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Hans Willem van Aylva

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Hans Willem van Aylva
Hans Willem, baron van Aylva (1635-91). Generaal-majoor, genoemd 'de ontzaglijke generaal' Rijksmuseum SK-A-1401.jpeg
Born1633
Holwerd, Dutch Republic
Died21 February 1691
Near Leuven, Spanish Netherlands
AllegianceDutch Republic
RankLieutenant admiral
Battles/wars

Hans Willem van Aylva (c. 1633, Holwerd – 21 February 1691, near Leuven) was a Dutch soldier and lieutenant general.

Raid on the Medway and Franco-Dutch War

In 1667 he participated in the Dutch Raid on Medway, as commander of the Frisian squadron. He was appointed a major general in 1668 and promoted to lieutenant general four years later.[1]In 1672, at the start of the Franco-Dutch War after Prince William III's appointment as captain general, he was again appointed lieutenant general of infantry and charged with the defence of Friesland. Aylva waged a kind of guerrilla war in the surroundings of Heerenveen; with a small force and his Frisian militias, he had hastily put Friesland in a state of defence by raising earthen entrenchments on the south-east side, forming a line from Kuinre along Heerenveen to Groningen.[2] In July 1672, he led an unsuccessful attack with 1200 soldiers and civilians on Kuinre, where the troops of the Bishop of Munster had gathered much booty. Already 200 enemies had been shot down, and that place would undoubtedly have been conquered, if the Bishop had not obtained a hasty release of 2000 men from Kampen and Zwolle. The Frisians retreated again, losing 30 men in total.[3] On 27 August the Bishop had to abandon the Siege of Groningen. Whereas the Dutch had managed to supply the city through waterways at its northern edge, Von Galen's troops were starving and had largely deserted.[4] Largely due to an effective guerrilla campaign by troops from Friesland under Hans Willem van Aylva against their supply lines.[5]

In the night between 8 and 9 September, the Bishop's troops attacked the Heerenveen entrenchment three times, but were beaten off every time, even though the entrenchment was sparsely manned. Around that time, or perhaps even earlier, Aylva was camped with some companies not far from the Blesse bridge, which enters Friesland from Overijssel, when one day a French marquis came riding across the bridge, talking loudly, as if he wanted to indicate that, since they had already conquered Overijssel, it was now Friesland's turn; This hurt the pride of the "Awesome General", as his Frisian compatriots called him. He therefore rode against the Frenchman and knocked him out of the saddle with a pistol shot.[3]

At the beginning of 1673, together with John Maurice, Ayvla successfully fought the Munster troops of the Count of Lippe, among others near Staphorst in a fierce encounter; an attack against Zwartsluis in July of the same year, under the same commanders, failed. In August, when the Bishop of Munster advanced from Steenwijk on Friesland to conquer it, John Maurice informed Aylva, who was then in command at Wolvega, whereupon he went to Heerenveen. Several battles were fought, in which the enemy troops were repeatedly beaten. The troops of the Bishop made every effort to overrun Heerenveen, but they were stopped every time and could do nothing but plunder the defenceless countrymen, until on 1 September they were forced to retreat, without having accomplished anything of importance. Aylva had, through policy and vigilance, helped to secure Friesland against every attack of the enemy.[3] When the front shifted from the Dutch Republic to the Spanish Netherlands, Ayvla took part, on 11 August 1674, in the Battle of Seneffe, leading the infantry of the right wing, on which occasion he was severely wounded.[2]

Discover more about Raid on the Medway and Franco-Dutch War related topics

Major general

Major general

Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of a lieutenant general outranking a major general, whereas a major outranks a lieutenant.

Franco-Dutch War

Franco-Dutch War

The Franco-Dutch War, also known as the Dutch War, was fought between France and the Dutch Republic, supported by its allies the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Brandenburg-Prussia and Denmark-Norway. In its early stages, France was allied with Münster and Cologne, as well as England. The 1672 to 1674 Third Anglo-Dutch War and 1675 to 1679 Scanian War are considered related conflicts.

Heerenveen

Heerenveen

Heerenveen is a town and municipality in the province of Friesland (Fryslân), in the Northern Netherlands. In 2021, the town had a population of 29,790 while the municipality had a population 50,859.

Kuinre

Kuinre

Kuinre is a village in the Dutch province of Overijssel. It was a separate municipality until 1973, when it became a part of IJsselham, which in turn merged into the municipality of Steenwijkerland in 2001.

Groningen (province)

Groningen (province)

Groningen is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands. It borders on Friesland to the west, Drenthe to the south, the German state of Lower Saxony to the east, and the Wadden Sea to the north. As of February 2020, Groningen had a population of 586,309 and a total area of 2,960 km2 (1,140 sq mi).

Kampen

Kampen

Campen or Kampen may refer to:

Siege of Groningen (1672)

Siege of Groningen (1672)

The Siege of Groningen was a battle that took place in 1672 during the Franco-Dutch war. It was a Dutch victory that ended all hope of the Bishop of Münster to push deeper into the Netherlands. The Münster army was so weakened by the defeat that the Dutch army successfully reconquered much of the land that Münster had conquered just weeks earlier. Every year, the city of Groningen celebrates its victory as a local holiday on 28 August.

Overijssel

Overijssel

Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands located in the eastern part of the country. The province's name translates to "across the IJssel", from the perspective of the Episcopal principality of Utrecht by which it was held until 1528. The capital city of Overijssel is Zwolle and the largest city is Enschede. The province had a population of 1,162,215 as of November 2019. The land mostly consists of grasslands and some forests ; it also borders a small part of the IJsselmeer to the west.

John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen

John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen

John Maurice of Nassau, called "the Brazilian" for his fruitful period as governor of Dutch Brazil, was Count and Prince of Nassau-Siegen. He served as Herrenmeister of the Order of Saint John from 1652 until his death in 1679.

Simon Henry, Count of Lippe

Simon Henry, Count of Lippe

Simon Henry, Count of Lippe was a ruling Count of Lippe-Detmold.

Staphorst

Staphorst

Staphorst is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands.

Battle of Seneffe

Battle of Seneffe

The Battle of Seneffe took place on 11 August 1674 near Seneffe in present-day Belgium during the 1672 to 1678 Franco-Dutch War. It was fought between a primarily French force commanded by Condé and a combined Dutch, Imperial, and Spanish force under William of Orange. One of only three battles in the Spanish Netherlands during the war, Seneffe was the most expensive in terms of casualties, although estimates vary considerably.

Nine Years' War

Following the outbreak of the Nine Years War, he commanded a small Dutch army that took part in early operations around Cologne, where he co-operated with German forces under Hans Adam von Schöning.[6] Troops of Brandenburg and troops of the States captured Kaiserswerth and Neuss from the French, while Bonn fell in October after a bloody siege. At the Battle of Walcourt (1689), he led a mixed force of English and Dutch soldiers against the French left flank. The French reeled back in disarray but valuable service by the French cavalry, commanded by Colonel Villars, prevented the retreat from becoming a rout, allowing Humières to extricate his men from the field.

The death of general Hans Willem van Aylva
The death of general Hans Willem van Aylva

Aylva's last feat of arms was his brave conduct in the Battle of Fleurus, on 1 July 1690. Here, too, he showed his boldness and usual precautions. He was part of the large infantry square, which, although under attack from a superior force, stood its ground heroically, so that the Duke of Luxembourg, the French commander, discouraged by the many fruitless attempts to penetrate, finally held back and had to see nine regiments, led by the Count of Waldeck and Aylva, calmly retreat over the heights of Mellé to the side of Nivelles.[3]

In the year 1691, Aylva commanded the armed forces of the Dutch Republic in Brabant, and had his quarters in Leuven. When he was on the hunt, his horse reared up and threw his rider to the ground; he hurt his head, which at first was thought to be of little importance, but subsequently caused him a fever, with such seizures that he died a few days later. His body was embalmed and transported to Friesland, and transferred to his parents' family grave in Holwerd.[3]

Discover more about Nine Years' War related topics

Cologne

Cologne

Cologne is the largest city of the German western state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the fourth-most populous city of Germany with 1.1 million inhabitants in the city proper and 3.6 million people in the urban region. Centered on the left (west) bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 35 km (22 mi) southeast of NRW's state capital Düsseldorf and 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Bonn, the former capital of West Germany.

Hans Adam von Schöning

Hans Adam von Schöning

Hans Adam von Schöning was a Generalfeldmarschall in the service of Brandenburg-Prussia and the Electorate of Saxony.

Dutch States Army

Dutch States Army

The Dutch States Army was the army of the Dutch Republic. It was usually called this, because it was formally the army of the States-General of the Netherlands, the sovereign power of that federal republic. This mercenary army was brought to such a size and state of readiness that it was able to hold its own against the armies of the major European powers of the extended 17th century, Habsburg Spain and the France of Louis XIV, despite the fact that these powers possessed far larger military resources than the Republic. It played a major role in the Eighty Years' War and in the wars of the Grand Alliance with France after 1672.

Kaiserswerth

Kaiserswerth

Kaiserswerth is one of the oldest quarters of the City of Düsseldorf, part of Borough 5. It is in the north of the city and next to the river Rhine. It houses the Kaiserwerth Deaconesses’ Institute where Florence Nightingale worked. Kaiserswerth has an area of 4.80 km2 (1.85 sq mi), and 7,923 inhabitants (2020).

Neuss

Neuss

Neuss is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the west bank of the Rhine opposite Düsseldorf. Neuss is the largest city within the Rhein-Kreis Neuss district. It is primarily known for its historic Roman sites, as well as the annual Neusser Bürger-Schützenfest. Neuss and Trier share the title of "Germany's oldest city"; and in 1984 Neuss celebrated the 2000th anniversary of its founding in 16 BCE.

Bonn

Bonn

The federal city of Bonn (German pronunciation: [bɔn] is a city on the banks of the Rhine located in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000. About 24 km south-southeast of Cologne, Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants. It is a university city, was the birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven and was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990. Bonn was the seat of government of reunited Germany from 1990 to 1999.

Siege of Bonn (1689)

Siege of Bonn (1689)

The siege of Bonn took place in 1689 during the Nine Years' War when the forces of Brandenburg-Prussia and the Dutch Republic besieged and captured Bonn. It was part of the Rhineland campaign which Brandenburg was fighting as part of the Grand Alliance against Louis XIV of France. Following Louis' incursions into the Rhineland the previous year, a coalition of nations had formed to resist French hegemony.

Battle of Walcourt

Battle of Walcourt

The Battle of Walcourt was fought on 25 August 1689 during the Nine Years' War. The action took place near the ancient walled town of Walcourt near Charleroi in the Spanish Netherlands, and brought to a close a summer of uneventful marching, manoeuvring, and foraging. The battle was a success for the Grand Alliance – the only significant engagement in the theatre during the campaign of 1689.

Claude Louis Hector de Villars

Claude Louis Hector de Villars

Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Prince de Martigues, Marquis then Duc de Villars, Vicomte de Melun was a French military commander and an illustrious general of Louis XIV of France. He was one of only six Marshals to have been promoted Marshal General of France.

Battle of Fleurus (1690)

Battle of Fleurus (1690)

The Battle of Fleurus, fought on 1 July 1690 near the town of Fleurus in modern Belgium, was a major engagement of the Nine Years' War. In a bold envelopment, Marshal Luxembourg, commanding a French army, inflicted a severe defeat on an Allied force led by Prince Waldeck.

François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg

François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg

François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, Duke of Piney-Luxembourg, commonly known as Luxembourg, and nicknamed "The Upholsterer of Notre-Dame", was a French general and Marshal of France. A comrade and successor of the Great Condé, he was one of the most accomplished military commanders of the early modern period and is particularly noted for his exploits in the Franco-Dutch War and War of the Grand Alliance. Not imposing physically, as he was a slight man and hunchbacked, Luxembourg was nonetheless one of France's greatest generals. He never lost a battle in which he held command.

Dutch Republic

Dutch Republic

The United Provinces of the Netherlands, officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, and commonly referred to in historiography as the Dutch Republic, was a confederation that existed from 1579 until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. It was a predecessor state of the present-day Netherlands. The republic was established after seven Dutch provinces in the Spanish Netherlands revolted against Spanish rule, forming a mutual alliance against Spain in 1579 and declaring their independence in 1581. It comprised Groningen, Frisia, Overijssel, Guelders, Utrecht, Holland and Zeeland.

Source: "Hans Willem van Aylva", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 9th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Willem_van_Aylva.

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References
  1. ^ Childs p. 344
  2. ^ a b Blok & Molhuysen 1911.
  3. ^ a b c d e Van der Aa 1852.
  4. ^ Panhuysen 2009, p. 210.
  5. ^ Van Nimwegen 2020, pp. 121.
  6. ^ Childs p. 103
Bibliography
  • Childs, J. (1991). The Nine Years' War and the British Army, 1688–97. Manchester University Press.
  • Van Nimwegen, Olaf (2020). De Veertigjarige Oorlog 1672–1712: de strijd van de Nederlanders tegen de Zonnekoning [The 40 Years' War 1672–1712: the Dutch struggle against the Sun King] (in Dutch). Prometheus. ISBN 978-90-446-3871-4.
  • Panhuysen, Luc (2009). Rampjaar 1672: Hoe de Republiek aan de ondergang ontsnapte. Uitgeverij Atlas. ISBN 9789045013282.
  • Van der Aa, Abraham Jacob (1852). "Hans Willem van Aylva". Biographisch woordenboek der Nederlanden. Deel 1.
  • Blok, P.J.; Molhuysen, P.C. (1911). "Aylva, Hans Willem baron van (1)". Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. Deel 1.


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