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HMS Tilbury (1918)

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History
United Kingdom
NameHMS Tilbury
BuilderSwan Hunter, Wallsend
Laid downNovember 1917
Launched13 June 1918
Completed17 September 1918
FateSold February 1931
General characteristics
Class and typeS-class destroyer
Displacement1,220 long tons (1,240 t) deep load
Length276 ft 0 in (84.12 m) oa
Beam26 ft 8 in (8.13 m)
Draught9 ft 10 in (3.00 m)
Installed power27,000 shp (20,000 kW)
Propulsion
  • 3× Yarrow boilers
  • Parsons geared steam turbines
  • 2 shafts
Speed36 kn (41 mph; 67 km/h)
Complement90
Armament
  • 3 × 4-inch (102 mm) guns
  • 4 × 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes

HMS Tilbury was a S-class destroyer of the British Royal Navy that served during the First World War.

The boat badge is in the shape of a boar and is in the collection of the National Maritime Museum.[1]

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S-class destroyer (1917)

S-class destroyer (1917)

The S class was a class of 67 destroyers ordered for the Royal Navy in 1917 under the 11th and 12th Emergency War Programmes. They saw active service in the last months of the First World War and in the Russian and Irish Civil Wars during the early 1920s. Most were relegated to the reserve by the mid-1920s and subsequently scrapped under the terms of the London Naval Treaty. Eleven survivors saw much action during the Second World War.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Navy

Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is consequently known as the Senior Service.

National Maritime Museum

National Maritime Museum

The National Maritime Museum (NMM) is a maritime museum in Greenwich, London. It is part of Royal Museums Greenwich, a network of museums in the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site. Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, it has no general admission charge; there are admission charges for most side-gallery temporary exhibitions, usually supplemented by many loaned works from other museums.

Design and construction

The S-class were intended as a fast (36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph) destroyer for service that would be cheaper than the large V-class destroyers that preceded them and so able to be ordered in large numbers.[2] The ships were 276 feet (84.12 m) long overall and 265 feet (80.77 m) between perpendiculars, with a beam of 26 feet 8 inches (8.13 m) and a draught of 9 feet 10 inches (3.00 m). They displaced 1,000 long tons (1,000 t) normal and 1,220 long tons (1,240 t) deep load.[3] Three Yarrow boilers fed Parsons geared steam turbines which drove two propeller shafts, and generated 27,000 shaft horsepower (20,000 kW), giving the required 36 knot speed.[4]

The design gun armament of the S-class was three 4-inch (102 mm) guns and a single 2-pounder (40 mm) "pom-pom" anti-aircraft gun. Torpedo armament was four 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes in two twin rotating mounts on the ships' centreline and two 18-inch (457 mm) tubes at the break of the forecastle for easily aimed snap-shots in close action.[5][2] The ship had a crew of 90 officers and men.[4]

On 23 June 1917, the Admiralty placed an order for 36 S-class destroyers under the Twelfth War Programme as a follow-on to the 33 S-class destroyers ordered in May that year under the Eleventh War Programme.[6] Tilbury, one of three S-class destroyers ordered from Swan Hunter in the Twelfth War Programme, was laid down at their Wallsend shipyard in November 1917. She was launched on 17 June 1918 and completed on 17 September 1918.[7]

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Length overall

Length overall

Length overall is the maximum length of a vessel's hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship. It is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is also used for calculating the cost of a marina berth.

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars is the length of a ship along the summer load line from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. When there is no sternpost, the centerline axis of the rudder stock is used as the aft end of the length between perpendiculars.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Long ton

Long ton

The long ton, also known as the imperial ton or displacement ton, is the name for the unit called the "ton" in the avoirdupois system of weights or Imperial system of measurements. It was standardised in the 13th century. It is used in the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth of Nations countries alongside the mass-based metric tonne defined in 1799, as well as in the United States for bulk commodities.

Steam turbine

Steam turbine

A steam turbine is a machine that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Charles Parsons in 1884. Fabrication of a modern steam turbine involves advanced metalwork to form high-grade steel alloys into precision parts using technologies that first became available in the 20th century; continued advances in durability and efficiency of steam turbines remains central to the energy economics of the 21st century.

QF 2-pounder naval gun

QF 2-pounder naval gun

The 2-pounder gun, officially the QF 2-pounder and universally known as the pom-pom, was a 40 mm (1.6 in) British autocannon, used as an anti-aircraft gun by the Royal Navy. The name came from the sound that the original models make when firing. This QF 2-pounder was not the same gun as the Ordnance QF 2-pounder, used by the British Army as an anti-tank gun and a tank gun, although they both fired 2 lb (0.91 kg), 40 mm (1.6 in) projectiles.

Forecastle

Forecastle

The forecastle is the upper deck of a sailing ship forward of the foremast, or, historically, the forward part of a ship with the sailors' living quarters. Related to the latter meaning is the phrase "before the mast" which denotes anything related to ordinary sailors, as opposed to a ship's officers.

Swan Hunter

Swan Hunter

Swan Hunter, formerly known as Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, is a shipbuilding design, engineering, and management company, based in Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, England.

Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

Ceremonial ship launching

Ceremonial ship launching

Ceremonial ship launching involves the performance of ceremonies associated with the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a nautical tradition in many cultures, dating back thousands of years, to accompany the physical process with ceremonies which have been observed as public celebration and a solemn blessing, usually but not always, in association with the launch itself.

Service

On commission, Tilbury was sent to the Mediterranean, and was at Mudros in the Aegean Sea at the end of the war.[8][9] Tilbury continued as part of the Sixth Destroyer Flotilla in the Mediterranean Fleet through 1919.[10][11][12] The Royal Navy had a surplus of modern destroyers following the First World War, and by October 1920, Tilbury was listed as in reserve at the Nore.[13][12] In 1923, she was in reserve at Portsmouth and in June 1928 was in Maintenance Reserve at Rosyth.[12]

Tilbury was sold to the shipbreakers Ward in February 1931 for scrapping at their Llanelly yard.[14]

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Moudros

Moudros

Moudros is a town and a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the entire eastern peninsula of the island, with a land area of 185.127 km², covering 38.8% of the island's territory. The municipal seat was the town of Moúdros. Its next largest town is Kontopoúli (623). The municipal unit's total population was 3,925 in the 2011 census.

Aegean Sea

Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea between Europe and Asia. It is located between the Balkans and Anatolia, and covers an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In the north, the Aegean is connected to the Marmara Sea, which in turn connects to the Black Sea, by the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, respectively. The Aegean Islands are located within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. The sea reaches a maximum depth of 2,639m to the west of Karpathos. The Thracian Sea and the Sea of Crete are main subdivisions of the Aegean Sea.

Nore

Nore

The Nore is a long bank of sand and silt running along the south-centre of the final narrowing of the Thames Estuary, England. Its south-west is the very narrow Nore Sand. Just short of the Nore's easternmost point where it fades into the channels it has a notable point once marked by a lightship on the line where the estuary of the Thames nominally becomes the North Sea. A lit buoy today stands on this often map-marked divisor: between Havengore Creek in east Essex and Warden Point on the Isle of Sheppey in Kent.

HMNB Portsmouth

HMNB Portsmouth

His Majesty's Naval Base, Portsmouth is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. Portsmouth Naval Base is part of the city of Portsmouth; it is located on the eastern shore of Portsmouth Harbour, north of the Solent and the Isle of Wight. Until the early 1970s, it was officially known as Portsmouth Royal Dockyard ; thereafter the term 'Naval Base' gained currency, acknowledging a greater focus on personnel and support elements alongside the traditional emphasis on building, repairing and maintaining ships. In 1984 Portsmouth's Royal Dockyard function was downgraded and it was formally renamed the 'Fleet Maintenance and Repair Organisation' (FMRO). The FMRO was privatized in 1998, and for a time, shipbuilding, in the form of block construction, returned. Around 2000, the designation HMS Nelson was extended to cover the entire base.

Rosyth Dockyard

Rosyth Dockyard

Rosyth Dockyard is a large naval dockyard on the Firth of Forth at Rosyth, Fife, Scotland, owned by Babcock Marine, which formerly undertook refitting of Royal Navy surface vessels and submarines. Before its privatisation in the 1990s it was formerly the Royal Naval Dockyard Rosyth. Its primary role now is the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines. It is also the integration site for the Royal Navy's newest aircraft carriers, the Queen Elizabeth class as well as the Type 31 Frigate.

Llanelly

Llanelly

Llanelly is the name of a parish and coterminous community in the principal area of Monmouthshire, within the historic boundaries of Brecknockshire, south-east Wales. It roughly covers the area of the Clydach Gorge. The population of the parish and ward at the 2011 census was 3,899.

Source: "HMS Tilbury (1918)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 29th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Tilbury_(1918).

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References
  1. ^ Official boat badge of HMS Tilbury, National Maritime Museum. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  2. ^ a b Friedman 2009, pp. 168–169
  3. ^ Friedman 2009, p. 297
  4. ^ a b Gardiner & Gray 1985, p. 84
  5. ^ Gardiner & Gray 1985, pp. 84–85
  6. ^ Friedman 2009, pp. 169–170, 311
  7. ^ Friedman 2009, p. 311
  8. ^ "Ships of the Royal Navy - Location/Action Data, 1914–1918: Admiralty "Pink Lists", 11 November 1918". World War 1 at Sea. Naval-history.net. 24 March 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  9. ^ "Supplement to the Monthly Navy List Showing Organisation of the Fleet, Flag Officers' Commands &c. : XV. Mediterranean: British Aegean Squadron". The Navy List. December 1918. Retrieved 21 July 2018 – via National Library of Scotland.
  10. ^ "Supplement to the Monthly Navy List Showing Organisation of the Fleet, Flag Officers' Commands &c. : X. Mediterranean: Sixth Destroyer Flotilla". The Navy List. January 1919. p. 22. Retrieved 22 July 2018 – via National Library of Scotland.
  11. ^ "X. Mediterranean". The Navy List. October 1919. p. 712. Retrieved 22 July 2018 – via National Library of Scotland.
  12. ^ a b c Watson, Graham (2 September 2015). "Between the Wars: Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployments 1919–1939". Royal Navy, Inter-War Years. Naval-history.net. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  13. ^ "IV.—Vessels Under the V.A.C. Reserve Fleet". The Navy List. October 1920. p. 707. Retrieved 22 July 2018 – via National Library of Scotland.
  14. ^ Dittmar & Colledge 1972, p. 75
Bibliography
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