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History of Brasília

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Brasília, the capital city of Brazil located in the nation’s Federal District, has a history beginning in the colonial era and interactions with the native inhabitants of the area.[1] The first propositions of relocating Brazil's capital began in the late 18th century, and after various plans and attempts at settlement, the city was inaugurated on 21 April 1960 following a four year construction period.[2][3] Since its inauguration, the city has faced economic, social and political challenges and has seen vast population growth and spreading urbanisation.[4] Since the end of the 20th century, however, Brasília has become an important cultural hub through contributions of music, art and literature.[5]

Early history

The area where Brasília was established within the State of Goias had a long history of Indigenous inhabitance and held importance during the colonial era. The State of Goias was originally designated as a Captaincy of the Viceroyalty of Brazil, two administrative designations that were used in the Portuguese Empire.[1][6] The state gained its name from the Goia people, who lived centrally within the Captaincy, and were subject to colonial expansion in the 17th and 18th centuries, leading to their assimilation and decline.[1]

There was no direct precursor city to Brasília as it was established in part of the savannah of Brazil’s central plateau. There were, however, several significant settlements in the vicinity, such as Luziânia, then named Santa Luzia, which was established in the 1740’s and became a successful mining town.[1]

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Goiás

Goiás

Goiás is a Brazilian state located in the Center-West region. Goiás borders the Federal District and the states of Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The state capital is Goiânia. With 7.2 million inhabitants, Goiás is the most populous state in the Center-West and the 11th most populous in the country. It has the ninth largest economy among Brazilian federative units. In Brazil's geoeconomic division, Goiás belongs to the Centro-Sul (Center-South), being the northernmost state of the southern portion of Brazil. The state has 3.3% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 2.7% of the Brazilian GDP.

Captaincy

Captaincy

A captaincy is a historical administrative division of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. It was instituted as a method of organization, directly associated with the home-rule administrations of medieval feudal governments in which the monarch delimited territories for colonization that were administered by men of confidence.

Viceroyalty of Brazil

Viceroyalty of Brazil

The Viceroyalty of Brazil refers, in narrow scope, to office of viceroy of the Portuguese colonial State of Brazil and, in broad scope, to the whole State of Brazil during the historic period when its governors had the title of "viceroy". The term "viceroyalty" however never officially designated the title of the colony, which continued to be designated "state". Until 1763, the title "Viceroy" was occasionally granted to some governors of Brazil who were members of the high nobility, with the remaining keeping the title "governor-general". From around 1763, the title "viceroy" became permanent, so being granted to all governors. The position of viceroy was abolished, when the Portuguese court transferred to Brazil in 1808, with the State of Brazil becoming directly administered by the Portuguese Government seated in Rio de Janeiro.

Portuguese Empire

Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire, also known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was composed of the overseas colonies, factories, and the later overseas territories governed by Portugal. It was one of the longest-lived empires in European history, lasting almost six centuries from the conquest of Ceuta in North Africa, in 1415, to the transfer of sovereignty over Macau to China in 1999. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America, Africa, and various regions of Asia and Oceania.

Luziânia

Luziânia

Luziânia is municipality in the state of Goiás, Brazil. This city is a producer of agricultural products including soybeans and beans.

Settlement

The first propositions of moving Brazil's capital city from Rio de Janeiro came in 1798 from the Inconfidência Mineira, a separatist political movement that existed during the colonial period of Brazil.[7] The movement's leader, Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, had planned to establish a new capital for an independent Brazil in the city of São João del-Rei, located within the province of Minas Gerais. Tiradentes was hanged on April 21, 1792, which led to the collapse of the Inconfidência Mineira and, for a significant time, the movement for a new location for the capital city.[2]

The modern location of the Federal District, first outlined by Cruls and consolidated by Albuquerque
The modern location of the Federal District, first outlined by Cruls and consolidated by Albuquerque

Later Attempts and the Site of Brasília

In 1822, the Brazilian statesman José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva wrote the “Memoir on the Necessity and Means of Building a New Capital in the Interior of Brazil,” which became the first official plan for Brasília as the nation’s new capital city.[3] In the document, Bonifácio suggested creating the capital in the Brazilian state of Goias at a latitude of approximately 15 degrees.[2] Despite the similarity of these preliminary plans to the current location of the settlement, Bonifácio faced exile and his plans did not progress. This characterised many of the plans for the site of a new capital that were proposed during Brazil’s period as an Empire.[8][2]

It was not until the first republic was declared in 1889 that the plans progressed further, with a statement in the new constitution urging the movement of the capital to an interior location, aiming to lessen the economic and social reliance on Rio de Janeiro and the South-East of Brazil.[4] A council led by Luís Cruls broadly outlined the boundaries of a new federal district in 1892, which was later narrowed down by a federal commission led by José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque in 1955. The final commission made the designation of a 5850 square kilometre province for the new capital within the original space outlined by Cruls, an area and size which has largely remained the same since. Between these commissions, plans for Brasília’s creation were seen in federal laws in 1922 and mentioned in the constitution of 1946.[2] The final designation prompted the beginning of the city’s construction, which occurred under the presidency of Juscelino Kubitschek.[3]

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the capital of the state of the same name, Brazil's third-most populous state, and the second-most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo. Listed by the GaWC as a beta global city, Rio de Janeiro is the sixth-most populous city in the Americas. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.

Inconfidência Mineira

Inconfidência Mineira

Inconfidência Mineira was an unsuccessful separatist movement in Brazil in 1789. It was the result of a confluence of external and internal causes in what was then colonial Brazil. The external inspiration was the independence of thirteen British colonies in North America following the American Revolutionary War, a development that impressed the intellectual elite of particularly the captaincy of Minas Gerais. The main internal cause of the conspiracy was the decline of gold mining in that captaincy. As gold became less plentiful, the region's gold miners faced increasing difficulties in fulfilling tax obligations to the crown. When the captaincy could not satisfy the royal demand for gold, it was burdened with an additional tax on gold, called derrama.

Tiradentes

Tiradentes

Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, was a leading member of the colonial Brazilian revolutionary movement known as Inconfidência Mineira, whose aim was full independence from Portuguese colonial rule and creation of a republic. When the separatists' plot was uncovered by authorities, Tiradentes was arrested, tried and publicly hanged.

São João del-Rei

São João del-Rei

São João del-Rei, also spelled São João del Rey or São João del Rei, is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Minas Gerais. Founded in 1713 in homage to King John V of Portugal, the city is famed for its historic Portuguese colonial architecture. The current population is estimated at 90,497 inhabitants.

Minas Gerais

Minas Gerais

Minas Gerais is a state in Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product (GDP), and the fourth largest by area in the country. The state's capital and largest city, Belo Horizonte, is a major urban and finance center in Latin America, and the sixth largest municipality in Brazil, after the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasília and Fortaleza, but its metropolitan area is the third largest in Brazil with just over 5.8 million inhabitants, after those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Nine Brazilian presidents were born in Minas Gerais, the most of any state. The state has 10.1% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 8.7% of the Brazilian GDP.

Federal District (Brazil)

Federal District (Brazil)

The Federal District is one of 27 federative units of Brazil. Located in the Center-West Region, it is the smallest Brazilian federal unit and the only one that has no municipalities, being divided into 31 administrative regions. The federal capital of Brazil, Brasília, which is also the seat of government of the Federal District, is located in its territory.

Luís Cruls

Luís Cruls

Luíz Cruls or Luís Cruls or Louis Ferdinand Cruls was a Belgian-Brazilian astronomer and geodesist. He was Director of the Brazilian National Observatory from 1881 to 1908, led the commission charged with the survey and selection of a future site for the capital of Brazil in the Central Plateau, and was co-discoverer of the Great Comet of 1882. Cruls was also an active proponent of efforts to accurately measure solar parallax and towards that end led a Brazilian team in their observations of 1882 Transit of Venus in Punta Arenas, Chile.

José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

José Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque was a military officer, who became a Marshal in the Brazilian Army. Son of Cândido Albuquerque and Maria Albuquerque, he was the nephew of Epitácio Pessoa, and brother of João Pessoa, the Governor of Northern State of Paraiba. He was one of the officers sent on a preparatory mission to Europe by the Brazilian Army during the World War I against the Central Powers. In his subsequent career he had a strong influence on the reform and update of some Brazilian Army branches and institutions. To honor him, the 12th Cavalry Regiment of the Brazilian Army adopted his name.

Empire of Brazil

Empire of Brazil

The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent, later King Dom John VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. John VI later returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir-apparent, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil. The new country was huge, sparsely populated and ethnically diverse.

First Brazilian Republic

First Brazilian Republic

The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha, officially the Republic of the United States of Brazil, refers to the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930. The Old Republic began with the deposition of Emperor Pedro II in 1889, and ended with the Brazilian Revolution of 1930 that installed Getúlio Vargas as a new president. During the First Brazilian Republic, Brazil was dominated by a form of machine politics known as coronelism, in which the political and economic spheres were dominated by large landholders. The most powerful of such landholders were the coffee industry of São Paulo and the dairy industry of Minas Gerais. Because of the power of these two industries, the Old Republic's political system has been described as "milk coffee politics."

Juscelino Kubitschek

Juscelino Kubitschek

Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, also known by his initials JK, was a prominent Brazilian politician who served as the 21st president of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. His term was marked by economic prosperity and political stability, being most known for the construction of a new capital, Brasília.

Construction

Part of Lúcio Costa's pilot plan for Brasília's design
Part of Lúcio Costa's pilot plan for Brasília's design

The construction of Brasília was one of the core initiatives of President Kubitschek’s “Fifty Years in Five” program, a centrepiece of his administration’s focus on development.[9] Launched in 1956, the program aimed for industrialisation and urbanisation on a wide scale in order to achieve large economic gains. It focused on the local economies of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and sought to ease the burdens on these areas with the interior relocation of the capital.[10]

Lúcio Costa became the lead urban planner in 1957 with a successful pilot plan.[3] He worked alongside Oscar Niemeyer, a colleague who was approved of by President Kubitschek, and Roberto Burle Marx, a landscape designer.[11][3] The first building commissioned and completed was the Alvadora Palace, the official residence for the President of Brazil, which was followed by other key administrative buildings.[3] Following this, construction expanded to include public offices, airports and a vast series of road networks connecting Brasília to other provincial capitals around the nation, along which infrastructure including motels and warehouses were established.[2] The designs within Brasília followed a modernist and futurist architectural style, for which Niemeyer was particularly known, and its residential areas were designed to accommodate 500,000 citizens, a goal that was reached by 1970.[11][4] The construction period ultimately lasted 41 months, from 1956 to April 21, 1960, the date of Brasília’s inauguration.[4]

Satellite view.
Satellite view.

The company leading the development of Brasília was NOVACAP; a portmanteau of 'New Capital', which was headquartered roughly two kilometres from the initial site in a work camp that eventually came to be known as Velhacap (Old Capital). Similar work camps spawned throughout the construction period due to the large influx of domestic and international migrant workers, driven in part by the vast publicity the city received.[12] Nearby Velhacap was Candangolândia, and other smaller settlements arose in gaps left by the pilot plan. Many of these construction camps became internal communities, with food provided in mess halls to workers who lived in residences similar to barracks. These communities went on to form the basis of the many satellite cities in the Federal District, as seen in the current status of Candangolândia as an administrative region.[12]

Economic Repercussions

The total cost of the construction of Brasília was estimated to be 1.5 Billion USD (unadjusted from 1954 dollars) by President Café Filho. Subsequent administrations have generally been unsure about the total costs, with general estimates regarding it as one of the world’s most expensive development projects.[4] The high expenses of the project diverted taxes into the city from around the country, which caused the emergence of an urban/rural divide in the Brasília area, and prompted population growth due to an influx of rural inhabitants moving to urban areas for social and economic opportunities.[4] 27 satellite cities have grown on the outskirts of Brasília, fed by urbanisation and the high concentration of office workers in the city prompting lower income earners to live outside and commute in.[3][4]

The vast expenditure on the construction of Brasília also impacted the wider Brazilian economy. After the beginning of the Fourth Brazilian Republic in 1946, the national economy grew significantly through a method of import substitution industrialization which initially relied on large foreign investments to drive industry.[4] This economic approach created national debt which was significantly worsened by the construction of Brasília, leading to increased inflation and a drop in GDP growth (7% to 4%) and industry growth (9% to 3.9%).[13] The lack of adequate financing for the city’s construction became a prolonged issue in successive governments following President Kubitschek's administration and the 1964 coup d'etat, and has been named as a contributor to hyperinflation and recession in the 1980’s.[4] Kubitschek's “Fifty Years in Five” program fell under wide criticism following his presidency, with critics, newspapers and academics often describing it as “fifty years’ inflation in five.”[4]

Social Impacts

Brasília held the status of a national pride during its construction and after its inauguration, much of which focused on the architectural identity of the city.[2] Dr Steffen Lehmann, an academic from the University of Las Vegas, explains this by saying, “At this time, Brasília was seen as a modern utopia that expressed optimism and trust in the future.”[11] This led to the creation of venerative documents such as the Ode to Brasília by Alberto Bonfim; “A pioneer city is rising architecturally bold, the first of its kind in this new urban mould.”[2] Its placement in the interior of the country was chosen to bring about social change by creating a stronger physical connection between the regions and the government, and thus a clearer national identity.[5]

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Lúcio Costa

Lúcio Costa

Lúcio Marçal Ferreira Ribeiro Lima Costa was a Brazilian architect and urban planner, best known for his plan for Brasília.

Industrialisation

Industrialisation

Industrialisation is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society. This involves an extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing. Historically industrialization is associated with increase of polluting industries heavily dependent on fossil fuels. With the increasing focus on sustainable development and green industrial policy practices, industrialization increasingly includes technological leapfrogging, with direct investment in more advanced, cleaner technologies.

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho, known as Oscar Niemeyer, was a Brazilian architect considered to be one of the key figures in the development of modern architecture. Niemeyer was best known for his design of civic buildings for Brasília, a planned city that became Brazil's capital in 1960, as well as his collaboration with other architects on the headquarters of the United Nations in New York. His exploration of the aesthetic possibilities of reinforced concrete was highly influential in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Roberto Burle Marx

Roberto Burle Marx

Roberto Burle Marx was a Brazilian landscape architect whose designs of parks and gardens made him world-famous. He is accredited with having introduced modernist landscape architecture to Brazil. He was known as a modern nature artist and a public urban space designer. His work had a great influence on tropical garden design in the 20th century. Water gardens were a popular theme in his work. He was deftly able to transfer traditional artistic expressions such as graphic design, tapestry and folk art into his landscape designs. He also designed fabrics, jewellery and stage sets.

Modernism

Modernism

Modernism is both a philosophical and arts movement that arose from broad transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement reflected a desire for the creation of new forms of art, philosophy, and social organization which reflected the newly emerging industrial world, including features such as urbanization, architecture, new technologies, and war. Artists attempted to depart from traditional forms of art, which they considered outdated or obsolete. The poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it New" was the touchstone of the movement's approach.

Futurism

Futurism

Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy, and to a lesser extent in other countries, in the early 20th century. It emphasized dynamism, speed, technology, youth, violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane, and the industrial city. Its key figures included the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Fortunato Depero, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, and Luigi Russolo. Italian Futurism glorified modernity and according to its doctrine, aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past. Important Futurist works included Marinetti's 1909 Manifesto of Futurism, Boccioni's 1913 sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Balla's 1913–1914 painting Abstract Speed + Sound, and Russolo's The Art of Noises (1913).

Satellite

Satellite

A satellite or artificial satellite is an object intentionally placed into orbit in outer space. Except for passive satellites, most satellites have an electricity generation system for equipment on board, such as solar panels or radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Most satellites also have a method of communication to ground stations, called transponders. Many satellites use a standardized bus to save cost and work, the most popular of which is small CubeSats. Similar satellites can work together as a group, forming constellations. Because of the high launch cost to space, satellites are designed to be as lightweight and robust as possible. Most communication satellites are radio relay stations in orbit and carry dozens of transponders, each with a bandwidth of tens of megahertz.

Candangolândia

Candangolândia

Candangolândia is an administrative region in the Federal District in Brazil.

Café Filho

Café Filho

João Fernandes Campos Café Filho was a Brazilian politician who served as the 18th president of Brazil, taking office upon the suicide of former president Getúlio Vargas. He was the first Protestant to occupy the position.

Fourth Brazilian Republic

Fourth Brazilian Republic

The Fourth Brazilian Republic is the period of Brazilian history between 1946 and 1964 also known as the "Republic of 46" or as the "Populist Republic". It was marked by political instability and military's pressure on civilian politicians which ended with the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état and establishment of Brazilian military government.

Import substitution industrialization

Import substitution industrialization

Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy that advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production. It is based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products. The term primarily refers to 20th-century development economics policies, but it has been advocated since the 18th century by economists such as Friedrich List and Alexander Hamilton.

1964 Brazilian coup d'état

1964 Brazilian coup d'état

The 1964 Brazilian coup d'état, colloquially known in Brazil as the Coup of 64, was a series of events in Brazil from March 31 to April 1 that led to the overthrow of President João Goulart by members of the Brazilian Armed Forces, supported by the United States government. The following day, with the military already in control of the country, the speaker of the Brazilian Congress came out in support of the coup and endorsed it by declaring vacant the office of the presidency. The coup put an end to the government of Goulart, a member of the Brazilian Labour Party, who had been democratically elected vice president in the same election in which conservative Jânio Quadros, from the National Labour Party and backed by the National Democratic Union, won the presidency.

Early Years

Cultural Development

The University of Brasília was officially opened in 1962 by founders Darcy Ribeiro, an anthropologist, and Anísio Teixeira, an educator. Oscar Niemeyer designed the main campus building for the university, nicknamed Minhoção or 'Big Worm', which completed construction in 1971.[5] The university shared a goal similar to the social aim of constructing Brasília, "to renew the methods of learning and to teach towards the future."[14] The University contributed greatly to the cultural development of the city and a focus on the arts. In 1962, the Central Institute of the Arts was opened by Alcides da Rocha Miranda, which led to a greater presence of art academics in the Brasília.[5]

It was in this same time period that the first literary works from the city were being published and gaining traction, with the first literary anthologies, Poetas de Brasília and Contistas de Brasília, released in 1962 and 1964 respectively.[5] In 1965 the first 'Brasília Festival of Brazilian Film' was held, and is today one of the oldest and largest film festivals in Brazil.[5][15]

A tank and two Brazilian Army jeeps near the National Congress in Brasília during the 1964 Coup
A tank and two Brazilian Army jeeps near the National Congress in Brasília during the 1964 Coup

Changing Political Status

Brazil underwent significant changes from 1964 onwards, when a military coup d‘etat ousted then president João Goulart due to economic and social crises. Goulart’s left leaning policies were particularly attacked in the face of inflation nearing 80% annually, a large amount of which was attributable to Kubitschek’s presidency and the vast deficit expenditure on Brasília.[16] The coup was centred in Brasília, which significantly damaged the city's social identity as a futuristic and optimistic symbol of national pride.[17]

A process of re-democratisation began in the 1980’s which was officially formalised in the drafting of a new constitution in 1988.[16] The new constitution redefined the political rights of the Federal District, and Brasília within, by giving it more political independence and less direct reliance on the Federal government. Article 32 of the constitution outlines that the Federal District is given the same rights as all other states and municipalities including the election of a Governor and Vice-Governor, whilst maintaining that it is not to be further divided into municipalities. Since the constitution the district has had the unique simultaneous definition as a state and municipality of Brazil.[18]

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University of Brasília

University of Brasília

The University of Brasília is a federal public university in Brasília, the capital of Brazil. It was founded in 1960 and has since consistently been named among the top five Brazilian universities and the top fifteen universities in South America by Times Higher Education (THE).

Darcy Ribeiro

Darcy Ribeiro

Darcy Ribeiro was a Brazilian anthropologist, historian, sociologist, author and politician. His ideas have influenced several scholars of Brazilian and Latin American studies. As Minister of Education of Brazil he carried out profound reforms which led him to be invited to participate in university reforms in Chile, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico and Uruguay after leaving Brazil due to the 1964 coup d'état.

Anísio Teixeira

Anísio Teixeira

Anísio Spínola Teixeira was a Brazilian educator, jurist, and writer. Teixeira was one of the reformers of Brazilian education of the early 20th century, being an advocate of progressive education in the country. He was one of the co-founders of the University of the Federal District, in 1935, and of the University of Brasília in 1960.

Brazilian Army

Brazilian Army

The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts, mostly in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side in World War I and World War II. Aligned with the Western Bloc during the military dictatorship in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it also had active participation in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa during the Cold War, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s.

National Congress of Brazil

National Congress of Brazil

The National Congress of Brazil is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government. Unlike the state legislative assemblies and municipal chambers, the Congress is bicameral, composed of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress meets annually in Brasília from 2 February to 22 December, with a mid-term break taking place between 17 July and 1 August.

1964 Brazilian coup d'état

1964 Brazilian coup d'état

The 1964 Brazilian coup d'état, colloquially known in Brazil as the Coup of 64, was a series of events in Brazil from March 31 to April 1 that led to the overthrow of President João Goulart by members of the Brazilian Armed Forces, supported by the United States government. The following day, with the military already in control of the country, the speaker of the Brazilian Congress came out in support of the coup and endorsed it by declaring vacant the office of the presidency. The coup put an end to the government of Goulart, a member of the Brazilian Labour Party, who had been democratically elected vice president in the same election in which conservative Jânio Quadros, from the National Labour Party and backed by the National Democratic Union, won the presidency.

João Goulart

João Goulart

João Belchior Marques Goulart, commonly known as Jango, was a Brazilian politician who served as the 24th president of Brazil until a military coup d'état deposed him on 1 April 1964. He was considered the last left-wing president of Brazil until Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva took office in 2003.

Constitution of Brazil

Constitution of Brazil

The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil is the supreme law of Brazil. It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government of Brazil. It provides the framework for the organization of the Brazilian government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, and to all people within Brazil.

Federal government of Brazil

Federal government of Brazil

The Federal Government of Brazil is the national government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, a republic in South America divided in 26 states and a federal district. The Brazilian federal government is divided in three branches: the executive, which is headed by the President and the cabinet; the legislative, whose powers are vested by the Constitution in the National Congress; and the judiciary, whose powers are vested in the Supreme Federal Court and lower federal courts. The seat of the federal government is located in Brasília.

Municipality

Municipality

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate.

Modern Era

Legião Urbana, one of several prominent bands from Brasília in the 1980's
Legião Urbana, one of several prominent bands from Brasília in the 1980's

Since the end of Brazil's military government in the 1980's, Brasília has been a cultural hub, especially for music. Numerous rock, punk and grunge bands formed and began more readily releasing music in the freer cultural climate, inspired by similar musical movements in the US and UK. Legião Urbana was one of the most famous groups, who released their first album in 1985.[5] They were recognised by Rolling Stone for their song, 'Que país é este?' and their lead singer Renata Russo.[5][19] The rise of these groups was credited with beginning to shift the identity of Brasília away from its complicated political history and towards the arts.[5]

Source: "History of Brasília", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Brasília.

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References
  1. ^ a b c d Karasch, Mary C. (2016). Before Brasília: Frontier Life in Central Brazil. University of New Mexico Press.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Marcondes, J.V. Freitas (1959). "Brasilia, The New Capital Of Brazil". The Mississippi Quarterly 12. 4 (4): 157–167. JSTOR 26473231 – via JSTOR.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Holford, William (March 1962). "Brasilia: The Federal Capital of Brazil". The Geographical Journal. 128 (1): 15–17. doi:10.2307/1794106. ISSN 0016-7398. JSTOR 1794106.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kelly, Jared (2020). "The City Sprouted: The Rise of Brasília". Consilience. 22 (22): 73–85. JSTOR 26924964 – via JSTOR.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Beal, Sophie (2020). "A Historical Overview of the Art of Brasília". The Art of Brasília. Springer International Publishing.
  6. ^ Buono, Amy (2019). "Viceroyalty of Brazil". Grove Art Online. doi:10.1093/oao/9781884446054.013.2000000164. ISBN 9781884446054. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
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  8. ^ "José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva | Brazilian statesman | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  9. ^ Green, James N; Skidmore, Thomas E (2021). "Juscelino Kubitschek | Brazil: Five Centuries of Change". Brown University Library | Center for Digital Scholarship. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  10. ^ IORIS, RAFAEL R. (May 2012). "'Fifty Years in Five' and What's in It for Us? Development Promotion, Populism, Industrial Workers and Carestia in 1950s Brazil". Journal of Latin American Studies. 44 (2): 261–284. doi:10.1017/s0022216x1200003x. ISSN 0022-216X. S2CID 144421053.
  11. ^ a b c Waldek, Stefanie (2020-08-21). "60 Years Ago, The Modernist City of Brasília Was Built From Scratch". Architectural Digest. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  12. ^ a b G., Epstein, David (1973). Brasilia, plan and reality : a study of planned and spontaneous urban development. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02203-3. OCLC 901566692.
  13. ^ Shei Ue, Tzung (1997). “The Course of the Brazilian Economy.” GW School of Business. George Washington University.
  14. ^ "UnB". international.unb.br. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  15. ^ Cutler, Aaron (2015-09-25). "Brazilian Cinema and the Hybrid Documentary". Frieze. No. 174. ISSN 0962-0672. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  16. ^ a b Napolitano, Marcos (2018-04-26), "The Brazilian Military Regime, 1964–1985", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199366439.013.413, ISBN 978-0-19-936643-9, retrieved 2022-05-26
  17. ^ "Brasilia: Constructing a Modern Identity | Modern Latin America". library.brown.edu. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  18. ^ Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, Ch. 5, Section 1, Article 32
  19. ^ "Rolling Stone Brazil: 100 Greatest Brazilian Songs - Acclaimed Music Forums". www.acclaimedmusic.net. Retrieved 2022-05-26.

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