearby AsiaWorld–Expo. During events at the station some Tung Chung line trains, which largely share the same tracks as the Airport Express, serve this station instead of Tung Chung, but these trains do not stop by Airport station.
Hong Kong Railway for Lantau Island Map.svg

Taxi

The airport is served by all three different types of taxi, distinguished by their colour:

  •   Urban Taxis connect the Airport with Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula and parts of the new towns of Metropolitan Hong Kong such as Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tseung Kwan O.(urban taxis can go anywhere in Hong Kong except southern parts of Lantau Island). Initial fare HK$27.00 (~US$3.44)
  •   New Territories Taxis connect the airport with the New Territories, except those parts in the Metropolitan Hong Kong Area such as Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tseung Kwan O (except parts of Hang Hau) were served by urban taxis. Initial fare HK$23.50 (~US$2.99)
  •   Lantau Taxis connect the airport with the rest of Lantau Island. Initial fare HK$22.00 (~US$2.80)

Discover more about Ground transport related topics

Lantau Island

Lantau Island

Lantau Island is the largest island in Hong Kong, located West of Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula, and is part of the New Territories. Administratively, most of Lantau Island is part of the Islands District of Hong Kong. A small northeastern portion of the island is located in the Tsuen Wan District.

Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover

Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover

The Hong Kong International Airport Automated People Mover is a driverless people mover located within Hong Kong International Airport. It operates in two segments within Terminal 1 and the Midfield Concourse, and between Terminals 1, Terminals 2, and also connects to the Skypier.

Bus services in Hong Kong

Bus services in Hong Kong

Bus services in Hong Kong have a long history. As of 2016, five companies operate franchised public bus services. There are also a variety of non-franchised public bus services, including feeder bus services to railway stations operated by MTR, and residents' services for residential estates.

Citybus (Hong Kong)

Citybus (Hong Kong)

Citybus Limited is a bus company which provides both franchised and non-franchised service in Hong Kong. The franchised route network serves Hong Kong Island, cross-harbour routes, North Lantau, Hong Kong International Airport, Kowloon, New Territories, Shenzhen Bay Port and Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge Hong Kong Port. The non-franchised routes serve mainly City One Sha Tin. It also provides bus rental services and staff bus services for some large companies such as TVB and China Light and Power.

Cityflyer (bus service)

Cityflyer (bus service)

Cityflyer is an airport coach service to Hong Kong International Airport and Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge provided by Citybus. The service was started during the opening of the Hong Kong International Airport in 1998.

Long Win Bus

Long Win Bus

Long Win Bus Company Limited is a bus company operating franchised services in Hong Kong. It provides bus service between Hong Kong International Airport, North Lantau New Town and the New Territories. It is a subsidiary of Transport International.

Discovery Bay

Discovery Bay

Discovery Bay (DB) is a resort town on Lantau Island, Hong Kong. It consists of mixed, primarily residential, development, in particular upmarket residential development and private and public recreational facilities, including garden houses, low-, mid- and high-rise residential developments, a 27-hole golf course, an ice rink, a 262-berth marina, two clubhouses, the first private manmade beach in Hong Kong, international schools, two shopping malls and the largest oceanfront alfresco dining area in Hong Kong.

Airport Express (MTR)

Airport Express (MTR)

The Airport Express is one of the lines of the Hong Kong MTR system. It links the urban area with the Hong Kong International Airport and the AsiaWorld–Expo exhibition and convention centre.

Central station (MTR)

Central station (MTR)

Central is an MTR station located in the Central area of Hong Kong Island. The station's livery is firebrick red but brown on the Tsuen Wan line platforms. The station is the southern terminus of the Tsuen Wan line, a stop on the Island line, and connects to Hong Kong station, which serves the Tung Chung line and the Airport Express.

Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge

Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge

The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (HZMB) is a 55-kilometre (34 mi) bridge–tunnel system consisting of a series of three cable-stayed bridges, an undersea tunnel, and four artificial islands. It is both the longest sea crossing and the longest open-sea fixed link in the world. The HZMB spans the Lingding and Jiuzhou channels, connecting Hong Kong, Macau, and Zhuhai—three major cities on the Pearl River Delta in China.

Chek Lap Kok

Chek Lap Kok

Chek Lap Kok is an island in the western waters of Hong Kong's New Territories. Unlike the smaller Lam Chau, it was only partially leveled when it was assimilated via land reclamation into the 12.48 square kilometres (4.82 sq mi) island for the current Hong Kong International Airport, which opened for commercial aviation in 1998. The airport is popularly referred to as Chek Lap Kok Airport to distinguish it from the former Hong Kong International Airport, now commonly known as Kai Tak Airport (啟德機場).

Guangdong

Guangdong

Guangdong, alternatively romanized as Canton or Kwangtung, is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 126.01 million across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area as well as the second-most populous country subdivision in the world. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the third largest sub-national economy in the world with a GDP (nominal) of 1.95 trillion USD in 2021. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone are two of the four top Chinese cities and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities and leading financial centres in the Asia-Pacific region.

Accidents and incidents

The following are aviation accidents or incidents at the current HKIA (see accidents and incidents at the former HKIA at Kai Tak):

Discover more about Accidents and incidents related topics

Kai Tak Airport

Kai Tak Airport

Kai Tak Airport was the international airport of Hong Kong from 1925 until 1998. Officially known as Hong Kong International Airport from 1954 to 6 July 1998, it is often referred to as Hong Kong International Airport, Kai Tak, or simply Kai Tak and Kai Tak International Airport, to distinguish it from its successor, Chek Lap Kok International Airport, built on reclaimed and levelled land around the islands of Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau, 30 kilometres (19 mi) to the west.

McDonnell Douglas MD-11

McDonnell Douglas MD-11

The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is an American tri-jet wide-body airliner manufactured by American McDonnell Douglas (MDC) and later by Boeing. Following DC-10 development studies, the MD-11 program was launched on December 30, 1986. Assembly of the first prototype began on March 9, 1988. It rolled out in September 1989 and made its maiden flight on January 10, 1990. FAA certification was achieved on November 8. The first delivery was to Finnair on December 7, 1990, and it entered service on December 20.

Mandarin Airlines

Mandarin Airlines

Mandarin Airlines is a Taiwanese regional airline based in Taipei, Taiwan, whose parent company is China Airlines. The airline operates domestic and regional international flights, while its parent company focuses on international operations. Some charter services are also operated by the company. Its main base is Taipei Songshan Airport, Taichung International Airport and Kaohsiung International Airport.

Suvarnabhumi Airport

Suvarnabhumi Airport

Suvarnabhumi Airport, also known unofficially as Bangkok Airport, is one of two international airports serving the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, the other one being Don Mueang International Airport (DMK), which remains open as a low-cost carriers hub. Suvarnabhumi Airport covers an area of 3,240 ha, making it one of the biggest international airports in Southeast Asia and a regional hub for aviation. The airport is also a major Cargo Air Freight Hub, which has a designated Airport Free Zone, as well as road links to the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) on Motorway 7.

Bangkok

Bangkok

Bangkok, officially known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon and colloquially as Krung Thep, is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres (605.7 sq mi) in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand and has an estimated population of 10.539 million as of 2020, 15.3 percent of the country's population. Over 14 million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok an extreme primate city, dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in both size and importance to the national economy.

Don Mueang International Airport

Don Mueang International Airport

Don Mueang International Airport is one of two international airports serving the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, the other one being Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK). Before Suvarnabhumi opened in 2006, Don Mueang was previously known as Bangkok International Airport.

Cathay Pacific Flight 780

Cathay Pacific Flight 780

Cathay Pacific Flight 780 was a flight from Juanda International Airport in Surabaya, Indonesia to Hong Kong International Airport on 13 April 2010. On board were 309 passengers and a crew of 13. As Flight 780 neared Hong Kong, the crew were unable to change the thrust output of the engines. The aircraft, an Airbus A330-342, landed at almost twice the speed of a normal landing, suffering minor damage. The 57 passengers who sustained injuries were hurt in the ensuing slide evacuation; one of them received serious injuries.

Surabaya

Surabaya

Surabaya is the capital city of the Indonesian province of East Java and the second-largest city in Indonesia, after Jakarta. Located on the northeastern border of Java island, on the Madura Strait, it is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia. According to the National Development Planning Agency, Surabaya is one of the four main central cities of Indonesia, alongside Jakarta, Medan, and Makassar. The city has a population of 2.87 million within its city limits at the 2020 census and 9.5 million in the extended Surabaya metropolitan area, making it the second-largest metropolitan area in Indonesia.

Juanda International Airport

Juanda International Airport

Juanda International Airport (JIA), is an international airport located in Sedati, Sidoarjo. It is now the third busiest airport in Indonesia. This airport is located approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from Downtown Surabaya and serves the Surabaya metropolitan area, the metropolitan area of Surabaya plus extended urban area. Juanda International Airport is operated by PT Angkasa Pura I. The airport takes its name after Djuanda Kartawidjaja (1911–1963), the last Prime Minister of Indonesia who had suggested development of this airport. In 2019, the airport served about 500 aircraft per day.

Polaris Award

Polaris Award

The Polaris Award is the highest decoration associated with civil aviation, awarded by the International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations (IFALPA) to airline crews in recognition for acts of exceptional airmanship, heroic action or a combination of these two attributes. In extraordinary cases, passengers may also obtain this award for their heroism. These awards are not made every year, but are presented at IFALPA's annual conference.

International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations

International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations

The International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations (IFALPA) is an international not-for-profit organization of national pilots' associations. IFALPA was founded in April 1948 and is based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Hong Kong Fire Services Department

Hong Kong Fire Services Department

The Hong Kong Fire Services Department is an emergency service responsible for firefighting and rescue on land and sea. It also provides an emergency ambulance service for the sick and the injured and gives fire protection advice to the public. It is under the Secretary for Security who heads the Security Bureau.

Accolades

Year Award Category Results Ref
2008 Airport Service Quality Awards
by Airports Council International
Best Airport Worldwide 3rd [163]
2009 [164]
Best Airport in Asia-Pacific
Best Airport by Size (over 40 million passenger) Won
2010 Best Airport Worldwide 3rd [165]
2011 4th [166]

Discover more about Accolades related topics

Skytrax

Skytrax

Skytrax is a United Kingdom–based consultancy which runs an airline and airport review and ranking site. In 2012, the online investigations company KwikChex filed five complaints with the UK Advertising Standards Authority. The authority upheld all five complaints and Skytrax agreed to modify some promotional wording. Questions have also been raised about Skytrax's objectivity and methodology.

Air Cargo News

Air Cargo News

Air Cargo News publishes industry newspapers and magazines and digital information for senior executives, managers and sales agents in the freight forwarding, airline, airport and cargo handling sector. It is based at Sutton in Surrey in the United Kingdom, and is part of the Hamburg-based DVV Media Group.

Air Cargo World

Air Cargo World

Air Cargo World, published in the United States, is an air logistics magazine and is edited for shippers and others involved with the worldwide transport and delivery of perishables and manufactured goods. Its readership consists of logistics professionals, airline and airport executives, freight forwarders, importers, exporters, and others who manage or purchase transportation products and services within the airfreight supply chain.

Asiaweek

Asiaweek

Asiaweek was an English-language news magazine focusing on Asia, published weekly by Asiaweek Limited, a subsidiary of Time Inc. Based in Hong Kong, it was established in 1975, and ceased publication with its 7 December 2001 issue due to a "downturn in the advertising market", according to Norman Pearlstine, editor in chief of Time Inc. The magazine had a circulation of 120,000 copies when it closed.

British Constructional Steelwork Association

British Constructional Steelwork Association

BCSA Ltd is a trade association for the structural steel industry in the UK and Ireland. It lobbies on behalf of its members, and provides them with education and technical services.

Hong Kong Institute of Architects

Hong Kong Institute of Architects

Hong Kong Institute of Architects is a professional body for architects in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 full members, 300 associates members and graduate members. It is an Allied Society of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and member of the International Union of Architects and the Commonwealth Association of Architects.

Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants

Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants

The Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants is the professional accounting body of Hong Kong.

International Air Transport Association

International Air Transport Association

The International Air Transport Association is a trade association of the world's airlines founded in 1945. IATA has been described as a cartel since, in addition to setting technical standards for airlines, IATA also organized tariff conferences that served as a forum for price fixing.

Airports Council International

Airports Council International

Airports Council International (ACI) is an organization of airport authorities aimed at unifying industry practices for airport standards. Established in 1991, its headquarters are based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and its members operate nearly 2000 airports.

Source: "Hong Kong International Airport", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 29th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_International_Airport.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

See also
References
  1. ^ "Three-runway System Development Crosses Milestone as Runway Re-designation Completed". Three Runway System. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  2. ^ "HONG KONG INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT RUNWAY CLOSURE PROGRAMME". Hong Kong Aeronautical Information Services. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  3. ^ "Provisional Civil International - Air Traffic Statistics at HKIA" (PDF). December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ a b "About Hong Kong Airport". Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  5. ^ "UPS Air Operations Facts - UPS Pressroom". Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  6. ^ "Year to date Passenger Traffic". ACI. 13 March 2016. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  7. ^ Denslow, Neil (26 January 2011). "Cathay Pacific, Hong Kong Airport Become Biggest for Freight". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  8. ^ 홍콩국제공항 (in Korean). Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  9. ^ Genzberger, Christine (1994). Hong Kong Business: The Portable Encyclopedia for Doing Business with Hong Kong. World Trade Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-9631864-7-8.
  10. ^ Hong Kong Advisory Council on the Environment (July 1995). "Proposal to Optimise Kai Tak Capacity" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2006.
  11. ^ Dempsey, Paul (1999). Airport Planning and Development Handbook: A Global Survey. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-07-134316-9.
  12. ^ Port & Airport Development Strategy Study, Final Report, December 1989 by Study Consultants Mott MacDonald Hong Kong et al. for Lands and Works Branch of Hong Kong Government Secretariat
  13. ^ "PADS Government Secretariat Lands & Works Branch Port & Airport Development Strategy Final Report" (PDF). December 1989. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  14. ^ "19 years of Hong Kong International Airport - Discovery". 23 May 2019. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  15. ^ Plant, G.W.; Covil, C.S; Hughes, R.A.; Airport Authority Hong Kong (1998). Site Preparation for the New Hong Kong International Airport. Thomas Telford. pp. 1, 3–4, 43, 556. ISBN 978-0-7277-2696-4.
  16. ^ CONEXPO-CON/AGG '99 (1999). Top 10 Construction Achievements of the 20th Century Archived 26 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 0-9530219-5-5. Retrieved 10 November 2005
  17. ^ a b "Building Hong Kong's Airport". Extreme Engineering. Season 1. Episode 7. 14 May 2003.
  18. ^ "Clinton leaves with democracy plea". BbC News. 3 July 1998. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Hong Kong's flying start". BBC News. 5 July 1998. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  20. ^ Gordon, Alastair (September 2004). Naked Airport. Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-6518-0.
  21. ^ Landler, Mark (9 July 1998). "INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS; Problems Continue to Mount at New Hong Kong Airport". The New York Times.
  22. ^ "Calendar of Events". Hong Kong Yearbook. 1998. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
  23. ^ "The tale of a man with no country", The Standard, 10 July 2006, archived from the original on 21 October 2011, retrieved 28 May 2011
  24. ^ Hong Kong International Airport – About AA – SkyCity Brochure Archived 27 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Siu, Phila (1 April 2016). "Hong Kong International Airport splashes out HK$5 billion on a new midfield... concourse". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  26. ^ "Hong Kong airport cancels flights over protests". 12 August 2019. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  27. ^ "Hong Kong International Airport – Interactive Map". Hongkongairport.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  28. ^ "1506.html". Government of Hong Kong. 27 February 1997. Archived from the original on 27 February 1997. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  29. ^ "The 'dragon' unveiled: Beijing's T3 starts operations". The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  30. ^ https://www.hk01.com/%E7%A4%BE%E6%9C%83%E6%96%B0%E8%81%9E/699964/%E6%A9%9F%E5%A0%B4%E5%88%86%E5%8D%80%E8%99%95%E7%90%86%E5%9C%8B%E5%85%A7%E5%8F%8A%E5%9C%8B%E9%9A%9B%E8%88%AA%E7%8F%AD-%E6%A2%81%E5%AD%90%E8%B6%85-%E5%93%A1%E5%B7%A5%E5%B7%A5%E9%A4%98%E6%99%82%E9%96%93%E9%83%BD%E8%A6%81%E9%81%BF%E5%85%8D%E6%8E%A5%E8%A7%B8
  31. ^ https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/hong-kong-economy/article/3198050/hong-kong-airport-frequent-talks-authorities-gear-travel-recovery-sky-bridge-opens-part-hk9-billion
  32. ^ "Press release of platform 3 opening" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  33. ^ "Airport aims to speed up expansion to cut impact on flights". South China Morning Post. 20 April 2018. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  34. ^ "HKIA Opens New Passenger Concourse to Enhance Service". Hongkongairport.com. 15 December 2009. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  35. ^ "More food options and a roof garden: inside HK$7bn airport revamp". South China Morning Post. 20 June 2017. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  36. ^ "Bridge planned for Hong Kong airport so tall A380s can go underneath". South China Morning Post. 12 May 2017. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  37. ^ "Airport Authority Unveils Phase 1 Midfield Development". Airport Authority Hong Kong. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
  38. ^ "Project Page: Hong Kong International Airport – Midfield Concourse". Aedas.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  39. ^ "US$ 802 million Hong Kong airport contract awarded". International Construction. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  40. ^ "Press Releases: HKIA Celebrates Grand Opening of Midfield Concourse -- On-schedule Full Operation Increases Airport's Passenger Handling Capacity". Airport Authority Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  41. ^ "Hong Kong Archived 4 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine." Cathay Pacific. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
  42. ^ "Contact Us Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine." Civil Aviation Department. Retrieved on August 11, 2014. "Director-General of Civil Aviation, Civil Aviation Department Headquarters, 1 Tung Fai Road, Hong Kong International Airport, Lantau, Hong Kong " Traditional Chinese address Archived 12 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine: "來函民航處處長 香港大嶼山香港國際機場 東輝路1號 民航處總部辦公大樓", Simplified Chinese address Archived 12 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine: "来函民航处处长 香港大屿山香港国际机场 东辉路1号 民航处总部办公大楼"
  43. ^ "Location Map". HAECO. Retrieved 8 March 2020. Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co. Ltd. (HAECO Group) 80 South Perimeter Road Hong Kong International Airport Lantau, Hong Kong
  44. ^ "カスタマーサポート". HK Express. Retrieved 19 December 2020. 本社住所: 1st Floor, 11 Tung Fai Road, Hong Kong International Airport, Lantau, Hong Kong
  45. ^ "Contact Us". Dragonair. 4 March 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2020. Headquarters Dragonair House 11 Tung Fai Road, Hong Kong International Airport, Lantau, Hong Kong.
  46. ^ "Contact". Government Flying Service. Retrieved 8 October 2020. Government Flying Service 18 South Perimeter Road Hong Kong International Airport Lantau Hong Kong
  47. ^ "Contact Us". Air Accident Investigation Authority. Retrieved 19 June 2019. Level G, Facility Building, 1 Tung Fai Road, Hong Kong International Airport, Lantau, Hong Kong - Traditional Chinese address: "香港大嶼山香港國際機場東輝路1號設施大樓地下" // Simplified Chinese address: "香港大屿山香港国际机场东辉路1号设施大楼地下"
  48. ^ "Midfield Expansion Project of Airport Authority Hong Kong Purpose" (PDF). Legislative Council Panel on Economic Development. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  49. ^ "Airport Authority Hong Kong Unveils Development Options – Three-month Public Consultation Launched to Collect Feedback" (Press release). Hong Kong Airport Authority. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  50. ^ "New Skypier will improve delta connections". South China Morning Post. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  51. ^ "LCQ7: Financial arrangement of the three-runway system project at Hong Kong International Airport". Legislative Council. 22 April 2015. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  52. ^ 三跑道系統 - 香港國際機場 (in Traditional Chinese). Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  53. ^ "Hong Kong International Airport". Three Runway System. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  54. ^ Chen, Jackie (25 November 2019). "Hong Kong Airport to close Terminal 2 for its three-runway system project". Business Traveller Asia Pacific. Hong Kong: Perry Publications. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  55. ^ Lee, Danny (17 January 2020). "HK Airport Says Long-Term Investment Plans on Course". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 3 April 2020 – via Bangkok Post.
  56. ^ TravelNewsAsia.com. "Hong Kong Airport to Close Centre Runway as Third Runway Familiarisation Begins". Travel News Asia. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  57. ^ Mpoke Bigg, Matthew; Chokshi, Niraj (5 March 2022). "Aeroflot says it will suspend international flights". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  58. ^ "AIR FRANCE MOVES HONG KONG SERVICE RESUMPTION TO DEC 2022". Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  59. ^ Ma, Jess. "Covid-19: Hong Kong lifting hotel quarantine won't make much difference for international travel, IATA chief warns". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  60. ^ "CATHAY PACIFIC RESUMES BANGALORE SERVICE FROM OCT 2022". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  61. ^ Denman, Selina. "Cathay Pacific to resume flights between Dubai and Hong Kong". The National. Abu Dhabi. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  62. ^ "Cathay Pacific to resume Hong Kong-Fukuoka service from Dec-2022". CAPA. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  63. ^ https://www.cathaypacific.com/cx/en_IN/flying-with-us/cathaycare/where-we-fly-now/latest-where-we-fly-now.html
  64. ^ "Cathay Pacific to resume Hong Kong-Nagoya service from Jan-2023". CAPA. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  65. ^ Cathay Pacific Nov/Dec 2022 Japan Service Restorations Aeroroutes. 27 September 2022.
  66. ^ "Air New Zealand and Cathay Pacific extend alliance - Scoop News". scoop.co.nz. Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  67. ^ a b "China Eastern Adds New Routes to Hong Kong in Nov/Dec 2022". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  68. ^ Scheer, Steven; Smith, Alexander (5 September 2022). "Israel's El Al to resume Hong Kong flights after COVID curbs eased". Reuters. Jerusalem. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  69. ^ a b "Greater Bay Airlines Plans Taipei / Tokyo Additions in NW22". Aeroroutes. 23 October 2022.
  70. ^ "Hainan Airlines Begins Hong Kong Service From mid-Nov 2022". Aeroroutes. 16 November 2022.
  71. ^ "HK Express resumes Bangkok service from late-March 2019". Archived from the original on 8 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  72. ^ "HK Express 1Q23 Korea Service Restorations". Aeroroutes. 15 November 2022.
  73. ^ "HK Express Plans Thailand Service Increase From Dec 2022". Aeroroutes. 11 October 2022.
  74. ^ "HK Express 1Q23 Korea Service Restorations". Aeroroutes. 15 November 2022.
  75. ^ Casey, David. "HK Express To Enter Singapore Market". Routesonline. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  76. ^ "HK Express 4Q22 Japan Operations – 05OCT22". Aeroroutes. 6 October 2022.
  77. ^ "Hong Kong Airlines Resumes Beijing Service From Nov 2022". Aeroroutes. 15 November 2022.
  78. ^ "Hong Kong Airlines Resumes Beijing Service From Nov 2022". Aeroroutes. 15 November 2022.
  79. ^ "Hong Kong Airlines Resumes Manila Service in Dec 2022". aeroroutes.com. 18 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  80. ^ "Loong Air Adds Hangzhou – Hong Kong Service in late-June 2022". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  81. ^ "Peach Resumes Hong Kong Service From late-January 2023". Aeroroutes. 16 November 2022.
  82. ^ "PHILIPPINE AIRLINES ADDS SEASONAL CLARK – HONG KONG FLIGHTS FROM DEC 2022". AeroRoutes. Retrieved 3 November 2022.
  83. ^ "Royal Jordanian Tentatively Resumes Hong Kong Service in NS23". Aeroroutes. 25 November 2022. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  84. ^ "S7 Airlines flight schedule". www.s7.ru. S7 Airlines.
  85. ^ Pranjal Pande (4 March 2022). "Russian S7 To Suspend All International Flights Amid Airspace Bans". Simple Flying. London. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  86. ^ "Shandong Airlines schedules Jinan – Hong Kong Jan 2018 launch". routesonline. 3 January 2018. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  87. ^ "Tianjin Airlines Adds Tianjin – Hong Kong Service From Dec 2022". Aeroroutes. Retrieved 14 November 2022.
  88. ^ Singh, Jay (5 February 2022). "United Airlines Pulls Down Transpacific Flying Through Fall". Simple Flying. London. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
  89. ^ "United Moves San Francisco – Hong Kong Service Resumption to March 2023". 26 November 2022.
  90. ^ "China Southern / Xiamen Airlines NW22 International / Regional Operations – 16OCT22". Aeroroutes. 19 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  91. ^ "Aerologic". www.aerologic.aero. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  92. ^ "Freight Arrivals | Singapore Changi Airport". www.changiairport.com. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  93. ^ CAL Cargo Airlines, Ltd. [@CALCargoAir] (10 September 2020). "CAL is now flying to #HongKong! ✈️🇭🇰 #HKG #LGG #TLV #aircargo #cargo #logistics #airfreight #shipping #freight #freightforwarder #export #aviation #import #boeing #b747 #CALCargoAirLines #ChallengeAccepted" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  94. ^ "Facilities & Equipment". YYC Calgary International Airport. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  95. ^ "Polar Air Cargo 948". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  96. ^ "Kalitta Air 247". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  97. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 831". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  98. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 769 AHK769 / LD769". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  99. ^ "Southern Air 276". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  100. ^ "Kalitta Air 250". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  101. ^ "AeroLogic 513". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  102. ^ a b "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 562". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  103. ^ "2013 summer schedule". Aero Logic. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  104. ^ "Southern Air 96". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  105. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 456". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  106. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 216". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  107. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 224". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  108. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 128". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  109. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 782 AHK782 / LD782". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  110. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 327". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  111. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 680". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  112. ^ "Ahk Air Hong Kong Limited 208". Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  113. ^ "CARGO WITH CARE | For the Period March 30 - October 25, 2014". Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  114. ^ "Ethiopian moves 'DHL' flights to Maastricht". 27 October 2015. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  115. ^ "Flight Timetable" (PDF). EVA Airways Cargo.
  116. ^ Brett, Damian (28 February 2018). "Flexport adds freighter service". Aircargonews.net. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  117. ^ "Hong Kong Airlines Cargo". Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  118. ^ British Airways axes B747-8(F) contract with Atlas Air Archived 19 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ch-aviation.com. Retrieved on 16 May 2014.
  119. ^ Flightradar24. "K-Mile Air flight 8K525". Flightradar24. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  120. ^ "MASkargo adds route". Archived from the original on 25 June 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  121. ^ "Summer Schedule (March 27, 2022 - October 29, 2022)" (PDF). Nippon Cargo Airlines.
  122. ^ "Welcome to Qantas Freight". Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  123. ^ "Schedule & Routing". Qatar Airways Cargo. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  124. ^ Schlappig, Ben (20 March 2022). "A New 24-Mile Cargo Flight To Hong Kong…". One Mile at a Time. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  125. ^ "SF Airlines launches Wuhan-Hong Kong cargo route".
  126. ^ 顺丰开通厦门—香港—宁波—香港—厦门航线 (in Simplified Chinese). News.carnoc.com. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  127. ^ "Welcome to SIA Cargo - E timetables". Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  128. ^ "Spicejet expands freighter operations to Hong Kong". Archived from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  129. ^ Turkish Airlines Cargo Winter Schedule Archived 4 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  130. ^ "Facts and Figures, HKIA at a Glance". Hong Kong International Airport. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  131. ^ a b "Facts and Figures". Hong Kong International Airport. Airport Authority Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  132. ^ "Air Traffic Statistics". Hong Kong International Airport. Airport Authority Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  133. ^ "Passenger traffic surges at Hong Kong International Airport in 2013". TheMoodieReport.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  134. ^ "Introduction". Hong Kong International Airport. Airport Authority Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  135. ^ @hkairport (2 December 2021). "🛬🛫 Another #3RS milestone: Our existing North Runway (07L/25R) has been re-designated as the Centre Runway (07C/25C…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  136. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Hong Kong International Airport Runway Re-designation 香港國際機場重新編配跑道". YouTube.
  137. ^ Airport Authority Hong Kong. "Our Business – The Airport – Welcome to HKIA – Hong Kong International Airport". Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  138. ^ "Vision and Missions". Hong Kong International Airport. Airport Authority Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  139. ^ The Standard. "Hong Kong International Airport welcomes third runway". The Standard. Retrieved 24 November 2022.
  140. ^ "Publications". Hong Kong International Airport. Airport Authority Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  141. ^ travelsites33 (19 April 2015). "Hong Kong International Aviation Hub". Flight Hub Reviews. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  142. ^ "$51 million expansion project planned for the Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre". Globalair.com. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  143. ^ Transport to Guangdong Archived 18 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  144. ^ "Our Business – The Airport – Welcome to HKIA – Hong Kong International Airport". Hongkongairport.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  145. ^ "New Skypier will improve delta connections". South China Morning Post. 23 December 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  146. ^ Air Cargo – HKIA Archived 18 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  147. ^ "SuperTerminal 1". Hactl.com. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  148. ^ "Asia Airfreight Terminal – Our Terminal". Aat.com.hk. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  149. ^ "Hong Kong Fact Sheets – Civil Aviation" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  150. ^ "CASL". Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  151. ^ "Public Buses". Airport Authority Hong Kong. 2009. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2009. Note that I have included Discovery Bay services as per the schedule at [1] Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  152. ^ "S1 Bus". Chow Tai Fook Enterprises. 2009. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  153. ^ "Mainland Coaches Archived 8 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine." Hong Kong International Airport. Retrieved on May 8, 2018.
  154. ^ "New Ferry Service between HKIA and Nansha Port Commences". Hongkongairport.com. 14 July 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  155. ^ "Hong Kong Airport Transportation Information". Discoverhongkong.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  156. ^ "Pilots reveal death-defying ordeal as engines failed on approach to Chek Lap Kok". South China Morning Post. 20 April 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  157. ^ Chan, Samuel (12 August 2015). "French traveller jumps to his death at Hong Kong International Airport". South China Morning Post.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  158. ^ "Cargo loader bursts into flames as they are loading an American Airlines Boeing 777 at Hong Kong Airport". 9 October 2017.
  159. ^ Lennane, Alex (12 April 2021). "Hong Kong Air Cargo ban on Vivo phones after pallets catch fire at airport". The Loadstar. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  160. ^ Madureira, Catarina (21 July 2021). "UPS Boeing 747-8 Returns to Hong Kong After Engine Fire". SamChui.com. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  161. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Serious incident Boeing 747-800F N624UP, 21 Jul 2021". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
  162. ^ "Best airports of 2017 unveiled at World Airport Awards". airlinequality.com. 14 March 2017. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  163. ^ "ASQ Award for winners for 2008" Archived 23 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Airports Council International. Retrieved 13 April 2012
  164. ^ "ACI Airport Service Quality Awards 2009, Asia Pacific airports sweep top places in worldwide awards" Archived 12 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Airports Council International. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2012
  165. ^ "ASQ Award for winners for 2010" Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Airports Council International. Retrieved 13 April 2012
  166. ^ "World's best airports announced – Asia dominates" Archived 9 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine CNN Go. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012
External links
Categories

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.