Get Our Extension

Heinz Hackler

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Heinz Hackler
Born14 December 1918
Siegen
Died1 January 1945(1945-01-01) (aged 26)
near Antwerp, Nazi-occupied Belgium
Buried
Ysselsteyn German war cemetery
block X—row 11—grave
Allegiance Nazi Germany
Service/branchHeer
Balkenkreuz (Iron Cross) Luftwaffe
RankLeutnant (first lieutenant)
UnitJG 77
Commands held8./JG 77, 11./JG 77
Battles/warsWorld War II
AwardsKnight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Heinrich "Heinz" Hackler (14 December 1918 – 1 January 1945) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Heinz Hackler was listed as missing in action near Antwerp, Belgium after being hit by Allied flak during Operation Bodenplatte. Heinz Hackler was credited with 56 aerial victories.

Discover more about Heinz Hackler related topics

Luftwaffe

Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe was the aerial-warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht before and during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Imperial Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Imperial Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 in accordance with the terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles which banned Germany from having any air force.

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, or simply the Knight's Cross, and its variants, were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

Antwerp

Antwerp

Antwerp is the largest city in Belgium by area at 204.51 square kilometres (78.96 sq mi) and the capital of Antwerp Province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous municipality in Belgium, and with a metropolitan population of around 1,200,000 people, it is the second-largest metropolitan region in Belgium, after only Brussels.

Belgium

Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Northwestern Europe. The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.5 million, making it the 22nd most densely populated country in the world and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 376 per square kilometre (970/sq mi). The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liège, Bruges, Namur, and Leuven.

Operation Bodenplatte

Operation Bodenplatte

Operation Bodenplatte, launched on 1 January 1945, was an attempt by the Luftwaffe to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries during the Second World War. The goal of Bodenplatte was to gain air superiority during the stagnant stage of the Battle of the Bulge so that the German Army and Waffen-SS forces could resume their advance. The operation was planned for 16 December 1944, but was delayed repeatedly due to bad weather until New Year's Day, the first day that happened to be suitable.

Career

Hackler was born on 14 December 1918 in Siegen, at the time in the Province of Westphalia of the Weimar Republic. Following flight training,[Note 1] he was posted to the 8. Staffel (8th squadron) of Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77—77th Fighter Wing) in early 1941.[2] At the time, 8. Staffel was commanded by Oberleutnant Kurt Ubben. The Staffel was subordinated to III. Gruppe (3rd group) of JG 77 which was headed by Major Alexander von Winterfeldt.[3] In preparation for Operation Marita, the German invasion of Greece, III. Gruppe of JG 77 was moved to Deta in western Romania on 4 April 1941 and to Korinos on 19 April. That day, Hackler claimed hsi first aerial victory when he shot down a Hawker Hurricane fighter near Larissa.[4]

Eastern Front

In preparation for Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, III. Gruppe was moved to Bucharest and was located in the sector of Heeresgruppe Süd (Army Group South). III. Gruppe arrived in Bucharest on 16 June.[5] Four days later, III. Gruppe moved to Roman.[6]

On 25 September 1941, Hackler claimed his fifth aerial victory, a Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 fighter in the combat area near Perekop.[7] The next day, he became an "ace-in-a-day" claiming his aerial victories six through ten. Hackler was credited with shooting down two Polikarpov I-16 fighters, two Ilyushin Il-2 ground attack aircraft and a Petlyakov Pe-2 bomber.[8] During the fighting along the Isthmus of Perekop on 29 September, Hackler claimed a MiG-3 fighter shot down.[9] On 15 October, while the 11th Army was preparing for the attack on the Crimea Peninsula in what would become the Crimean campaign, Hackler shot down a Pe-2 bomber on mission to Armiansk and Ishun, located approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) southeast of Krasnoperekopsk.[10] The next day, he claimed two I-16 fighters in the same combat area.[11] By 27 October, the fighting has moved to the combat area south of Perekop. That day, Hackler claimed a Polikarpov I-15 and I-16 fighter.[12]

Mediterranean Theater and Romania

On 23 October 1942, the British Eighth Army launched the Second Battle of El Alamein. Preceding this attack, the Luftwaffe had already planned to replace Jagdgeschwader 27 (JG 27—27th Fighter Wing), which had been fighting in North African theater, with JG 77.[13] In preparation for this rotation, III. Gruppe of JG 77 was moved to Munich on 19 October where it was equipped with the Bf 109 G-2/trop. On 23 and 24 October, the Gruppe moved to Bari in southern Italy.[14] The Gruppe then relocated to Tobruk Airfield on 26 October.[15] The following day, the Gruppe moved to an airfield at Tanyet-Harun.[16]

On 1 July 1944, Hackler was appointed Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of 8. Staffel (8th squadron) of JG 77. He succeeded Leutnant Wilhelm Mockel who had temporarily replaced Hauptmann Helmut Goedert after he had been wounded in combat on 31 May.[17] As part of the group expansion from three Staffeln per Gruppe to four Staffeln per Gruppe, Hackler's 8. Staffel was re-designated and became the 11. Staffel of JG 77 on 15 August.[18]

Discover more about Career related topics

Jagdgeschwader 77

Jagdgeschwader 77

Jagdgeschwader 77 Herz As was a Luftwaffe fighter wing during World War II. It served in all the German theaters of war, from Western Europe to the Eastern Front, and from the high north in Norway to the Mediterranean.

Kurt Ubben

Kurt Ubben

Kurt "Kuddel" Ubben was a German Luftwaffe wing commander and military aviator during World War II, a fighter ace listed with 110 aerial victories—that is, 111 aerial combat encounters resulting in the destruction of the enemy aircraft—claimed in approximately 500 combat missions.

German invasion of Greece

German invasion of Greece

The German invasion of Greece, also known as the Battle of Greece or Operation Marita, was the attack of Greece by Italy and Germany during World War II. The Italian invasion in October 1940, which is usually known as the Greco-Italian War, was followed by the German invasion in April 1941. German landings on the island of Crete came after Allied forces had been defeated in mainland Greece. These battles were part of the greater Balkans Campaign of the Axis powers and their associates.

Deta, Romania

Deta, Romania

Deta is a town in Timiș County, Romania. It administers a single village, Opatița.

Korinos

Korinos

Korinos is a town and a former municipality in Pieria regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Katerini, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 70.909 km2, the community 30.726 km2. Korinos has approximately 5000 residents and it is located 5 km northeast of the city of Katerini (Κατερίνη), the capital of Pieria. Motorway 1 is situated to the west. Korinos is famous for its beaches -lying to its east- and hotels in the area, which make the village an ideal place for tourism.

Hawker Hurricane

Hawker Hurricane

The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–40s which was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. for service with the Royal Air Force (RAF). It was overshadowed in the public consciousness by the Supermarine Spitfire during the Battle of Britain in 1940, but the Hurricane inflicted 60 percent of the losses sustained by the Luftwaffe in the campaign, and fought in all the major theatres of the Second World War.

Larissa

Larissa

Larissa is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capital of the Larissa regional unit. It is a principal agricultural centre and a national transport hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos, the cities of Thessaloniki and Athens. The municipality of Larissa has 162,591 inhabitants, while the regional unit of Larissa reached a population of 284,325.

Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa was the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany and many of its Axis allies, starting on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during the Second World War. The operation, code-named after Frederick Barbarossa, a 12th-century Holy Roman emperor and German king, put into action Nazi Germany's ideological goal of conquering the western Soviet Union to repopulate it with Germans. The German Generalplan Ost aimed to use some of the conquered people as forced labour for the Axis war effort while acquiring the oil reserves of the Caucasus as well as the agricultural resources of various Soviet territories. Their ultimate goal was to create more Lebensraum for Germany, and the eventual extermination of the indigenous Slavic peoples by mass deportation to Siberia, Germanisation, enslavement, and genocide.

Bucharest

Bucharest

Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border.

Army Group South

Army Group South

Army Group South was the name of three German Army Groups during World War II.

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 was a Soviet fighter-interceptor used during World War II. It was a development of the MiG-1 by the OKO of Zavod (Factory) No. 1 in Moscow to remedy problems found during the MiG-1's development and operations. It replaced the MiG-1 on the production line at Factory No. 1 on 20 December 1940 and was built in large numbers during 1941 before Factory No. 1 was converted to build the Ilyushin Il-2.

Perekop

Perekop

Perekop is an urban-type settlement located on the Perekop Isthmus connecting the Crimean peninsula to the Ukrainian mainland. It is known for the fortress Or Qapi that served as the gateway to Crimea. The village currently is part of Armyansk Municipality. Population: 919 .

Summary of career

Aerial victory claims

According to US historian David T. Zabecki, Hackler was credited with 56 aerial victories.[19] Mathews and Foreman, authors of Luftwaffe Aces – Biographies and Victory Claims, researched the German Federal Archives and state that Hackler was credited with 37 aerial victories plus further four unconfirmed claims. This figure includes 24 claims made on the Eastern Front and 13 on the Western Front, including at least five four-engined bombers.[20]

Victory claims were logged to a map-reference (PQ = Planquadrat), for example "PQ 5659". The Luftwaffe grid map (Jägermeldenetz) covered all of Europe, western Russia and North Africa and was composed of rectangles measuring 15 minutes of latitude by 30 minutes of longitude, an area of about 360 square miles (930 km2). These sectors were then subdivided into 36 smaller units to give a location area 3 × 4 km in size.[21]

Chronicle of aerial victories

  This and the ♠ (Ace of spades) indicates those aerial victories which made Hackler an "ace-in-a-day", a term which designates a fighter pilot who has shot down five or more airplanes in a single day.
  This and the – (dash) indicates unconfirmed aerial victory claims for which Hackler did not receive credit.
  This along with the * (asterisk) indicates an Herausschuss (separation shot)—a severely damaged heavy bomber forced to separate from his combat box which was counted as an aerial victory.
  This and the ! (exclamation mark) indicates those aerial victories listed by Prien, Stemmer, Rodeike and Bock.
  This and the # (hash mark) indicates those aerial victories listed by Mathews and Foreman.

Claim! Claim# Date Time Type Location Claim! Claim# Date Time Type Location
– 8. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 77 –
Balkans and Crete — 1 April – 1 June 1941
1 19 April 1941 11:20 Hurricane 25 km (16 mi) north of Lamia[22]
– 8. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[23]
Operation Barbarossa — 22 June – 5 December 1941
2 1 22 June 1941 19:03 I-16[24] 3 2 8 July 1941 18:25 DB-3[25]
According to Prien, Stemmer, Rodeike and Bock, Hackler claimed his fourth aerial victory in late August 1941.[26] This claim is not listed by Mathews and Foreman.[23]
5 25 September 1941
MiG-3[27] 11 29 September 1941 17:13 MiG-3[27]
6♠ 26 September 1941
I-16[27] 12 7 15 October 1941 09:33 Pe-2[28]
7♠ 3 26 September 1941 11:26 V-11 (Il-2)[27] 13 16 October 1941
I-16[28]
8♠ 4 26 September 1941 11:29 V-11 (Il-2)[27] 14 16 October 1941
I-16[28]
9♠ 5 26 September 1941 13:58 Pe-2[27] 15 8 27 October 1941 12:38 I-15[29]
10♠ 6 26 September 1941 16:02 I-16[27] 16 9 27 October 1941 12:50 I-16[29]
– 8. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[23]
Eastern Front — 6 December 1941 – 20 March 1942
10 5 January 1942 11:35 I-153 22 5 March 1942 09:40 MiG-3[30]
17 6 January 1942 11:35 I-153[30] 23 12 5 March 1942 17:03 I-16[30]
18
10 January 1942
DB-3[30] 13 15 March 1942 10:50 I-153
19
10 January 1942
DB-3[30] 14 15 March 1942 10:55 I-153
20
10 January 1942
DB-3[30] 24 15 17 March 1942 10:15 I-153 PQ 5659[31]
21 11 23 February 1942 11:05 I-153[30]
– 8. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[23]
Eastern Front — April – June 1942
16 19 April 1942 11:20 Hurricane 17 11 June 1942 12:47 Il-2
Stab of III. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[23]
Eastern Front — 1 May – 16 October 1942
18 2 July 1942 14:40 Il-2 PQ 66561[32] 20 15 July 1942 09:03 I-153[33]
19 2 July 1942 14:46 Il-2[32] 21 12 September 1942 14:02 LaGG-3 PQ 10182[33]
55 km (34 mi) southeast of Sloboda
According to Prien, Stemmer, Rodeike and Bock, Hackler claimed nine aerial victories in May/July while serving with the Stab of JG 77.[34]
22 21 September 1942 11:18 Pe-2 39 4 October 1942
Yak-1[35]
38 23 30 September 1942 11:46 Yak-1 PQ 00263[35]
Stab III. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[23]
North Africa — 26 October – 31 December 1942
41 3 November 1942
P-40[36] 25 18 November 1942 12:37 P-40 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast of Sidi Ahmed el-Magrun[36]
42 24 9 November 1942 14:46 P-40 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Sallum[36]
Stab III. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[37]
North Africa — January 1943
45 18 January 1943 14:22 P-38 PQ 13 Ost 52312, Zarzur[38]
– 8. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[37]
North Africa — February – May 1943
4 February 1943
P-38[38] 48 28 11 April 1943 11:38 Spitfire PQ 03 Ost 97271, west of Tebourba[38]
2 March 1943
P-40[38]
25 April 1943
P-40[38]
4 March 1943
P-40[38]
4 May 1943
Spitfire[38]
46 26 15 March 1943 14:48 P-38 30 km (19 mi) west of Gafsa[38] 49 29 7 May 1943 15:22 Spitfire[38] PQ 03 Ost 97271, west of Tebourba[38]
47 27 29 March 1943 19:10 P-40 25 km (16 mi) south of Meknassy[38]
– 8. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[37]
Mediterranean Theater, Italy — June – 25 October 1943
50 30 18 June 1943 10:14 B-25 PQ 04 Ost 9275, northwest of Olbia[39]
24 June 1943
P-38[39]
23 June 1943
P-38[39]
7 August 1943
Beaufighter[39]
– 8. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[40]
Mediterranean Theater, Italy — 1 January – 15 August 1944
51 31 5 April 1944 14:35 B-24 PQ 24 Ost 55126[41]
30 km (19 mi) east-northeast of Pitești
53 34 18 May 1944 11:17 B-17* PQ 24 Ost 55738[42]
60 km (37 mi) southwest of Bucharest
32 24 April 1944 12:04 B-17 Romania 54 35 31 May 1944 09:58 B-24* PQ 24 Ost 5527[42]
60 km (37 mi) southwest of Bucharest
52 33 5 May 1944 14:15 B-24 PQ 24 Ost 4417[42]
50 km (31 mi) southwest of Caracal
55 36 3 July 1944 12:20 P-51 PQ 24 Ost 6582[43]
60 km (37 mi) southwest of Bucharest
– 11. Staffel of Jagdgeschwader 77 –[40]
Mediterranean Theater, Italy — 15 August – 15 September 1944
56 37 23 August 1 08:08 Yak-9 PQ 24 Ost 7743[43]
10 km (6.2 mi) northwest of Huși

Awards

Discover more about Summary of career related topics

David T. Zabecki

David T. Zabecki

David T. Zabecki is an American military historian, author and editor. Zabecki served in the U.S. Army both in the Vietnam War and in United States Army Europe in Germany attaining the rank of major general. Zabecki holds PhDs in engineering and in military science. He is the author, editor and translator of several books on the military history of Germany, including World War I and World War II.

German Federal Archives

German Federal Archives

The German Federal Archives or Bundesarchiv (BArch) are the National Archives of Germany. They were established at the current location in Koblenz in 1952.

Eastern Front (World War II)

Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers against the Soviet Union (USSR), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It was known as the Great Patriotic War in the Soviet Union – and still is in some of its successor states, while almost everywhere else it has been called the Eastern Front. In present-day German and Ukrainian historiography the name German-Soviet War is typically used.

Latitude

Latitude

In geography, latitude is a coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the surface of the Earth or another celestial body. Latitude is given as an angle that ranges from –90° at the south pole to 90° at the north pole, with 0° at the Equator. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude and longitude are used together as a coordinate pair to specify a location on the surface of the Earth.

Longitude

Longitude

Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east–west position of a point on the surface of the Earth, or another celestial body. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Meridians are semicircular lines running from pole to pole that connect points with the same longitude. The prime meridian defines 0° longitude; by convention the International Reference Meridian for the Earth passes near the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England on the island of Great Britain. Positive longitudes are east of the prime meridian, and negative ones are west.

Ace of spades

Ace of spades

The Ace of Spades is traditionally the highest and most valued card in the deck of playing cards in English-speaking countries. The actual value of the card varies from game to game.

Hawker Hurricane

Hawker Hurricane

The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–40s which was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. for service with the Royal Air Force (RAF). It was overshadowed in the public consciousness by the Supermarine Spitfire during the Battle of Britain in 1940, but the Hurricane inflicted 60 percent of the losses sustained by the Luftwaffe in the campaign, and fought in all the major theatres of the Second World War.

Lamia (city)

Lamia (city)

Lamia is a city in central Greece. The city dates back to antiquity, and is today the capital of the regional unit of Phthiotis and of the Central Greece region. According to the 2011 census, the Municipality of Lamia has a population of 75.315 while Lamia itself a population of 52,006 inhabitants. The city is located on the slopes of Mount Othrys, near the river Spercheios. It serves as the agricultural center of a fertile rural and livestock area.

Ilyushin DB-3

Ilyushin DB-3

The Ilyushin DB-3, where "DB" stands for Dalniy Bombardirovschik meaning "long-range bomber", was a Soviet bomber aircraft of World War II. It was a twin-engined, low-wing monoplane that first flew in 1935. 1,528 were built. The DB-3 was the precursor of the Ilyushin Il-4.

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 was a Soviet fighter-interceptor used during World War II. It was a development of the MiG-1 by the OKO of Zavod (Factory) No. 1 in Moscow to remedy problems found during the MiG-1's development and operations. It replaced the MiG-1 on the production line at Factory No. 1 on 20 December 1940 and was built in large numbers during 1941 before Factory No. 1 was converted to build the Ilyushin Il-2.

Ilyushin Il-2

Ilyushin Il-2

The Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik is a ground-attack aircraft produced by the Soviet Union in large numbers during the Second World War. The Il-2 was never given an official name and shturmovik is the generic Russian word meaning ground attack aircraft. The word also appears in Western sources as Stormovik and Sturmovik, neither of which give correct pronunciation in English.

Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3

Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3

The Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3 was a Soviet fighter aircraft of World War II. It was a refinement of the earlier LaGG-1 and was one of the most modern aircraft available to the Soviet Air Force at the time of Germany's invasion in 1941. Compared to its opponents the LaGG-3 was underpowered and, despite its wooden construction, overweight. It was unpopular with Soviet pilots, but despite this, at one point in the war, on average 12 LaGG-3s were being completed daily and 6,528 had been built in total when production switched to the Yak-3 in 1944. The LaGG-3 was steadily improved, forming the basis for the more successful La-5 and La-7.

Source: "Heinz Hackler", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinz_Hackler.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

Notes
  1. ^ Flight training in the Luftwaffe progressed through the levels A1, A2 and B1, B2, referred to as A/B flight training. A training included theoretical and practical training in aerobatics, navigation, long-distance flights and dead-stick landings. The B courses included high-altitude flights, instrument flights, night landings and training to handle the aircraft in difficult situations.[1]
References

Citations

  1. ^ Bergström, Antipov & Sundin 2003, p. 17.
  2. ^ Obermaier 1989, p. 126.
  3. ^ Prien et al. 2003a, p. 288.
  4. ^ Prien et al. 2003a, pp. 280, 293.
  5. ^ Prien 1993, p. 628.
  6. ^ Prien 1993, p. 630.
  7. ^ Prien 1993, p. 804.
  8. ^ Prien 1993, pp. 805–806.
  9. ^ Prien 1993, p. 808.
  10. ^ Prien 1993, p. 825.
  11. ^ Prien 1993, p. 828.
  12. ^ Prien 1993, p. 840.
  13. ^ Prien 1994, p. 1293.
  14. ^ Prien 1994, p. 1296.
  15. ^ Prien 1994, p. 1298.
  16. ^ Prien 1994, p. 1301.
  17. ^ Prien et al. 2021, pp. 430, 440.
  18. ^ Prien et al. 2021, pp. 421–422, 430.
  19. ^ Zabecki 2014, p. 1618.
  20. ^ Mathews & Foreman 2015, pp. 454–455.
  21. ^ Planquadrat.
  22. ^ Prien et al. 2003a, p. 293.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Mathews & Foreman 2015, p. 455.
  24. ^ Prien et al. 2003b, p. 362.
  25. ^ Prien et al. 2003b, p. 364.
  26. ^ Prien et al. 2003b, p. 374.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Prien et al. 2003b, p. 371.
  28. ^ a b c Prien et al. 2003b, p. 372.
  29. ^ a b Prien et al. 2003b, p. 373.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Prien et al. 2005, p. 323.
  31. ^ Prien et al. 2005, p. 324.
  32. ^ a b Prien et al. 2006, p. 352.
  33. ^ a b Prien et al. 2006, p. 353.
  34. ^ Prien et al. 2006, pp. 246, 354.
  35. ^ a b Prien et al. 2006, p. 354.
  36. ^ a b c Prien et al. 2004, p. 331.
  37. ^ a b c Mathews & Foreman 2015, p. 1343.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Prien et al. 2011, p. 534.
  39. ^ a b c d Prien et al. 2011, p. 535.
  40. ^ a b Mathews & Foreman 2015, p. 341.
  41. ^ Prien et al. 2021, p. 435.
  42. ^ a b c Prien et al. 2021, p. 436.
  43. ^ a b Prien et al. 2021, p. 437.
  44. ^ Patzwall 2008, p. 92.
  45. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 158.
  46. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 174.
  47. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 358.

Bibliography

  • Bergström, Christer. "Bergström Black Cross/Red Star website". Identifying a Luftwaffe Planquadrat. Archived from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2022.
  • Bergström, Christer; Antipov, Vlad; Sundin, Claes (2003). Graf & Grislawski – A Pair of Aces. Hamilton MT: Eagle Editions. ISBN 978-0-9721060-4-7.
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
  • Manrho, John; Pütz, Ron (2004). Bodenplatte: The Luftwaffe's Last Hope-The Attack on Allied Airfields, New Year's Day 1945. Crowborough, UK: Hikoki Publications. ISBN 978-1-902109-40-4.
  • Mathews, Andrew Johannes; Foreman, John (2015). Luftwaffe Aces — Biographies and Victory Claims — Volume 2 G–L. Walton on Thames: Red Kite. ISBN 978-1-906592-19-6.
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1939 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7.
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
  • Patzwall, Klaus D. (2008). Der Ehrenpokal für besondere Leistung im Luftkrieg [The Honor Goblet for Outstanding Achievement in the Air War] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-08-3.
  • Prien, Jochen (1993). Geschichte des Jagdgeschwaders 77—Teil 2—1941–1942 [History of Jagdgeschwader 77—Volume 2—1941–1942] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-22-9.
  • Prien, Jochen (1994). Geschichte des Jagdgeschwaders 77—Teil 3—1942–1943 [History of Jagdgeschwader 77—Volume 3—1942–1943] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-26-7.
  • Prien, Jochen; Stemmer, Gerhard; Rodeike, Peter; Bock, Winfried (2003a). Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 5—Heimatverteidigung—10. Mai 1940 bis 31 Dezember 1941—Einsatz im Mittelmeerraum—Oktober 1940 bis November 1941—Einsatz im Westen—22. Juni bis 31. Dezember 1941—Die Ergänzungsjagdgruppen—Einsatz 1941 bis zur Auflösung Anfang 1942 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945—Part 5—Defense of the Reich—10 May 1940 to 31 December 1941—Action in the Mediterranean Theater—October 1940 to November 1941—Action in the West—22 June to 31 December 1941—The Supplementary Fighter Groups—Action from 1941 until their Breakup in Early 1942] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-68-7.
  • Prien, Jochen; Stemmer, Gerhard; Rodeike, Peter; Bock, Winfried (2003b). Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 6/II—Unternehmen "BARBAROSSA"—Einsatz im Osten—22.6. bis 5.12.1941 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945—Part 6/II—Operation "BARBAROSSA"—Action in the East—22 June to 5 December 1941] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-70-0.
  • Prien, Jochen; Stemmer, Gerhard; Rodeike, Peter; Bock, Winfried (2004). Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 8/II—Einsatz im Mittelmeerraum—November 1941 bis Dezember 1942 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945—Part 8/II—Action in the Mediterranean Theater—November 1941 to December 1942] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-74-8.
  • Prien, Jochen; Stemmer, Gerhard; Rodeike, Peter; Bock, Winfried (2005). Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 9/I—Winterkampf im Osten—6.12.1941 bis 30.4.1942 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945—Part 9/I—Winter War in the East—6 December 1941 to 30 April 1942] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-76-2.
  • Prien, Jochen; Stemmer, Gerhard; Rodeike, Peter; Bock, Winfried (2006). Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 9/III—Vom Sommerfeldzug 1942 bis zur Niederlage von Stalingrad—1.5.1942 bis 3.2.1943 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945—Part 9/III—From the 1942 Summer Campaign to the Defeat at Stalingrad—1 May 1942 to 3 February 1943] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-78-6.
  • Prien, Jochen; Stemmer, Gerhard; Rodeike, Peter; Bock, Winfried (2011). Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 11/III—Einsatz im Mittelmeerraum—1.1. bis 31.12.1943 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945—Part 11/III—Action in the Mediterranean Theater—1 January to 31 December 1943] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-942943-00-0.
  • Prien, Jochen; Stemmer, Gerhard; Bock, Winfried; Balke, Ulf (2021). Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 14—Einsatz im Mittelmeerraum—1.1. bis 15.9.1944 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945—Part 14—Action in the Mediterranean Theater—1 January to 15 September 1944] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-942943-24-6.
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
  • Zabecki, David T., ed. (2014). Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-59884-981-3.

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.