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Heidelberg University

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Heidelberg University
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
Logo University of Heidelberg.svg
Seal of the Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis
MottoSemper apertus (Latin)[1]
Motto in English
Always open
TypePublic
Established18 October 1386; 636 years ago (18 October 1386)
Budget€764.9 million (2018)[2]
ChancellorHolger Schroeter
PresidentBernhard Eitel
Administrative staff
8,397[3]
Students28,653 (WS2019/20)[4]
Undergraduates15,289[5]
Postgraduates11,871[5]
3,024[5]
Location, ,
Coordinates: 49°24′37″N 8°42′23″E / 49.41028°N 8.70639°E / 49.41028; 8.70639
CampusUrban/University town and Suburban
ColorsSandstone red and gold
   
Websitewww.uni-heidelberg.de Edit this at Wikidata
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Logo.svg
Data as of 2013

Heidelberg University, officially the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, (German: Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Latin: Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386 on instruction of Pope Urban VI, Heidelberg is Germany's oldest university and one of the world's oldest surviving universities. It was the third university established in the Holy Roman Empire.[6]

Heidelberg has been a coeducational institution since 1899. The university consists of twelve faculties and offers degree programmes at undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels in some 100 disciplines.[7] Heidelberg comprises three major campuses: the humanities are predominantly located in Heidelberg's Old Town, the natural sciences and medicine in the Neuenheimer Feld quarter, and the social sciences within the inner-city suburb Bergheim. The language of instruction is usually German, while a considerable number of graduate degrees are offered in English as well as some in French.[8][9]

As of 2021, 57 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the city of Heidelberg and 33 with the university itself.[10] Modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology, psychiatric genetics,[11] environmental physics,[12] and modern sociology[13] were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty. Approximately 1,000 doctorates are completed every year, with more than one third of the doctoral students coming from abroad.[14][15] International students from some 130 countries account for more than 20 percent of the entire student body.[16]

Heidelberg is a German Excellence University, part of the U15, as well as a founding member of the League of European Research Universities and the Coimbra Group. The university's noted alumni include eleven domestic and foreign heads of state or heads of government. In international comparison Heidelberg University occupies top positions in rankings and enjoys a high academic reputation.[17]

Discover more about Heidelberg University related topics

German language

German language

German is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the Italian province of South Tyrol. It is also a co-official language of Luxembourg and Belgium, as well as a national language in Namibia. Outside Germany, it is also spoken by German communities in France (Bas-Rhin), Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary (Sopron).

Heidelberg

Heidelberg

Heidelberg is a city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. As of the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, of which roughly a quarter consisted of students.

Baden-Württemberg

Baden-Württemberg

Baden-Württemberg, commonly shortened to BW or BaWü, is a German state (Land) in Southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the southern part of Germany's western border with France. With more than 11.07 million inhabitants as of 2019 across a total area of nearly 35,752 km2 (13,804 sq mi), it is the third-largest German state by both area and population. As a federated state, Baden-Württemberg is a partly-sovereign parliamentary republic. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Mannheim and Karlsruhe. Other major cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen, Tübingen, and Ulm.

Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire, also known after 1512 as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Faculty (division)

Faculty (division)

A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area or a group of related subject areas, possibly also delimited by level. In American usage such divisions are generally referred to as colleges or schools, but may also mix terminology.

Habilitation

Habilitation

Habilitation is the highest university degree, or the procedure by which it is achieved, in many European countries. The candidate fulfills a university's set criteria of excellence in research, teaching and further education, usually including a dissertation. The degree, abbreviated "Dr. habil." or "PD", is a qualification for professorship in those countries. The conferral is usually accompanied by a lecture to a colloquium as well as a public inaugural lecture.

Heidelberg-Bergheim

Heidelberg-Bergheim

Bergheim is a district of the German city of Heidelberg. It is bounded on the North by the Neckar River, the East by the Bismarkplatz, on the South by the Kurfürsten Anlage and the South by the city line. It is a mostly urban residential area, however the Bergheim Campus of the University of Heidelberg has numerous buildings in the district. Since March 2009 the Heidelberg University Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences has occupied the former Ludolf Krehl clinic. Bergheim also has a number of parks, both along the river and near the Stadtbücherei.

Doctorate

Doctorate

A doctorate, doctor's degree, or doctoral degree is an academic degree awarded by universities and some other educational institutions, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi. In most countries, a research degree qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field or work in a specific profession. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.

International student

International student

International students, or foreign students, are students who undertake all or part of their tertiary education in a country other than their own and move to that country for the purpose of studying.

Coimbra Group

Coimbra Group

The Coimbra Group (CG) is an international association of 41 universities in Europe. It was established in 1985. It works for the benefit of its members by promoting "internationalization, academic collaboration, excellence in learning and research, and service to society" through "creating special academic and cultural ties", by lobbying at the European level, and by developing best-practice.

Head of state

Head of state

A head of state is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more.

Head of government

Head of government

The head of government is either the highest or the second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. In diplomacy, "head of government" is differentiated from "head of state" although in some countries, for example the United States, they are the same person.

History

Founding

In 1386, Heidelberg University was founded by Rupert I on instruction of Pope Urban VI who demanded modelling it after the ancient University of Paris.
In 1386, Heidelberg University was founded by Rupert I on instruction of Pope Urban VI who demanded modelling it after the ancient University of Paris.

The Great Schism of 1378 made it possible for Heidelberg, a relatively small city and capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate, to gain its own university.[18] The Great Schism was initiated by the election of two popes after the death of Pope Gregory XI in the same year.[18] One successor resided in Avignon (elected by the French) and the other in Rome (elected by the Italian cardinals).[18] The German secular and spiritual leaders voiced their support for the successor in Rome, which had far-reaching consequences for the German students and teachers in Paris: they lost their stipends and had to leave.[19]

Rupert I recognized the opportunity and initiated talks with the Curia, which ultimately led to a Papal Bull for foundation of a university. After having received, on 23 October 1385, permission from pope Urban VI to create a school of general studies (Latin: studium generale), the final decision to found the university was taken on 26 June 1386 at the behest of Rupert I, Count Palatine of the Rhine.[20] As specified in the papal charter, the university was modelled after the University of Paris and included four faculties: philosophy, theology, jurisprudence, and medicine.[21]

On 18 October 1386 a special Pontifical High Mass in the Heiliggeistkirche was the ceremony that established the university.[20] On 19 October 1386 the first lecture was held,[20] making Heidelberg the oldest university in Germany.[22] In November 1386, Marsilius of Inghen was elected first rector of the university.[23] The rector seal motto was semper apertus—i.e., "the book of learning is always open."[24] The university grew quickly and in March 1390, 185 students were enrolled at the university.[25]

A Solemn Mass was offered in the Heiliggeistkirche in 1386 to mark and bless the establishment of the university.
A Solemn Mass was offered in the Heiliggeistkirche in 1386 to mark and bless the establishment of the university.

Late Middle Ages

Between 1414 and 1418, theology and jurisprudence professors of the university took part in the Council of Constance and acted as counselors for Louis III, who attended this council as representative of the emperor and chief magistrate of the realm. This resulted in establishing a good reputation for the university and its professors.[26]

Due to the influence of Marsilius, the university initially taught the nominalism or via moderna. In 1412, both realism and the teachings of John Wycliffe were forbidden at the university but later, around 1454, the university decided that realism or via antique would also be taught, thus introducing two parallel ways (ambae viae).[27]

The transition from scholastic to humanistic culture was effected by the chancellor and bishop Johann von Dalberg in the late 15th century. Humanism was represented at Heidelberg University particularly by the founder of the older German Humanistic School Rudolph Agricola, Conrad Celtes, Jakob Wimpfeling, and Johann Reuchlin. Æneas Silvius Piccolomini was chancellor of the university in his capacity as provost of Worms, and later always favored it with his friendship and good-will as Pope Pius II. In 1482, Pope Sixtus IV permitted laymen and married men to be appointed professors in the ordinary of medicine through a papal dispensation. In 1553, Pope Julius III sanctioned the allotment of ecclesiastical benefices to secular professors.[28]

Reformation and modern era

Martin Luther's disputation at Heidelberg in April 1518 made a lasting impact, and his adherents among the masters and scholars soon became leading Reformationists in Southwest Germany. With the Electorate of the Palatinate turn to the Reformed faith, Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, converted the university into a calvinistic institution. In 1563, the Heidelberg Catechism was created under collaboration of members of the university's divinity school.

As the 16th century was passing, the late humanism stepped beside Calvinism as a predominant school of thought; and figures like Paul Schede, Jan Gruter, Martin Opitz, and Matthäus Merian taught at the university. It attracted scholars from all over the continent and developed into a cultural and academic center.[29] However, with the beginning of the Thirty Years' War in 1618, the intellectual and fiscal wealth of the university declined. In 1622, the then-world-famous Bibliotheca Palatina (the library of the university) was stolen from the University Cathedral and taken to Rome. The reconstruction efforts thereafter were defeated by the troops of King Louis XIV, who destroyed Heidelberg in 1693 almost completely.[30][31]

As a consequence of the late Counter-Reformation, the university lost its Protestant character, and was channeled by Jesuits. In 1735, the Old University was constructed at University Square, then known as Domus Wilhelmina. Through the efforts of the Jesuits a preparatory seminary was established, the Seminarium ad Carolum Borromæum, whose pupils were also registered in the university. After the suppression of the Jesuit Order, most of the schools they had conducted passed into the hands of the French Congregation of Lazarists in 1773. They deteriorated from that time forward, and the university itself continued to lose in prestige until the reign of the last elector Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine, who established new chairs for all the faculties, founded scientific institutes such as the Electoral Academy of Science, and transferred the school of political economy from Kaiserslautern to Heidelberg, where it was combined with the university as the faculty of political economy. He also founded an observatory in the neighboring city of Mannheim, where Jesuit Christian Mayer labored as director. In connection with the four hundredth anniversary of the university, the elector approved a revised statute book that several professors had been commissioned to prepare. The financial affairs of the university, its receipts and expenditures, were put in order. At that time, the number of students varied from 300 to 400; in the jubilee year, 133 matriculated. As a consequence of the disturbances caused by the French Revolution, and particularly because of the Treaty of Lunéville, the university lost all its property on the left bank of the Rhine, so that its complete dissolution was expected.[32]

19th and early 20th century

This decline did not stop until 1803, when the university was reestablished as a state-owned institution by Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden, to whom the part of the Palatinate situated on the right bank of the Rhine was allotted. Since then, the university bears his name together with the name of Ruprecht I. Karl Friedrich divided the university into five faculties and placed himself at its head as rector, as did also his successors. During this decade, Romanticism found expression in Heidelberg through Clemens Brentano, Achim von Arnim, Ludwig Tieck, Joseph Görres, and Joseph von Eichendorff, and there went forth a revival of the German Middle Ages in speech, poetry, and art.[29]

The Old Assembly Hall or "Great Hall" was redesigned in 1886 in celebration of the university's quincentenary.
The Old Assembly Hall or "Great Hall" was redesigned in 1886 in celebration of the university's quincentenary.

The German Students Association exerted great influence, which was at first patriotic and later political. After Romanticism had eventually died out, Heidelberg became a center of Liberalism and the movement in favor of German national unity.[29] The historians Friedrich Christoph Schlosser and Georg Gottfried Gervinus were the guides of the nation in political history. The modern scientific schools of medicine and natural science, particularly astronomy, were models in point of construction and equipment, and Heidelberg University was especially noted for its influential law school.[32] The university as a whole became the role model for the transformation of American liberal arts colleges into research universities, in particular for the then-newly established Johns Hopkins University.[33] Heidelberg's professors were important supporters of the Vormärz revolution and many of them were members of the first freely elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848. During the late 19th century, the university housed a very liberal and open-minded spirit, which was deliberately fostered by Max Weber, Ernst Troeltsch and a circle of colleagues around them.

In February 1900, the Grand Duchy of Baden issued a decree that gave women the right to access universities in Baden. Thus, the universities of Freiburg and Heidelberg were the first ones to allow women to study.

In the Weimar Republic, the university was widely recognized as a center of democratic thinking, coined by professors like Karl Jaspers, Gustav Radbruch, Martin Dibelius and Alfred Weber.[29] Unfortunately, there were also dark forces working within the university: Nazi physicist Philipp Lenard was head of the physical institute during that time. Following the assassination of the liberal German-Jewish Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau, he refused to half mast the national flag on the institute, thereby provoking its storming by communist students.[30]

The main entrance of the New University building in 1988, showing the bronze bust of Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom.
The main entrance of the New University building in 1988, showing the bronze bust of Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom.

Nazi Germany

After the establishment of Nazi Germany in 1933, the university supported Adolf Hitler and the Nazis like all other German universities at the time. It dismissed a large number of staff and students for political and racial reasons. Many dissident fellows had to emigrate and most Jewish and Communist professors who did not leave Germany were deported. At least two professors directly fell victim to Nazi terror.[34] On 17 May 1933, members of the university faculty and students took part in book burnings at Universitätsplatz ("University Square")[35] and Heidelberg eventually became infamous as a NSDAP university. The inscription above the main entrance of the New University was changed from "The Living Spirit" to "The German Spirit",[36] and many professors paid homage to the new motto. The university was involved in Nazi eugenics: forced sterilizations were carried out at the women's clinic and the psychiatric clinic, then directed by Carl Schneider, was involved in Action T4 Euthanasia program.[37][38]

The heads of the university helped in the deportation of Jewish men, women and children directly to the gas chambers.

After the end of World War II, the university underwent an extensive denazification.

Federal Republic of Germany

Since Heidelberg was spared from destruction during World War II, the reconstruction of the university was realized rather quickly. With the foundation of the Collegium Academicum, Heidelberg University became the home of Germany's first and, until today, only self-governed student hall. Newly laid statutes obliged the university to "The Living Spirit of Truth, Justice and Humanity".[30]

During the 1960s and 1970s, the university grew dramatically in size. At this time, it developed into one of the main scenes of the left-wing student protests in Germany.[39] In 1975, a massive police force arrested the entire student parliament AStA. Shortly thereafter, the building of the Collegium Academicum, a progressive college in immediate vicinity to the university's main grounds, was stormed by over 700 police officers and closed once and for all. On the outskirts of the city, in the Neuenheimer Feld area, a large campus for medicine and natural sciences was constructed.[30]

Today, about 28,000 students are enrolled for studies at Heidelberg University.[40] There are 4,196 full-time faculty, including 476 university professors.[15] In 2007, and again in 2012, the university was appointed University of Excellence under an initiative started by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the German Research Foundation. This enhanced the German university system by establishing a small network of exceptionally well-funded universities, which are expected to generate strong international appeal.[41]

In 2022, a mass shooting occurred in the university, killing a woman and injuring three other people. The gunman then committed suicide.[42]

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History of Heidelberg University

History of Heidelberg University

The history of Heidelberg University starts from its founding in 1386.

Rupert I, Elector Palatine

Rupert I, Elector Palatine

Rupert I "the Red", Elector Palatine was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1353 to 1356, and Elector Palatine from 10 January 1356 to 16 February 1390.

Pope Urban VI

Pope Urban VI

Pope Urban VI, born Bartolomeo Prignano, was head of the Catholic Church from 8 April 1378 to his death in October 1389. He was the most recent pope to be elected from outside the College of Cardinals. His pontificate began shortly after the end of the Avignon Papacy. It was marked by immense conflict between rival factions as part of the Western Schism, with much of Europe recognizing Clement VII, based in Avignon, as the true pope.

University of Paris

University of Paris

The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was the leading university in Paris, France, active from 1150 to 1970, with the exception between 1793 and 1806 under the French Revolution. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second-oldest university in Europe.

Pope

Pope

The pope, also known as supreme pontiff, Roman pontiff or sovereign pontiff, is the bishop of Rome, head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and has also served as the head of state or sovereign of the Papal States and later the Vatican City State since the eighth century. From a Catholic viewpoint, the primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, who gave Peter the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the Church would be built. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013.

Pope Gregory XI

Pope Gregory XI

Pope Gregory XI was head of the Catholic Church from 30 December 1370 to his death in March 1378. He was the seventh and last Avignon pope and the most recent French pope recognized by the modern Catholic Church. In 1377, Gregory XI returned the Papal court to Rome, ending nearly 70 years of papal residency in Avignon, France. His death shortly after was followed by the Western Schism involving two Avignon-based antipopes.

Avignon

Avignon

Avignon is the prefecture of the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of Southeastern France. Located on the left bank of the river Rhône, the commune had a population of 93,671 as of the census results of 2017, with about 16,000 living in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval walls. It is France's 35th largest metropolitan area according to INSEE with 336,135 inhabitants (2019), and France's 13th largest urban unit with 458,828 inhabitants (2019). Its urban area was the fastest-growing in France from 1999 until 2010 with an increase of 76% of its population and an area increase of 136%. The Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Avignon, a cooperation structure of 16 communes, had 192,785 inhabitants in 2018.

Roman Curia

Roman Curia

The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. The Roman Curia is the institution which the Roman Pontiff ordinarily makes use of in the exercise of his supreme pastoral office and universal mission in the world. It is at the service of the Pope, successor of Peter, and of the Bishops, successors of the Apostles, according to the modalities that are proper to the nature of each one, fulfilling their function with an evangelical spirit, working for the good and at the service of communion, unity and edification of the Universal Church and attending to the demands of the world in which the Church is called to fulfill its mission.

Papal bull

Papal bull

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it.

Philosophy

Philosophy

Philosophy is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. Some sources claim the term was coined by Pythagoras, although this theory is disputed by some. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.

Theology

Theology

Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries. It occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but also deals with religious epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but also willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship.

Jurisprudence

Jurisprudence

Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of legal reasoning and analogy, legal systems, legal institutions, and the proper application of law, the economic analysis of law and the role of law in society.

Campuses

"I saw Heidelberg on a perfectly clear morning, with a pleasant air both cool and invigorating. The city, just so, with the totality of its ambiance is, one might say, something ideal."

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe[43]

Heidelberg is a city with approximately 140,000 inhabitants. It is situated in the Rhine Neckar Triangle, a European metropolitan area with approximately 2.4 million people living there, comprising the neighboring cities of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, and a number of smaller towns in the perimeter. Heidelberg is known as the cradle of Romanticism, and its old town and castle are among the most frequented tourist destinations in Germany. Its pedestrian zone is a shopping and night life magnet for the surrounding area and beyond. Heidelberg is about 40 minutes by train away from Frankfurt International Airport.[44] Heidelberg University's facilities are, generally speaking, separated in two parts. The faculties and institutes of humanities and social sciences are embedded in the Old Town Campus. The sciences faculties and the medical school, including three large university hospitals, are located on the New Campus in the Neuenheimer Feld on the outskirts of Heidelberg.[45]

Old Town Campus

The New University of 1931 as seen from the Old University.
The New University of 1931 as seen from the Old University.

The so-called New University is regarded as the center of the Old Town Campus. It is situated at the Universitätsplatz (University Square) in the pedestrian zone, in direct vicinity to the University Library and to the main administration buildings. The New University was officially opened in 1931. Its erection was largely financed by donations of wealthy American families, in line with a fundraising campaign of Jacob Gould Schurman, an alumnus of Heidelberg University and former United States Ambassador to Germany.[46] It houses the new assembly hall, the largest lecture halls, and a number of smaller seminar rooms, mostly used by faculties of humanities and social sciences. Education in humanities and social sciences takes place to a great extent in buildings spread over the ancient part of town, though most are less than ten minutes walk from University Square. The faculties maintain their own extensive libraries and work spaces for students. Seminars and tutorials are usually held in the faculty buildings.[45]

Neuenheimer Feld – New Campus


In the 1960s the university started building a new campus near the city district Neuenheim, called the Neuenheimer Feld. It is today the largest part of the university, and the largest campus for natural sciences and life science in Germany.[15] Almost all science faculties and institutes, the medical school, University Hospital Heidelberg, and the science branch of the University Library are situated on the New Campus. Most of the dormitories and the athletic facilities of the university can be found there as well.

Several independent research institutes, such as the German Cancer Research Center and two of the Max-Planck-Institutes have settled there. The New Campus is also the seat of several biomedical spin-off companies. The old part of town can be reached by tram and bus in about 10 minutes. The Neuenheimer Feld campus has extensive parking lots for faculty and student vehicles for long term and short term parking, as well as visitors and patients of the various university hospitals. The Faculty of Physics and Astronomy is not located on either campus, but on the Philosophers' Walk, separated from the Old Town by the River Neckar, and some 2 km (1.2 mi) away from the New Campus. It also maintains observatory facilities on the Königstuhl Mountain.[45]

The university maintains a botanical garden at Neuenheimer Feld.[47]

Bergheim Campus

The Bergheim Campus houses Economics and the Social Sciences.
The Bergheim Campus houses Economics and the Social Sciences.

The Bergheim Campus is located in the former Ludolf Krehl clinic (named after Ludolf von Krehl) in the inner-city suburb of Heidelberg-Bergheim. Since March 2009 it has housed the institutes economics, political science, and sociology (together the Heidelberg University Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences) that formerly resided at the Old Town campus. The Bergheim campus offers one lecture theatre, several seminar rooms, the most modern of the university libraries, and a cafe (rather than the full cafeteria present in the other campuses). Since 2019, the Bergheim Campus has also become the location of the Centre for Asian and Transcultural Studies of the Heidelberg University.

Libraries

The main building of the University Library, built in 1905.
The main building of the University Library, built in 1905.

The University Library is the main library of the university, and constitutes together with the decentralized libraries of the faculties and institutes, the integral university library system comprising approximately 6.7 million printed books. It is Germany's most frequently used library, and it is currently placed 1st in a ranking of Germany's best libraries.[48] The University Library's stocks exceeded one million in 1934. Today, it holds about 3.2 million books, about 500,000 other media such as microfilms and video tapes, as well as 10,732 scientific periodicals. Moreover, it holds 6,600 manuscripts, most notably the Codex Manesse, 1,800 incunabula, 110,500 autographs, and a collection of old maps, paintings, and photographs. The further 83 decentralized libraries of the faculties and institutes hold another 3.5 million printed books. In 2005, 34,500 active users of the University Library accessed 1.4 million books a year. The conventional book supply is complemented by numerous electronic services. Around 3,000 commercial scientific journals can be accessed via e-journal.[49] The University Library of today traces its roots back to the purchase of a chest of documents by the first Rector Marsilius von Inghen in 1388, which was stored in the Heiliggeistkirche, then the University Cathedral. Since 1978, the science branch of the University Library serves the institutes of natural sciences and medicine on the New Campus.[49] In 2016, extensive refurbishments were finalized with the University Library now housing additional study spaces.

Facilities abroad

Heidelberg University founded a Center for Latin America in Santiago, Chile in 2001.[50] It has the task of organizing, managing, and marketing the courses of study maintained either independently by Heidelberg University or in cooperation with the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and the University of Chile. The center has responsibility for programs of postgraduate education. It also coordinates the activities of Heidelberg University in Latin America, and provides a platform for scientific cooperation.[50] Heidelberg University's South Asia Institute maintains branch offices in New Delhi (India)), Islamabad (Pakistan), Kathmandu (Nepal), and Colombo (Sri Lanka).[51]

The university is also represented by a liaison office in New York. Its main tasks include promoting existing collaborations, building up new networks, creating joint study programs, and maintaining and expanding academic contacts with American universities.[52]

Museum

The university has its own museum, in the main building of the old campus. Visitors are able to view the Great Hall (when not in use), and the former "student jail".[53]

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Heidelberg

Heidelberg

Heidelberg is a city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. As of the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, of which roughly a quarter consisted of students.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, and critic. His works include plays, poetry, literature, and aesthetic criticism, as well as treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. He is widely regarded as the greatest and most influential writer in the German language, his work having a profound and wide-ranging influence on Western literary, political, and philosophical thought from the late 18th century to the present day.

Mannheim

Mannheim

Mannheim, officially the University City of Mannheim, is the second-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after the state capital of Stuttgart, and Germany's 21st-largest city, with a 2020 population of 309,119 inhabitants. The city is the cultural and economic centre of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region, Germany's seventh-largest metropolitan region with nearly 2.4 million inhabitants and over 900,000 employees.

Ludwigshafen

Ludwigshafen

Ludwigshafen, officially Ludwigshafen am Rhein, is a city in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, on the river Rhine, opposite Mannheim. With Mannheim, Heidelberg, and the surrounding region, it forms the Rhine Neckar Area.

Romanticism

Romanticism

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism, clandestine literature, idealization of nature, suspicion of science and industrialization, and glorification of the past with a strong preference for the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, chess, social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing conservatism, liberalism, radicalism, and nationalism.

Heidelberg Castle

Heidelberg Castle

Heidelberg Castle is a ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg. The castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps.

Jacob Gould Schurman

Jacob Gould Schurman

Jacob Gould Schurman was a Canadian-born American educator and diplomat, who served as President of Cornell University and United States Ambassador to Germany.

New Campus (Heidelberg University)

New Campus (Heidelberg University)

The New Campus of the University of Heidelberg is located in the newest district of Heidelberg called Neuenheimer Feld. It is today the larger part of the university, and the largest campus for natural sciences and life science in Germany. Many buildings of the science faculties and institutes, the medical school, and the university hospital are situated on the New Campus. The science branch of the University Library is also situated here.

German Cancer Research Center

German Cancer Research Center

The German Cancer Research Center is a national cancer research center based in Heidelberg, Germany. It is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, the largest scientific organization in Germany.

Max Planck Society

Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes. Founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, it was renamed to the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany.

Königstuhl (Odenwald)

Königstuhl (Odenwald)

The Königstuhl, is a 567.8 metres (1,863 ft) high hill in the Odenwald Mountains and in the city of Heidelberg, in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The Königstuhl summit allows visitors views of the city of Heidelberg and the Neckar river. On days with good conditions the view extends to the Pfaelzerwald, which is roughly 40–50 km away.

Botanical Garden of the University of Heidelberg

Botanical Garden of the University of Heidelberg

The Botanischer Garten der Universität Heidelberg, also known as the Botanischer Garten Heidelberg, is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Heidelberg. It is located at Im Neuenheimer Feld 340, New Campus, Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; portions are open to the public daily except Saturday without charge.

Organization

Governance

The Rectorate is the 'executive body' of the university, headed by rector Bernhard Eitel. The rectorate consists of the chancellor, Holger Schroeter, who is the head of the central administration and responsible for the university's budgeting, and three pro-rectors, who are responsible for international relations, teaching and communication, and research and structure respectively.

The Senate is the 'legislative branch' of the university. The rector and the members of the rectorate are senators ex officio, as are also the deans of the faculties, as well as the medical and managing directors of the University Hospital, and the university's equal opportunities officer. Another 20 senators are elected for four-year terms, within the following quotas: eight university professors; four academic staff; four delegates of the student body; and four employees of the university administration.

The University Council is the advisory board to the aforementioned entities and encompasses, among others, the former Israeli Ambassador to Germany Avi Primor, as well as CEOs of German industries.[54]

Faculties

After a 2003 structural reformation, the university consists of 12 faculties, which in turn comprise several disciplines, departments, and institutes. As a consequence of the Bologna process, most faculties now offer Bachelor's, Master's, and PhD degrees to comply with the new European degree standard. Notable exceptions are the undergraduate programs in law, medicine, dentistry and pharmacy, from which students still graduate with the State Examination, a central examination at Master's level held by the State of Baden-Württemberg.

Associated institutions

Partnerships

The university has partnerships nationally and internationally. In particular, it maintains longstanding collaborations in research and education with the following independent research institutes located in and around Heidelberg:

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Rector (academia)

Rector (academia)

A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is often the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is often referred to as president and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the chancellor, whose office is primarily ceremonial and titular. The term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used widely in universities in Europe and is very common in Latin American countries. It is also used in Brunei, Macau, Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Israel and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, and is usually responsible for chairing the University Court.

Executive (government)

Executive (government)

The executive is the part of government that enforces law, and has responsibility for the governance of a state.

Bernhard Eitel

Bernhard Eitel

Bernhard Eitel is a German earth scientist and geographer.

Chancellor (education)

Chancellor (education)

A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system.

Dean (education)

Dean (education)

Dean is a title employed in academic administrations such as colleges or universities for a person with significant authority over a specific academic unit, over a specific area of concern, or both. In the United States and Canada, deans are usually the head of each constituent college and school that make up a university. Deans are common in private preparatory schools, and occasionally found in middle schools and high schools as well.

Equal opportunity

Equal opportunity

Equal opportunity is a state of fairness in which individuals are treated similarly, unhampered by artificial barriers, prejudices, or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified. The intent is that the important jobs in an organization should go to the people who are most qualified – persons most likely to perform ably in a given task – and not go to persons for reasons deemed arbitrary or irrelevant, such as circumstances of birth, upbringing, having well-connected relatives or friends, religion, sex, ethnicity, race, caste, or involuntary personal attributes such as disability, age, gender identity, or sexual orientation.

Israel

Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia. It is situated on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea, and shares borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, and Egypt to the southwest; it is also bordered by the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.

Ambassador

Ambassador

An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is also used informally for people who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions, activities, and fields of endeavor, such as sales.

Avi Primor

Avi Primor

Avraham "Avi“ Primor is an Israeli publicist and former diplomat. From 1987 to 1993, he served as Ambassador to the European Union, and from 1993 to 1999 as Ambassador to Germany. After leaving the diplomatic service, he was vice-president of the University of Tel Aviv until 2004. While Ambassador to Germany, Primor rose to national prominence as one of the most important promoters of the German-Israeli dialogue. He has been awarded the Mérite européen award for his contribution to European unification, as well as the Grand Cross with Star and Sash of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Faculty (division)

Faculty (division)

A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area or a group of related subject areas, possibly also delimited by level. In American usage such divisions are generally referred to as colleges or schools, but may also mix terminology.

Bachelor's degree

Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to six years. The two most common bachelor's degrees are the Bachelor of Arts (BA) and the Bachelor of Science. In some institutions and educational systems, certain bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate educations after a first degree has been completed, although more commonly the successful completion of a bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for further courses such as a master's or a doctorate.

Master's degree

Master's degree

A master's degree is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.

Academic profile

School statistics

The university employs more than 15,000 academic staff; most of them are physicians engaged in the University Hospital.[56] As of 2008, the faculty encompasses 4,196 full-time staff, excluding visiting professors as well as graduate research and teaching assistants. 673 faculty members have been drawn from abroad. Heidelberg University also attracts more than 500 international scholars as visiting professors each academic year. The university enrols a total of 26,741 students, including 5,118 international students. In addition there are 1,467 international exchange students at Heidelberg. 23,636 students pursue taught degrees, 4,114 of whom are international students, and 919 are international exchange students. 3,105 students pursue a doctoral degree, including 1,004 international doctoral students and 15 international exchange students. In 2007, the university awarded 994 PhD degrees.[40]

Rankings

  • According to the funding report of the German Research Foundation (DFG) of 2018, which breaks down the grants from 2014 to 2016, the Heidelberg University ranked 2nd among German universities in the overall ranking, 7th in humanities and social sciences and 4th among German universities in the life sciences and natural sciences. The approvals were normalised to the size of the university. In a competitive selection process, the DFG selects the best research projects from researchers at universities and research institutes and finances them. The ranking is thus regarded as an indicator of the quality of research.[61]
  • In the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities (NTU ranking) 2019, which measures the research outputs of universities, Heidelberg University is ranked 1st in Germany and 5th in Continental Europe.[62]
  • In the CWTS Leiden Ranking 2019 Heidelberg University is ranked 1st in Germany and 13th in Continental Europe over all sciences according to the scientific impact (number of publications in core journals). According to the indicator "Collaboration", Heidelberg University is 1st in Germany and 10th in Europe.[63]
  • Ranked by the number of Nobel Laureates affiliated with the university at the time of Nobel Prize announcement, Heidelberg was placed 1st in Germany, 4th in Europe and 13th in the world by 2013.[64]
  • In October 2012, The New York Times ranked Heidelberg University 12th worldwide in terms of employability. The ranking was based on a survey among recruiters and managers of leading international companies from twenty countries.[65]
  • The Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Heidelberg University 1st nationally and 47th in the world as of 2018.[66]
  • The Best Global Universities Ranking of the U.S. News & World Report ranked Heidelberg University 2nd nationally and 54th in the world as of 2019.[67]
  • The Times Higher Education Ranking 2020 ranked Heidelberg University 3rd in Germany, and 44th in the world.[59]
  • In 2019, QS World University Rankings ranked Heidelberg University 64th overall in the world, 3rd in Germany.[68]
  • According to the Third European Report on Science & Technology Indicators compiled by the European Commission, Heidelberg ranked 4th nationally and 9th in Europe.[69][70]
  • The German Center for Higher Education Development Excellence Ranking 2010, which measures academic performance of European graduate programs in biology, chemistry, economics, mathematics, physics, political sciences, and psychology, placed Heidelberg in the European excellence group for biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and psychology.[71]
  • Measured by the number of top managers in the German economy, Heidelberg University ranked 53rd in 2019.[72]

Organisation and length of courses

The academic year is divided into two semesters. The winter semester runs from 1 October to 31 March and the summer semester from 1 April to 30 September. Classes are held from mid-October to mid-February and mid-April to mid-July. Students can generally begin their studies either in the winter or the summer semester. However, there are several subjects students can begin only in the winter semester. The standard time required to finish a Bachelor's degree is principally six semesters, and a further four semesters for consecutive Master's degrees. The normal duration of PhD programmes for full-time students is 6 semesters. The overall period of study for an undergraduate degree is divided into two parts: a period of basic study, lasting at least four semesters, at the end of which students must sit a formal examination, and a period of advanced study, lasting at least two semesters, after which students take their final examinations.[73]

Admission

In the winter-semester 2006/2007, the university offered 3,926 places in undergraduate programs restricted by numerus clausus, with an overall acceptance rate of 16.3%.[74] Most selective are the undergraduate programs in clinical medicine, molecular biotechnology, political science, and law, with acceptance rates of 3.6%,[75] 3.8%,[74] 7.6%[76] and 9.1%[77] respectively. The selection is exercised by allocating the best qualified applicants to a given number of places available in the respective discipline, thus depending primarily on the chosen subjects and the grade point average of the Abitur or its equivalent. For some majors and minors in humanities—particularly for conceptually non-vocational like classics and ancient history—unrestricted admission is granted under certain criteria (e.g., relevant language proficiency), as applications regularly do not exceed the number of places available.

The University Library's collection includes the Codex Manesse, an important German song manuscript of the Middle Ages.
The University Library's collection includes the Codex Manesse, an important German song manuscript of the Middle Ages.

For prospective international undergraduate students, a language test for German—such as the DSH—is required. Admission to consecutive Master's programs always requires at least an undergraduate degree equivalent to the German grade "good" (i.e., normally B+ in American, or 2:1 in British terms). Except for the Master's programs taught in English, a language test for German must be passed as well. PhD admission prerequisite is normally a strong Master's-level degree, but specific admission procedures vary and cannot be generalized.[78] International applicants usually make up considerably more than 20% of the applicant pool and are considered individually by the merits achieved in their respective country of origin.[79]

Finances

The German state heavily subsidizes university study to keep higher education affordable regardless of socio-economic background.[80] From 2007 to 2012, Heidelberg has charged tuition fees of approximately €1,200 p.a. for undergraduate, consecutive Master's, and doctoral programs, for both EU and non-EU citizens, and for any subject area. However, from spring term 2012 onwards, tuition fees have been abolished.[81] The usual housing costs for on-campus dormitories range from €2,200 to €3,000 p.a.[82]

In the fiscal year 2005, Heidelberg University had an overall operating budget of approximately €856 M, consisting of approximately €413 M government funds, approximately €311 M basic budget, and approximately €132 M from external grants. The university spent approximately €529 M in payroll costs and approximately €326 M in other expenditures.[83] Additionally, the university receives another €150 M in research grants, distributed over 5 years from 2012 onwards, due to the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In the fiscal year 2007, the university for the first time raised approximately €19 M through tuition fees, exclusively to further improve the conditions of study. Only approximately €9.5 M of these were spent at the end of the year and the rectorate had to urge the faculties to make use of their additional means.[84]

Research

The Center for Advanced Study Marsilius Kolleg, situated in House Buhl, was founded in 2007
The Center for Advanced Study Marsilius Kolleg, situated in House Buhl, was founded in 2007

Among historical scientific achievements of Heidelberg researchers features prominently the invention of spectroscopy,[85] and of the Bunsen burner;[86] the discovery of chemical elements Caesium and Rubidium;[85] the identification of the absolute point of ebullition;[87] and the identification and isolation of nicotine as the main pharmacologically active component of tobacco.[88] Modern scientific psychiatry; psychopharmacology; psychiatric genetics;[11] environmental physics;[12] and modern sociology[13] were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty. Almost 800 dwarf planets, the North America Nebula, and the return of Halley's Comet have been discovered and documented at institutes of the Heidelberg Center for Astronomy.[89] Moreover, Heidelberg researchers invented the process of plastination to preserve body tissue,[90] conducted the first successful transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells,[91] and recently developed a new strategy for a vaccination against certain forms of cancer, which earned Harald zur Hausen of the university the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008.[92]

Today, the university puts an emphasis on natural sciences and medicine, but it retains its traditions with highly ranked faculties of humanities and social sciences. The Marsilius Kolleg, named after Marsilius of Inghen, was established in 2007 as a Center for Advanced Study to promote interdisciplinary dialogue and research especially between the sciences and the humanities.[93] Other institutes such as the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, the Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences, the Heidelberg Center for American Studies, and the South Asia Institute also build a bridge between faculties and thus emphasize the concept of a comprehensive university.

Noted regular publications of the Center for Astronomy include the Gliese catalogue of nearby stars, the fundamental catalogues FK5 and FK6 and the annual published Apparent places, a high precision catalog with pre-calculated positions for over 3,000 stars for each day.[94] The Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research publishes the annual Conflict Barometer, which describes the recent trends in global conflict developments, escalations, de-escalations, and settlements.[95] Regular publications by the Max Planck Institute for International Law include the Heidelberg Journal of International Law, the Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law; the Journal of the History of International Law; the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law; and the semi-annual bibliography Public International Law.[96]

The German Research Foundation (DFG) currently funds twelve long-term Collaborative Research Centers (SFB) with a duration of up to 12 years at Heidelberg,[97] four Priority Programs (SPP) with a duration of six years, two Research Units (FOR) with a duration of up to six years, as well as numerous individual projects at the university's faculties and institutes.[98] As a result of the German Universities Excellence Initiative, two Clusters of Excellence are funded with €6.5 M each—"Cellular Networks: From Molecular Mechanisms to Quantitative Understanding of Complex Functions",[99] and "Asia and Europe in a Global Context".[100]

International cooperations

Heidelberg is a founding member of the League of European Research Universities, the Coimbra Group, and the European University Association. The university forms part of the German-Japanese University Consortium HeKKSaGOn, and it participates in 7 European exchange schemes for researchers and students, such as ERASMUS. Furthermore, it is actively involved in the development of the German-speaking Andrássy University of Budapest, and co-runs the school of German law at the Jagiellonian University of Kraków.[101] The city of Heidelberg being twinned with Cambridge, England, and Montpellier, France, there are close academic ties to the University of Cambridge and the Université de Montpellier. Beyond Europe, the university and its faculties maintain specific agreements with 58 partner universities in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and the Russian Federation. In total, the Higher Education Compass of the German Rector's Conference lists staff and student exchange agreements as well as research cooperations with 236 universities worldwide. Some of the most notable partner universities include Cornell University, Duke University, Georgetown University, Harvard University, Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po), Pantheon Sorbonne University, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Tsinghua University, and Yale University.[102]

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Postgraduate education

Postgraduate education

Postgraduate or graduate education refers to academic or professional degrees, certificates, diplomas, or other qualifications pursued by post-secondary students who have earned an undergraduate (bachelor's) degree.

Research assistant

Research assistant

A research assistant (RA) is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract, by a university, a research institute or a privately held organization, for the purpose of assisting in academic or private research. Research assistants are not independent and are responsible to a supervisor or principal investigator and usually are not directly responsible for the outcome of the research. However, in some countries, research assistants can be the main contributor to the outcome of the research. Research assistants are often educated to degree level and might be enrolled in a postgraduate degree program and simultaneously teach, for example, if enrolled in a PhD programme they are known as Doctoral Research Assistants.

Teaching assistant

Teaching assistant

A teaching assistant or teacher's aide (TA) or education assistant (EA) or team teacher (TT) is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities. TAs include graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), who are graduate students; undergraduate teaching assistants (UTAs), who are undergraduate students; secondary school TAs, who are either high school students or adults; and elementary school TAs, who are adults.

Humanities

Humanities

Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently defined as any fields of study outside of professional training, mathematics, and the natural and social sciences. They use methods that are primarily critical, or speculative, and have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences; yet, unlike the sciences, the humanities have no general history.

Social science

Social science

Social science is one of the branches of science, devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. In addition to sociology, it now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, management science, communication science and political science

List of life sciences

List of life sciences

This list of life sciences comprises the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings. This science is one of the two major branches of natural science, the other being physical science, which is concerned with non-living matter. Biology is the overall natural science that studies life, with the other life sciences as its sub-disciplines.

Natural science

Natural science

Natural science is one of the branches of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances.

Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities

Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities

The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities or NTU Ranking is a ranking system of world universities by scientific paper volume, impact, and performance output. The ranking was originally published from 2007 to 2011 by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT) and has been published since 2012 by the National Taiwan University. It uses bibliometric methods to analyze and rank the scientific paper performance. In addition to the overall ranking, it includes a list of the top universities in six fields and fourteen subjects.

CWTS Leiden Ranking

CWTS Leiden Ranking

The CWTS Leiden Ranking is an annual global university ranking based exclusively on bibliometric indicators. The rankings are compiled by the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The Clarivate Analytics bibliographic database Web of Science is used as the source of the publication and citation data.

List of Nobel laureates

List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, a Nobelist or laureate, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.

Nobel Prize

Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prizes are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind." Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist most famously known for the invention of dynamite. He died in 1896. In his will, he bequeathed all of his "remaining realisable assets" to be used to establish five prizes which became known as "Nobel Prizes." Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.

The New York Times

The New York Times

The New York Times is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2020 to be a declining 840,000 paid print subscribers, and a growing 6 million paid digital subscribers. It also is a producer of popular podcasts such as the Daily. Founded in 1851 by Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones, it was initially published by Raymond, Jones & Company. The Times has won 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any newspaper, and has long been regarded as a national "newspaper of record". For print it is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the U.S.

Student life

Sports

Students rowing on the Neckar river.
Students rowing on the Neckar river.

The university offers a broad variety of athletics, such as teams in 16 different court sports from American football to volleyball, courses in 11 different martial arts, 26 courses in physical fitness and body building, 9 courses in health sports from aquapower to yoga, and groups in 12 different dance styles. Moreover, equestrian sports, sailing, rowing, skiing in the French Alps, track and field, swimming, fencing, cycling, acrobatics, gymnastics, and much more. Most of the sports are free of charge.[103] Heidelberg's competition teams are particularly successful in soccer, volleyball, equestrian sports, judo, karate, track and field, and basketball. The University Sports Club men's basketball team, USC Heidelberg, is the championship record holder, won 13 national championships, and is the only university team playing at a professional level in the second division of Germany's national league.[104]

Groups

Moreover, the university supports a number of student groups in various fields of interest. Among them are four drama clubs, the university orchestra Collegium Musicum, four choirs, six student media groups, six groups of international students, nine groups of political parties and NGO's, several departments of European organizations of students in certain disciplines, four clubs dedicated to fostering international relations and cultural exchange, a chess club, a literature club, two debate societies (one focused on English debating, the other focused on German debating), one student consulting group, and four religious student groups. Student unions structure themselves as "Studierendenrat" (Student body council) as well as on department level.[105]

Media

Heidelberg's student newspaper "ruprecht" is—with editions of more than 10,000 copies—one of Germany's largest student-run newspapers. It was recently distinguished by the MLP Pro Campus Press Award as Germany's best student newspaper. The jury of journalists from major newspapers commended its "well balanced, though critical attitude" and its "simply great" layout that "suffices highest professional demands." The ruprecht is financed entirely by advertising revenues, thus retaining independence from university management. Some renowned journalists emerged from ruprecht's editorial board.[106]

However, the critical online student newspaper UNiMUT, which is run by the joint student council of the faculties, criticized the ruprecht often for being conformed, and exceedingly layout-oriented.[107]

Heidelberg is also home of Germany's oldest student law review Heidelberg Law Review. The journal is published quarterly, at the beginning and end of each semester break, and is circulated throughout all of Germany.[108]

Studentenverbindung

Heidelberg hosts 34 student corporations, which were largely founded in the 19th century. Corporations are to some extent comparable to the fraternities in the US. As traditional symbols (couleur) corporation members wear colored caps and ribbons at ceremonial occasions (Kommers) and some still practice the traditional academic fencing, a kind of duel, to "shape their members for the challenges of life." In the 19th and early 20th century, corporations played an important role in Germany's student life. Today, however, corporations include only a relatively small number of students. Their self-declared mission is to keep academic traditions alive and to create friendships for life. The corporations' often representative 19th-century mansions are present throughout the Old Town.

Nightlife

Heidelberg is not least famous for its student night life.[109] Besides the various parties regularly organized by the student councils of the faculties, the semester opening and closing parties of the university, the dormitory parties, and the soirées of Heidelberg's 34 student fraternities, the city, and the metropolitan area even more, offers night life for any taste and budget. Adjacent to University Square is Heidelberg's major night life district, where one pub is placed next to each other. From Thursday on, it is all night very crowded and full of atmosphere. Moreover, Heidelberg has five major discos. The largest of them is located at the New Campus. The city of Mannheim, which is about twice as large as Heidelberg, is a 15-minute train ride away, and offers an even more diverse night life, having a broad variety of clubs and bars well-frequented by both Heidelberg's and Mannheim's student community.

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Neckar

Neckar

The Neckar is a 362-kilometre-long (225 mi) river in Germany, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the Rhine. Rising in the Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis near Schwenningen in the Schwenninger Moos conservation area at a height of 706 m (2,316 ft) above sea level, it passes through Rottweil, Rottenburg am Neckar, Kilchberg, Tübingen, Wernau, Nürtingen, Plochingen, Esslingen, Stuttgart, Ludwigsburg, Marbach, Heilbronn and Heidelberg, before discharging on average 145 m3/s (5,100 cu ft/s) of water into the Rhine at Mannheim, at 95 m (312 ft) above sea level, making the Neckar its 4th largest tributary, and the 10th largest river in Germany. Since 1968, the Neckar has been navigable for cargo ships via 27 locks for about 200 kilometres (120 mi) upstream from Mannheim to the river port of Plochingen, at the confluence with the Fils.

American football

American football

American football, also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team with possession of the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with the ball or passing it, while the defense, the team without possession of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs or plays; if they fail, they turn over the football to the defense, but if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs to continue the drive. Points are scored primarily by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.

Martial arts

Martial arts

Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; competition; physical, mental, and spiritual development; entertainment; and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.

Physical fitness

Physical fitness

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest along with a formal recovery plan.

Sailing (sport)

Sailing (sport)

The sport of sailing involves a variety of competitive sailing formats that are sanctioned through various sailing federations and yacht clubs. Racing disciplines include matches within a fleet of sailing craft, between a pair thereof or among teams. Additionally, there are specialized competitions that include setting speed records. Racing formats include both closed courses and point-to-point contests; they may be in sheltered waters, coast-wise or on the open ocean. Most competitions are held within defined classes or ratings that either entail one type of sailing craft to ensure a contest primarily of skill or rating the sailing craft to create classifications or handicaps.

Rowing (sport)

Rowing (sport)

Rowing, sometimes called crew in the United States, is the sport of racing boats using oars. It differs from paddling sports in that rowing oars are attached to the boat using oarlocks, while paddles are not connected to the boat. Rowing is divided into two disciplines: sculling and sweep rowing. In sculling, each rower holds two oars—one in each hand, while in sweep rowing each rower holds one oar with both hands. There are several boat classes in which athletes may compete, ranging from single sculls, occupied by one person, to shells with eight rowers and a coxswain, called eights. There are a wide variety of course types and formats of racing, but most elite and championship level racing is conducted on calm water courses 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) long with several lanes marked using buoys.

Skiing

Skiing

Skiing is the use of skis to glide on snow. Variations of purpose include basic transport, a recreational activity, or a competitive winter sport. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Ski Federation (FIS).

Fencing

Fencing

Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil, the épée, and the sabre ; winning points are made through the weapon's contact with an opponent. A fourth discipline, singlestick, appeared in the 1904 Olympics but was dropped after that, and is not a part of modern fencing. Fencing was one of the first sports to be played in the Olympics. Based on the traditional skills of swordsmanship, the modern sport arose at the end of the 19th century, with the Italian school having modified the historical European martial art of classical fencing, and the French school later refining the Italian system. There are three forms of modern fencing, each of which uses a different kind of weapon and has different rules; thus the sport itself is divided into three competitive scenes: foil, épée, and sabre. Most competitive fencers choose to specialize in one weapon only.

Cycle sport

Cycle sport

Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles. There are several categories of bicycle racing including road bicycle racing, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, track cycling, BMX, and cycle speedway. Non-racing cycling sports include artistic cycling, cycle polo, freestyle BMX and mountain bike trials. The Union Cycliste Internationalecode: fra promoted to code: fr (UCI) is the world governing body for cycling and international competitive cycling events. The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is the governing body for human-powered vehicles that imposes far fewer restrictions on their design than does the UCI. The UltraMarathon Cycling Association is the governing body for many ultra-distance cycling races.

Acrobatics

Acrobatics

Acrobatics is the performance of human feats of balance, agility, and motor coordination. Acrobatic skills are used in performing arts, sporting events, and martial arts. Extensive use of acrobatic skills are most often performed in acro dance, circus, and gymnastics, and to a lesser extent in other athletic activities including ballet, slacklining and diving. Although acrobatics is most commonly associated with human body performance, the term is used to describe other types of performance, such as aerobatics.

Gymnastics

Gymnastics

Gymnastics is a type of sport that includes physical exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, dedication and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, legs, shoulders, back, chest, and abdominal muscle groups. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills.

Collegium Musicum

Collegium Musicum

The Collegium Musicum was one of several types of musical societies that arose in German and German-Swiss cities and towns during the Reformation and thrived into the mid-18th century.

Noted people

(Please see List of Heidelberg University people for references)

Alumni and faculty of the university include many founders and pioneers of academic disciplines, and a large number of internationally acclaimed philosophers, poets, jurisprudents, theologians, natural and social scientists. 33 Nobel Laureates, at least 18 Leibniz laureates, and two "Oscar" winners have been associated with Heidelberg University. Nine Nobel laureates received the award during their tenure at Heidelberg.[64]

Besides several federal ministers of Germany and prime ministers of German states, five chancellors of Germany have attended the university, the latest being Helmut Kohl, the "Chancellor of the Reunification". Heads of state or government of Belgium, Bulgaria, Greece, Nicaragua, Serbia, Thailand, a British heir apparent, a secretary general of NATO and a director of the International Peace Bureau have also been educated at Heidelberg; among them Nobel Peace laureates Charles Albert Gobat and Auguste Beernaert. Former university affiliates in the field of religion include Pope Pius II, cardinals, bishops, and with Philipp Melanchthon and Zacharias Ursinus, two key leaders of the Protestant Reformation. Outstanding university affiliates in the legal profession include a president of the International Court of Justice, two presidents of the European Court of Human Rights, a president of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, a vice president of the International Criminal Court, an advocate general at the European Court of Justice, at least 16 justices of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, a president of the Federal Court of Justice, a president of the Federal Court of Finance, a president of the Federal Labor Court, two attorneys general of Germany, and a British law lord. In business, Heidelberg alumni and faculty notably founded, co-founded or presided over ABB; Astor corporate enterprises; BASF; BDA; Daimler AG; Deutsche Bank; EADS; Krupp AG; Siemens and Thyssen AG.

Alumni in the field of arts include classical composer Robert Schumann, philosophers Ludwig Feuerbach and Edmund Montgomery, poet Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff and writers Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Gottfried Keller, Irene Frisch, Heinrich Hoffmann, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, National Hero of the Philippines José Rizal, W. Somerset Maugham, Jean Paul, Literature Nobel laureate Carl Spitteler, and novelist Jagoda Marinić. Amongst Heidelberg alumni in other disciplines are the "Father of Psychology" Wilhelm Wundt, the "Father of Physical Chemistry" J. Willard Gibbs, the "Father of American Anthropology" Franz Boas, Dmitri Mendeleev, who created the periodic table of elements, inventor of the two-wheeler principle Karl Drais, Alfred Wegener, who discovered the continental drift, as well as political theorist Hannah Arendt, gender theorist Judith Butler, political scientist Carl Joachim Friedrich, and sociologists Karl Mannheim, Robert E. Park and Talcott Parsons.

Philosophers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Jaspers, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Jürgen Habermas served as university professors, as did also the pioneering scientists Hermann von Helmholtz, Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, Emil Kraepelin, the founder of scientific psychiatry, and outstanding social scientists such as Max Weber, the founding father of modern sociology.

Present faculty include Medicine Nobel Laureates Bert Sakmann (1991) and Harald zur Hausen (2008), Chemistry Nobel Laureate Stefan Hell (2014), seven Leibniz laureates, former justice of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany Paul Kirchhof, and Rüdiger Wolfrum, the former president of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.

Discover more about Noted people related topics

List of Heidelberg University people

List of Heidelberg University people

Alumni and faculty of the university include many founders and pioneers of academic disciplines, and a large number of internationally acclaimed philosophers, poets, jurisprudents, theologians, natural and social scientists. 56 Nobel Laureates, at least 18 Leibniz Laureates, and two "Oscar" winners have been associated with Heidelberg University. Nine Nobel Laureates received the award during their tenure at Heidelberg.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a Germanic philosopher. He is one of the most important figures in German idealism and one of the founding figures of modern Western philosophy. His influence extends across the entire range of contemporary philosophical topics, from metaphysical issues in epistemology and ontology, to political philosophy, the philosophy of history, philosophy of art, philosophy of religion, and the history of philosophy.

Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was a Russian chemist and inventor. He is best known for formulating the Periodic Law and creating a version of the periodic table of elements. He used the Periodic Law not only to correct the then-accepted properties of some known elements, such as the valence and atomic weight of uranium, but also to predict the properties of three elements that were yet to be discovered.

Ludwig Feuerbach

Ludwig Feuerbach

Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach was a German anthropologist and philosopher, best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity that strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

Max Weber

Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil Weber was a German sociologist, historian, jurist and political economist, who is regarded as among the most important theorists of the development of modern Western society. His ideas profoundly influence social theory and research. While Weber did not see himself as a sociologist, he is recognized as one of the fathers of sociology along with Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, and Émile Durkheim.

Hirata Tosuke

Hirata Tosuke

Count Hirata Tosuke was a Japanese statesman and the 7th Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan, active in the Meiji and Taishō period Empire of Japan.

Helmut Kohl

Helmut Kohl

Helmut Josef Michael Kohl was a German politician who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 and Leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998. Kohl's 16-year tenure is the longest of any German chancellor since Otto von Bismarck, and oversaw the end of the Cold War, the German reunification and the creation of the European Union (EU). Further, Kohl's 16 years and 30 day tenure is the longest for any democratically elected Chancellor of Germany.

Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold Joseph Toynbee was an English historian, a philosopher of history, an author of numerous books and a research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and King's College London. From 1918 to 1950, Toynbee was considered a leading specialist on international affairs; from 1924 to 1954 he was the Director of Studies at Chatham House, in which position he also produced 34 volumes of the Survey of International Affairs, a "bible" for international specialists in Britain.

Alfred Wegener

Alfred Wegener

Alfred Lothar Wegener was a German climatologist, geologist, geophysicist, meteorologist, and polar researcher.

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt was a political philosopher, author, and Holocaust survivor. She is widely considered to be one of the most influential political theorists of the 20th century.

Academic discipline

Academic discipline

An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties within colleges and universities to which their practitioners belong. Academic disciplines are conventionally divided into the humanities, including language, art and cultural studies, and the scientific disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, and biology; the social sciences are sometimes considered a third category.

Jurisprudence

Jurisprudence

Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of legal reasoning and analogy, legal systems, legal institutions, and the proper application of law, the economic analysis of law and the role of law in society.

In fiction and popular culture

Literature

In 1880 Mark Twain humorously detailed his impressions of Heidelberg's student life in A Tramp Abroad. He painted a picture of the university as a school for aristocrats, where students pursued a dandy's lifestyle, and described the great influence the student corporations exerted on the whole of Heidelberg's student life.[110]

In William Somerset Maugham's 1915 masterpiece novel Of Human Bondage, he described the one-year stay of the protagonist Philip Carey at Heidelberg University, in a largely autobiographical way. Heidelberg also featured in the respective film versions of the novel, released in 1934 (starring Leslie Howard as Philip, and Bette Davis as Mildred), 1946 (with Paul Henreid and Eleanor Parker in the lead roles), and 1964 (with Laurence Harvey and Kim Novak in the lead roles).[111]

E. C. Gordon, the hero of Robert Heinlein's 1964 novel Glory Road, mentions his desire for a degree from Heidelberg and the dueling scars to go with it.

In Bernhard Schlink's semi-autobiographical 1995 novel The Reader, Heidelberg University is one of the main scenes of Part II. Nearly a decade after his affair with an older woman came to a mysterious end, Michael Berg, a law student at the university, re-encounters his former lover as she defends herself in a war-crimes trial, which he observes as part of a seminar. The university is also featured in the Academy Award-winning 2008 film version The Reader, starring Kate Winslet, David Kross and Ralph Fiennes.[112][113]

Film and television

The 1927 silent film The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg, based on Wilhelm Meyer-Förster's play Alt Heidelberg (1903), starring Ramón Novarro and Norma Shearer, continued Mark Twain's image of Heidelberg, showing the story of a German prince who comes to Heidelberg to study there, but falls in love with his innkeeper's daughter. Having been very popular in the first half of the 20th century, it presents the typical student life of the 19th and early 20th century, and it is today considered a masterpiece of the late silent film era.[114] MGM's 1954 color remake The Student Prince, featuring the voice of Mario Lanza, is based on Sigmund Romberg's operetta version of the story.[115]

Discover more about In fiction and popular culture related topics

Mark Twain

Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was praised as the "greatest humorist the United States has produced", and William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature". His novels include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), the latter of which has often been called the "Great American Novel". Twain also wrote A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) and Pudd'nhead Wilson (1894), and co-wrote The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (1873) with Charles Dudley Warner.

A Tramp Abroad

A Tramp Abroad

A Tramp Abroad is a work of travel literature, including a mixture of autobiography and fictional events, by American author Mark Twain, published in 1880. The book details a journey by the author, with his friend Harris, through central and southern Europe. While the stated goal of the journey is to walk most of the way, the men find themselves using other forms of transport as they traverse the continent. The book is the fourth of Mark Twain's six travel books published during his lifetime and is often thought to be an unofficial sequel to the first one, The Innocents Abroad (1869).

Of Human Bondage

Of Human Bondage

Of Human Bondage is a 1915 novel by W. Somerset Maugham. It traces the development of Philip Carey, as his life becomes consumed by a sadomasochistic obsession. The novel is generally agreed to be Maugham's masterpiece and to be strongly autobiographical in nature, although he stated, "This is a novel, not an autobiography; though much in it is autobiographical, more is pure invention." Maugham, who had originally planned to call his novel Beauty from Ashes, finally settled on a title taken from a section of Spinoza's Ethics. The Modern Library ranked Of Human Bondage No. 66 on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.

Of Human Bondage (1934 film)

Of Human Bondage (1934 film)

Of Human Bondage is a 1934 American drama film directed by John Cromwell and regarded by critics as the film that made Bette Davis a star. The screenplay by Lester Cohen is based on the 1915 novel Of Human Bondage by W. Somerset Maugham.

Bette Davis

Bette Davis

Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis was an American actress with a career spanning more than 50 years and 100 acting credits. She was noted for playing unsympathetic, sardonic characters, and was famous for her performances in a range of film genres, from contemporary crime melodramas to historical films, suspense horror, and occasional comedies, although her greater successes were in romantic dramas. A recipient of two Academy Awards, she was the first thespian to accrue ten nominations.

Of Human Bondage (1946 film)

Of Human Bondage (1946 film)

Of Human Bondage is a 1946 American drama film directed by Edmund Goulding. The second screen adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham's 1915 novel, this Warner Bros. sanitized version was written by Catherine Turney. The central characters are Philip Carey, a clubfooted medical student, and Mildred Rogers, a low-class waitress with whom he becomes obsessed.

Eleanor Parker

Eleanor Parker

Eleanor Jean Parker was an American actress. She was nominated for three Academy Awards for her roles in the films Caged (1950), Detective Story (1951), and Interrupted Melody (1955), the first of which won her the Volpi Cup for Best Actress. She was also known for her roles in the films Of Human Bondage (1946), Scaramouche (1952), The Naked Jungle (1954), The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), A Hole in the Head (1959), The Sound of Music (1965), and The Oscar (1966).

Laurence Harvey

Laurence Harvey

Laurence Harvey was a Lithuanian-born British actor and film director. He was born to Lithuanian Jewish parents and emigrated to South Africa at an early age, before later settling in the United Kingdom after World War II. In a career that spanned a quarter of a century, Harvey appeared in stage, film and television productions primarily in the United Kingdom and the United States.

Kim Novak

Kim Novak

Marilyn Pauline "Kim" Novak is an American retired film and television actress and painter.

Glory Road

Glory Road

Glory Road is a science fantasy novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, originally serialized in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction and published in hardcover the same year. It was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1964.

Dueling scar

Dueling scar

Dueling scars have been seen as a "badge of honour" since as early as 1825. Known variously as "Mensur scars", "the bragging scar", "smite", "Schmitte" or "Renommierschmiss", dueling scars were popular amongst upper-class Austrians and Germans involved in academic fencing at the start of the 20th century. Being a practice amongst University students, it was seen as a mark of their class and honour, due to the status of dueling societies at German and Austrian universities at the time, and is an early example of scarification in European society. The practice of dueling and the associated scars was also present to some extent in the German military.

Bernhard Schlink

Bernhard Schlink

Bernhard Schlink is a German lawyer, academic, and novelist. He is best known for his novel The Reader, which was first published in 1995 and became an international bestseller. He won the 2014 Park Kyong-ni Prize.

Source: "Heidelberg University", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, December 2nd), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heidelberg_University.

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Notes
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References
  • Cser, Andreas (2007). Kleine Geschichte der Stadt Heidelberg und ihrer Universität [Short history of the city of Heidelberg and its University] (in German). Karlsruhe: Verlag G. Braun. ISBN 978-3-7650-8337-2.
  • Gabriel, Astrid L. (1974). ""Via antiqua" and "via moderna" in the fiftennth century". In Zimmermann, Albert (ed.). Antiqui und Moderni. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 459–61. ISBN 978-3-11-004538-3. OCLC 185583682.
  • Remy, Steven P. (2002). The Heidelberg Myth: The Nazification and Denazification of a German University. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00933-2.
  • Schlusemann, Rita (2003). "Power and creativity at the court of heidelberg". In Martin Gosman; Alasdair A. MacDonald; Arie Johan Vanderjagt (eds.). Princes and princely culture, 1450–1650. Vol. 1. Brill. pp. 279–294.
  • Eckart, Wolfgang U.; Sellin, Volker; Wolgast, Eike (2006). Die Universität Heidelberg im Nationalsozialismus (in German). Berlin: Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-21442-7.
  • Wolgast, Eike (1986). Die Universität Heidelberg: 1386–1986 (in German). Berlin: Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-16829-4.
Further reading
  • Drüll, Dagmar (1991) [1986]. Heidelberger Gelehrtenlexikon, Bd. 1: 1803–1932, Bd. 2: 1652–1802, Bd. 3: 1386–1651, Bd. 4: 1933–1986 (in German). Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Happ, Sabine; Moritz, Werner (2003). Die Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Ansichten - Einblicke - Rückblicke (in German). Erfurt: Sutton Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89702-522-6.
  • Hawicks, Heike; Runde, Ingo (Hgg.) (2016). Die Alte Aula der Universität Heidelberg, hrsg. im Auftrag des Rektors (in German). Heidelberg.
  • Hawicks, Heike; Runde, Ingo (Hgg.) (2017). Päpste – Kurfürsten – Professoren – Reformatoren. Heidelberg und der Heilige Stuhl von den Reformkonzilien des Mittelalters zur Reformation. Katalog zur Ausstellung im Kurpfälzischen Museum vom 21. Mai bis 22. Oktober 2017, hrsg. vom Universitätsarchiv Heidelberg sowie vom Historischen Verein zur Förderung der Calvinismusforschung e.V. und vom Kurpfälzischen Museum Heidelberg (PDF) (in German). Heidelberg / Neustadt a.d.W. / Ubstadt-Weiher / Basel.
  • Hawicks, Heike; Runde, Ingo (2018). "Heidelberg and the Holy See – from the Late Medieval Reform Councils to the Reformation in the Electoral Palatinate". 1517. Le università e la Riforma protestante. Studi e ricerche nel quinto anniversario delle tesi luterane (Studi e ricerche sull'università), ed. Simona Negruzzo. Bologna. pp. 33–54. ISBN 978-88-15-27983-5.
  • Krabusch, H. (1961). "Das Archiv der Universität Heidelberg. Geschichte und Bedeutung". Aus der Geschichte der Universität Heidelberg und Ihrer Fakultäten. Sonderbd. Der Ruperto Carola, HRSG. Von G. Hinz (in German). pp. 82–111.
  • Lutzmann, Heiner. Die Rektorbücher der Universität Heidelberg. Band I: 1386–1410. Heft III, Jürgen Miethke Protocollum Contubernii: Visitation und Rechnungspüfung von 1568–1615, Gerhard Merkel.
  • Moraw, Peter (1983). "Heidelberg: Universität, Hof und Stadt im ausgehenden Mittelalter". Studien zum städtischen Bidlungswesen des späten Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit, HRSG. Von Bernd Moeller, Hans Patze, Karl Stackmann, Redaktion Ludger Grenzmann (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philol.-hist. Klasse, III.137) (in German). Göttingen. pp. 524–552.
  • Moritz, Werner (2001). "Die Aberkennung des Doktortitels an der Universität Heidelberg während der NS- Zeit". In Kohnle, Armin; Engehausen, Frank (eds.). Zwischen Wissenschaft und Politik. Studien zur deutschen Universitätsgeschichte. Festschrift für Eike Wolgast zum 65. Geburtstag (in German). Stuttgart. pp. 540–562.
  • Ritter, Gerhard (1986) [1st. Pub. 1936]. Die Heidelberger Universität im Mittelalter (1386–1508), Ein Stück deutscher Geschichte (in German). Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-533-03742-2.
  • Runde, Ingo (2013). "Das Universitätsarchiv Heidelberg. Von der parva archella zum modernen Archivbetrieb" (PDF). Universitätsarchive in Südwestdeutschland. Geschichte - Bestände - Projekte. Tagung anlässlich des 625-jährigen Jubiläums der Ersterwähnung einer Archivkiste der Universität Heidelberg zum 8. Februar 1388 (Heidelberger Schriften zur Universitätsgeschichte 1), hrsg. von Ingo Runde (in German). Heidelberg. pp. 47–71. ISBN 978-3-8253-6252-2.
  • Runde, Ingo (Hrsg.) (2017). Die Universität Heidelberg und ihre Professoren während des Ersten Weltkriegs. Beiträge zur Tagung im Universitätsarchiv Heidelberg am 6. und 7. November 2014 (Heidelberger Schriften zur Universitätsgeschichte 6) (in German). Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-8253-6695-7.
  • Runde, Ingo (2018). "Universitätsreformen in Heidelberg – Überlieferung und Erschließung". Universität – Reform. Ein Spannungsverhältnis von langer Dauer (12.-21. Jahrhundert), Tagung der Gesellschaft für Universitäts- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 18.-20. September 2013 in der Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel (Veröffentlichungen der Gesellschaft für Universitäts- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte 14), hrsg. von Martin Kintzinger / Wolfgang Eric Wagner / Julia Crispin (in German). Basel. pp. 71–92. ISBN 978-3-7965-3793-6.
  • Schettler, Gotthard, ed. (1986). Das Klinikum der Universität Heidelberg und seine Institute (in German). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-16033-5.
  • Doerr u.a., Wilhelm, ed. (1985). "Semper apertus", Sechshundert Jahre Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg 1386–1986, Festschrift in sechs Bänden (in German). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Winkelmann, Eduard, ed. (1886). Urkundenbuch der Universität Heidelberg, Bd. I-II (in German). Heidelberg.
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