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Hadrawi

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Hadrawi
Hadrawi in 2018
Hadrawi in 2018
Native name
  • Hadraawi (Somali)
  • هدراوى (Arabic)
BornMohamed Ibrahim Warsame
1943 (1943)
Burao, Togdheer, British Somaliland
Died (aged 79)
Hargeisa, Somaliland
Resting placeHargeisa
Pen nameHadrawi
Occupation
  • Poet
  • author
  • songwriter
  • philosopher
LanguageSomali
NationalitySomalilander
Alma materSomali National University
SubjectPatriotism, love, faith, mortality
Notable works
  • Siinley Qoraa : Sayid Cali Barre
  • Tawaawac
  • Isa Sudhan
  • Sirta Nolosha
  • Hooya la'aanta
Notable awardsPrince Claus Award (2012)

Mohamed Ibrahim Warsame[a] (1943 – 18 August 2022), known by the pseudonym Hadrawi,[b] was a Somali poet, philosopher and songwriter. Having written many notable protest works, Hadrawi has been likened by some to Shakespeare,[1] and his poetry has been translated into various languages.[2][3]

Biography

Hadrawi was born in Burao, situated in the Togdheer region of Somaliland, then part of British Somaliland. Hadrawi hails from the Ahmed Farah sub-division of the Habr Je'lo Isaaq. His family consisted of one girl and eight boys. In 1953, at the age of nine, he went to live with an uncle in the Yemeni port city of Aden. There Warsame began attending a local school, where he received the nickname "Hadrawi" (Abu Hadra), a pseudonym by which he is now popularly known. In 1963, he became a primary school teacher.

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Burao

Burao

Burao, also spelt Bur'o or Bur'ao is the capital of the Togdheer region and the second largest city in Somaliland. Burao was also the third largest city of Somalia. Burao was the site of the declaration of an independent Somaliland on 18 May 1991.

Togdheer

Togdheer

Togdheer is an administrative region (gobol) in central Somaliland. Togdheer is bordered by Maroodi Jeex to the west, Saaxil to the north, Sanaag to the northeast, Sool to the east and Ethiopia to the south. Its capital is Burao.

Somaliland

Somaliland

Somaliland, officially the Republic of Somaliland, is a de facto sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, still considered internationally to be part of Somalia. Somaliland lies in the Horn of Africa, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Aden. It is bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Ethiopia to the south and west, and Somalia to the east. Its claimed territory has an area of 176,120 square kilometres (68,000 sq mi), with approximately 5.7 million residents as of 2021. The capital and largest city is Hargeisa. The government of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to British Somaliland, which, as the briefly independent State of Somaliland, united in 1960 with the Trust Territory of Somaliland to form the Somali Republic.

British Somaliland

British Somaliland

British Somaliland, officially the Somaliland Protectorate, was a British protectorate in present-day Somaliland. During its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somalia, French Somali Coast and Abyssinia. From 1940 to 1941, it was occupied by the Italians and was part of Italian East Africa.

Habr Je'lo

Habr Je'lo

The Habr Je'lo (Somali: Habar Jeclo, Arabic: هبر جعلو, Full Name: Mūsa ibn ash-Shaykh Isḥāq ibn Aḥmad, historically known as the Habr Toljaala is a major sub-tribe of the wider Isaaq family. Its members confederation along with the Ibran, Sanbuur and Tolje’lo.

Isaaq

Isaaq

The Isaaq is an ethnic group in Somaliland. It is one of the major tribe in the Horn of Africa, with a large and densely populated traditional territory.

Aden

Aden

Aden is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of Yemen, near the eastern approach to the Red Sea, some 170 km (110 mi) east of the strait Bab-el-Mandeb. Its population is approximately 800,000 people. Aden's natural harbour lies in the crater of a dormant volcano, which now forms a peninsula joined to the mainland by a low isthmus. This harbour, Front Bay, was first used by the ancient Kingdom of Awsan between the 7th to 5th centuries BC. The modern harbour is on the other side of the peninsula. Aden gets its name from the Gulf of Aden.

Return to The Somali Republic

After British Somaliland gained independence on June 26th 1960 and then formed a union with the Italian Somalia (who gained independence on the 1st July 1960), Hadrawi relocated from Aden to Mogadishu, the newly formed Somali Republic’s capital, and began working for Radio Mogadiscio. In Mogadishu, he both attended and later taught at the Lafoole University (Afgooye). He also worked for the government's Department of Information.

In addition to love lyrics, he was a powerful commentator on the political situation and critic of the then military regime in Mogadishu (former Italian Somalia section) who allegedly oppressed the former portion of British Somaliland. Imprisoned between 1973 and 1978.[2]

In 1973, Hadrawi wrote the poem Siinley and the play Tawaawac ('Lament'), both of which were critical of the military government that was then in power. For this dissent, he was subsequently arrested and imprisoned in Qansax Dheere until April 1978.

Somali National Movement

Following his release from prison in 1978, Hadrawi became the director of the arts division of the Academy of Science, Arts, and Literature in The Somali Republic. when he joined the opposition Somali National Movement (to liberate the former British Somaliland section from the dictatorship and oppression from the Somali Republic who targeted the Isaaq clan which Hadrawi was a part of), based in Ethiopia. He was a very powerful voice in the ensuing years of the "Isaaq Genocide", war and the repressive military regime on the Isaaq peoples of Somaliland , and continues to be a very important poet commenting on the predicament the Somali speaking people’s face.[2]

Hadrawi relocated to United Kingdom in 1991 after the liberation of (fr British ) Somaliland and revocation of the union between fr. British Somaliland and fr. Italian Somalia. With Somaliland (Fr. British Somaliland going back to its original borders of June 26th 1960). During this period, he traveled frequently throughout Europe and North America to participate in folklore and poetry festivals.

In 1999, Hadrawi returned once more to his native Somaliland, this time settling in Hargeisa. The following year, the mayor of Chicago invited him to participate in the latter city's Millennium Festival.

Hadrawi later lived in Burao, and reportedly made a (hajj) pilgrimage to Mecca.

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Somali National Movement

Somali National Movement

The Somali National Movement was one of the first and most important organized guerilla groups opposed to the Siad Barre regime in the 1980s to the 1990s, as well as being the main anti-government faction during the Somaliland War of Independence. The organisation was founded in London, England, on April 6, 1981 by Ahmed Ismail Abdi ‘Duksi’, Hassan Isse Jama, Abdisalam Yasin, Hassan Adan Wadadid, a former Somali diplomat, who stated that the group's purpose was to overthrow the Siad Barre regime.

Folklore

Folklore

Folklore is shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. This includes oral traditions such as tales, legends, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles common to the group. Folklore also includes customary lore, taking actions for folk beliefs, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact or traditional cultural expression. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next. Folklore is not something one can typically gain in a formal school curriculum or study in the fine arts. Instead, these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration. The academic study of folklore is called folklore studies or folkloristics, and it can be explored at undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. levels.

Poetry

Poetry

Poetry, also called verse, is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language − such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre − to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, a prosaic ostensible meaning. A poem is a literary composition, written by a poet, using this principle.

Hargeisa

Hargeisa

Hargeisa is the capital city in the Republic of Somaliland, a de facto sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, still considered internationally to be part of Somalia. It is also the regional capital of the Maroodi Jeex province of Somaliland. Hargeisa is the largest city in Somaliland.

Chicago

Chicago

Chicago is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third most populous in the United States after New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, it is also the most populous city in the Midwest. As the seat of Cook County, the city is the center of the Chicago metropolitan area, one of the largest in the world.

Hajj

Hajj

The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and of supporting their family during their absence from home.

Mecca

Mecca

Mecca is the holiest city in Islam and the capital of Mecca Province in Saudi Arabia. It is 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah on the Red Sea, in a narrow valley 277 m (909 ft) above sea level. Its last recorded population was 1,578,722 in 2015. Its estimated metro population in 2020 is 2.042 million, making it the third-most populated city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh and Jeddah. Pilgrims more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj pilgrimage, observed in the twelfth Hijri month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

Death

Hadrawi died in Hargeisa , Somaliland on 18 August 2022, at the age of 79.[4]

Contributions to popular music

Besides volumes of poems and dozens of plays, Hadrawi participated in numerous collaborations with popular vocal artists. His lyrical corpus includes:

  • "Baladweyn" – song performed by Hasan Adan Samatar in 1974
  • "Saxarlaay ha Fududaan" – sung by Mohamed Mooge Liibaan
  • "Jacayl Dhiig ma Lagu Qoraa?" – sung by Magool, and later translated by Hanna Barket as "Is Love Written in Blood?" or "Do You Write Love in Blood?". Another translation of the song by the British linguist and Somali Studies doyen Martin Orwin is "Has Love Been Blood-written?".[5]

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Awards

In 2012, Hadraawi was awarded the Prince Claus Award for his contributions to peace through poetry.[6]

Works

  • Hooya la'anta ('Motherlessness')
  • Beled Wayn
  • Hablaha geeska
  • Gudgude
  • Siinley
  • Sirta nolosha
  • Tawaawac
  • Aqoon iyo afgarad
  • Deeley
  • Hawaale warran
  • Bulshooy

All the translations are by Poetry Translation Centre

Source: "Hadrawi", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrawi.

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Notes
  1. ^ Somali: Maxamed Ibraahim Warsame, Arabic: محمد ابراهيم ورسمي
  2. ^ Somali: Hadraawi, Arabic: هدراوى
References
  1. ^ Ditmars, Hadani (30 September 1994). "Somali Shakespeare". The Independent. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  2. ^ a b c McConnell, Tristan (12 February 2010). "Inside Somalia: Where poetry is revered". GlobalPost. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  3. ^ "Hadraawi: The Somali Shakespeare – The Documentary Podcast". BBC World Service. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Great Somali poet Hadrawi passed away in Hargeisa". Somali Times. 18 August 2022. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
  5. ^ Orwin, Martin (2001). "Maxamed Ibraahim Warsame 'Hadraawi'". Modern Poetry in Translation. London: King's College London (17). ISSN 0969-3572.
  6. ^ "Prêmio Principal Príncipe Claus 2012 para cooperativa editorial argentina Eloísa Cartonera" [2012 Prince Claus Main Award for Argentine Publishing Cooperative Eloísa Cartonera]. PR Newswire (in Portuguese). Amsterdam. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
General references
Further reading
  • Xasan, Maxamed Baashe X. (2004). Hal Ka Haleel: Sooyaalka Hadraawi iyo Suugaantiisa [Presence of Mind: Biography of Hadraawi and His Literature] (in Somali). London: Bashe Publications. ISBN 9780995753334. OCLC 62124821.
  • Warsame, Maxamed Ibraahin; Jama, Jama Musse (2013). Maxamed Ibraahin Warsame 'Hadraawi': The Man and the Poet. Pisa, Italy: Ponte Invisibile. ISBN 9780995753334. OCLC 1077606703.
External links

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