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Haliotis fulgens

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Haliotis fulgens
Haliotis fulgens fulgens 01.JPG
Five views of a

shell of Haliotis fulgens

Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Vetigastropoda
Order: Lepetellida
Superfamily: Haliotoidea
Family: Haliotidae
Genus: Haliotis
H. fulgens
Binomial name
Haliotis fulgens
Philippi, 1845
  • Haliotis planilirata Reeve, 1846
  • Haliotis splendens Reeve, 1846
  • Haliotis (Haliotis) fulgens Philippi, 1845
  • Haliotis (Haliotis) revea Bartsch, P., 1940 (nomen nudum)

Haliotis fulgens, commonly called the green abalone, is a species of large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Haliotidae, the abalones.[2] The shell of this species is usually brown, and is marked with many low, flat-topped ribs which run parallel to the five to seven open respiratory pores that are elevated above the shell's surface. The inside of the shell is an iridescent blue and green.

The range of Haliotis fulgens includes southern California and most of the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico.

Discover more about Haliotis fulgens related topics



In biology, a species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. It is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour, or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.

Sea snail

Sea snail

Sea snail is a common name for slow-moving marine gastropod molluscs, usually with visible external shells, such as whelk or abalone. They share the taxonomic class Gastropoda with slugs, which are distinguished from snails primarily by the absence of a visible shell.

Family (biology)

Family (biology)

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy. It is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as the "walnut family".



Abalone is a common name for any of a group of small to very large marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae. Other common names are ear shells, sea ears, and, rarely, muttonfish or muttonshells in parts of Australia, ormer in the UK, perlemoen in South Africa, and paua in New Zealand. Abalones are marine snails. Their taxonomy puts them in the family Haliotidae, which contains only one genus, Haliotis, which once contained six subgenera. These subgenera have become alternative representations of Haliotis. The number of species recognized worldwide ranges between 30 and 130 with over 230 species-level taxa described. The most comprehensive treatment of the family considers 56 species valid, with 18 additional subspecies. The shells of abalones have a low, open spiral structure, and are characterized by several open respiratory pores in a row near the shell's outer edge. The thick inner layer of the shell is composed of nacre (mother-of-pearl), which in many species is highly iridescent, giving rise to a range of strong, changeable colors which make the shells attractive to humans as decorative objects, jewelry, and as a source of colorful mother-of-pearl.

Baja California peninsula

Baja California peninsula

The Baja California peninsula is a peninsula in northwestern Mexico. It separates the Gulf of California from the Pacific Ocean. The peninsula extends from Mexicali, Baja California, in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, in the south.


  • H. f. fulgens Philippi, 1845
  • H. f. guadalupensis Talmadge, 1964
  • H. f. turveri Bartsch, 1942


The size of the adult shell of this species varies between 75 mm and 255 mm. "The large, oval, quite convex shell is sculptured all over with equal rounded cords or lirae. Its coloration is reddish-brown. Generally five holes are open. The form is oval. The back of the shell is quite convex. It is solid, but thinner than Haliotis rufescens. The outer surface has a uniform dull reddish-brown color. It is sculptured with rounded spiral lirae, nearly equal in size. These number 30 to 40 on the upper surface. At the row of the holes there is an angle. The surface below it slopes almost perpendicularly to the columellar edge, and has about midway an obtuse keel. The spire does not project above the general curve of the back. The inner surface is dark, mostly blue and green with dark coppery stains, pinkish within the spire. The muscle impression is painted in a peculiar and brilliant pattern, like a peacock's tail. The columellar plate is wide, flat, and slopes inward. The cavity of the spire is small, almost concealed. The about five perforations are rather small, elevated and circular."[3]

The epipodium is a "ruffle" of tissue along the side of the foot. The head and epipodial tentacles are olive green in this species, but the epipodial fringes are a mottled cream and brown color, with knobby tubercles scattered on the surface, and a frilly edge.


H. fulgens is endemic to the waters off the coast of southern California,[4] from Point Conception, California, to Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico.


This species is found in shallow water on open/exposed coast from low intertidal to at least 30 feet (9 m) and perhaps as deep as 60 feet (18 m). Individuals are found in rock crevices, under rocks and other cryptic cavities. Like all abalone, green abalone are herbivores. They feed mostly on drift algae and prefer fleshy red algae.


Predators of this species include sea otters, starfish, large fishes, octopuses, and humans.


Green abalones are subject to a chronic, progressive and lethal disease: withering abalone syndrome or abalone wasting disease, leading to mass mortality.


Green abalone have separate sexes and broadcast spawn from early summer through early fall. Maturity is reached at 2.4 to 5 inches (61–128 mm) length or 5 to 7 years. Lifespan is up to 30 years or more.

Threats and conservation

Sun dried meat of the green abalone on San Clemente Island in 1913.
Sun dried meat of the green abalone on San Clemente Island in 1913.

Green abalone are threatened by overharvesting and the withering abalone syndrome disease. California has a Abalone Recovery Management Plan to guide conservation efforts. They are a U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service species of concern. Species of concern are those species about which the U.S. Government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service has some concerns regarding status and threats, but for which insufficient information is available to indicate a need to list the species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

Source: "Haliotis fulgens", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 9th),

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  1. ^ Peters, H. & Rogers-Bennett, L. (2021). "Haliotis fulgens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T78768961A78772463. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T78768961A78772463.en.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1845. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 9 April 2010.
  3. ^ H.A. Pilsbry (1890) Manual of Conchology XII; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 1890
  4. ^ Oliver, A.P.H. (2004). Guide to Seashells of the World. Buffalo: Firefly Books. 21.
Further reading
  • Turgeon, D.D., et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26 page(s): 57
  • Geiger D.L. & Poppe G.T. (2000). A Conchological Iconography: The family Haliotidae. Conchbooks, Hackenheim Germany. 135pp 83pls. [details]
  • Geiger D.L. & Owen B. (2012) Abalone: Worldwide Haliotidae. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. viii + 361 pp
External links

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