Get Our Extension

HMS Shikari (D85)

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
A light coloured warship with two funnels is at anchor. The letters I85 are painted on the ship's bow. A single gun is visible forward. The ship has two masts, with the forward, cruciform, mast carrying a large number of aerials, while the aft lattice mast carries a cylindrical antenna.
HMS Shikari during the Second World War
History
United Kingdom
NameShikari
BuilderWilliam Doxford & Sons, Sunderland
Laid down15 January 1918
Launched14 July 1919
CommissionedApril 1924
IdentificationPennant number: D85
FateScrapped on 4 November 1945
General characteristics
Class and typeAdmiralty S-class destroyer

HMS Shikari (D85) was an Admiralty S-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. She was built by William Doxford & Sons, Sunderland and launched on 14 July 1919. She was one of the destroyers that took part in the Invergordon Mutiny. In 1933, she was briefly commanded by Frederic John Walker, who was to rise to fame as the foremost Allied submarine hunter of World War II.

On 4 June 1940, Shikari was the last ship to leave Dunkirk.

Discover more about HMS Shikari (D85) related topics

S-class destroyer (1917)

S-class destroyer (1917)

The S class was a class of 67 destroyers ordered for the Royal Navy in 1917 under the 11th and 12th Emergency War Programmes. They saw active service in the last months of the First World War and in the Russian and Irish Civil Wars during the early 1920s. Most were relegated to the reserve by the mid-1920s and subsequently scrapped under the terms of the London Naval Treaty. Eleven survivors saw much action during the Second World War.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Navy

Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is consequently known as the Senior Service.

William Doxford & Sons

William Doxford & Sons

William Doxford & Sons Ltd, often referred to simply as Doxford, was a British shipbuilding and marine engineering company.

Invergordon Mutiny

Invergordon Mutiny

The Invergordon Mutiny was an industrial action by around 1,000 sailors in the British Atlantic Fleet that took place on 15–16 September 1931. For two days, ships of the Royal Navy at Invergordon were in open mutiny, in one of the few military strikes in British history.

Frederic John Walker

Frederic John Walker

Captain Frederic John Walker, was a Royal Navy officer noted for his exploits during the Second World War. Walker was the most successful anti-submarine warfare commander during the Battle of the Atlantic and was known more popularly as Johnnie Walker.

Dunkirk

Dunkirk

Dunkirk is a commune in the department of Nord in northern France. It lies 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Belgian border. It has the third-largest French harbour. The population of the commune in 2019 was 86,279.

Construction and design

Shikari was ordered from Doxford Shipyard in April 1917 as part of the first batch of 24 S-class destroyers.[1] The S class were intended as a fast 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph) destroyer for service that would be cheaper than the large V-class destroyers that preceded them and so able to be ordered in large numbers.[2] The ships were 276 feet (84.12 m) long overall and 265 feet (80.77 m) between perpendiculars, with a beam of 26 feet 8 inches (8.13 m) and a draught of 9 feet 10 inches (3.00 m). They displaced 905 long tons (920 t) standard and 1,221 long tons (1,241 t) full load. Three Yarrow boilers fed Brown-Curtiss single-reduction steam turbines which drove two propeller shafts, and generated 27,000 shaft horsepower (20,000 kW) at 360 rpm, giving the required 36 knot speed. 301 long tons (306 t) of oil could be carried, giving a range of 2,750 nautical miles (5,090 km; 3,160 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph).[3][4] The design gun armament of the S class was three 4-inch (102 mm) guns and a single 2-pounder (40 mm) "pom-pom" anti-aircraft gun. Torpedo armament was four 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes in two twin rotating mounts and two 18-inch (457 mm) tubes.[3]

Shikari was laid down on 15 January 1918,[3] but construction was slowed by the end of the First World War in November 1918,[5] and she was not launched until 14 July 1919. After launching, Shikari was towed to Chatham Dockyard for fitting out. It was decided to use Shikari as a control ship for the old battleship and target ship HMS Agamemnon.[5] As a control ship, Shikari was unarmed,[5] with a large deckhouse for the radio-control equipment fitted between the ship's funnels.[6] She was finally commissioned in February 1924.[3]

Early in the Second World War,[a] Shikari, along with several other S-class destroyers based in the UK, was modified as a dedicated anti-submarine escort. After conversion, armament consisted of a single 4-inch gun forward, with a 12-pounder anti-aircraft gun amidships. Close-in anti-aircraft armament consisted of two quadruple Vickers .50 machine gun mounts. Both sets of torpedo-tubes were removed, allowing a heavy depth charge armament, with 112 depth charges carried, with sufficient depth charge throwers and racks to allow 14-charge patterns of charges to be used. Type 286 radar and Type 133 Sonar was fitted.[9][10] Later in the war, the depth charge armament was reduced, with a 10-charge pattern substituted (as this was found to be as effective as the earlier 14-charge pattern).[10][11] The .50 machine guns were eventually replaced by four single Oerlikon 20 mm cannon, and the 12 pounder anti-aircraft gun removed to allow Type 271 radar to be fitted on a lattice mast aft.[12][13]

Discover more about Construction and design related topics

Length overall

Length overall

Length overall is the maximum length of a vessel's hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship. It is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is also used for calculating the cost of a marina berth.

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars is the length of a ship along the summer load line from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. When there is no sternpost, the centerline axis of the rudder stock is used as the aft end of the length between perpendiculars.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Long ton

Long ton

The long ton, also known as the imperial ton or displacement ton, is the name for the unit called the "ton" in the avoirdupois system of weights or Imperial system of measurements. It was standardised in the 13th century. It is used in the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth of Nations countries alongside the mass-based metric tonne defined in 1799, as well as in the United States for bulk commodities.

Steam turbine

Steam turbine

A steam turbine is a machine that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Charles Parsons in 1884. Fabrication of a modern steam turbine involves advanced metalwork to form high-grade steel alloys into precision parts using technologies that first became available in the 20th century; continued advances in durability and efficiency of steam turbines remains central to the energy economics of the 21st century.

QF 2-pounder naval gun

QF 2-pounder naval gun

The 2-pounder gun, officially the QF 2-pounder and universally known as the pom-pom, was a 40 mm (1.6 in) British autocannon, used as an anti-aircraft gun by the Royal Navy. The name came from the sound that the original models make when firing. This QF 2-pounder was not the same gun as the Ordnance QF 2-pounder, used by the British Army as an anti-tank gun and a tank gun, although they both fired 2 lb (0.91 kg), 40 mm (1.6 in) projectiles.

Torpedo tube

Torpedo tube

A torpedo tube is a cylindrical device for launching torpedoes.

Target ship

Target ship

A target ship is a vessel — typically an obsolete or captured warship — used as a seaborne target for naval gunnery practice or for weapons testing. Targets may be used with the intention of testing effectiveness of specific types of ammunition; or the target ship may be used for an extended period of routine target practice with specialized non-explosive ammunition. The potential consequences of a drifting wreck require careful preparation of the target ship to prevent pollution, or a floating or submerged collision risk for maritime navigation.

HMS Agamemnon (1906)

HMS Agamemnon (1906)

HMS Agamemnon was one of two Lord Nelson-class pre-dreadnought battleships launched in 1906 and completed in 1908. She was the Royal Navy's second-to-last pre-dreadnought battleship to be built, followed by her sister ship, Lord Nelson. She was assigned to the Channel Fleet when the First World War began in 1914. The ship was transferred to the Mediterranean Sea with Lord Nelson in early 1915 to participate in the Dardanelles Campaign. She made a number of bombardments against Turkish fortifications and in support of British troops. Agamemnon remained in the Mediterranean after the conclusion of that campaign to prevent the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben and light cruiser Breslau from breaking out into the Mediterranean. Agamemnon shot down the German Zeppelin LZ-55 (LZ-85) during a bombing mission over Salonica in 1916. On 30 October 1918, the Ottoman Empire signed the Armistice of Mudros on board the ship while she was anchored at Lemnos in the northern Aegean Sea. She was converted to a radio-controlled target ship following her return to the United Kingdom in March 1919 and began service in 1921. Agamemnon was the last pre-dreadnought in service with the Royal Navy; she was replaced by Centurion at the end of 1926 and sold for scrap in January 1927.

Depth charge

Depth charge

A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) weapon. It is intended to destroy a submarine by being dropped into the water nearby and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive hydraulic shock. Most depth charges use high explosive charges and a fuze set to detonate the charge, typically at a specific depth. Depth charges can be dropped by ships, patrol aircraft, and helicopters.

Service

Shikari as a target control ship in 1929
Shikari as a target control ship in 1929

Shikari continued as a control ship for the remainder of the inter war period, first for Agamemnon and then for Centurion.[5] Shikari was present at Invergordon in September 1931 during the Invergordon Mutiny, although there was little trouble on board.[14] Amongst Shikari's commanding officers during the inter-war period was Commander Frederic John Walker, who became a notable anti-submarine warfare commander during the Second World War.[15] On 2 February 1939, Shikari was involved in a collision with the destroyer Griffin off Malta, with Griffin's hull being damaged near the stern.[16][17]

On the outbreak of the Second World War, Shikari was re-armed and from January 1940 carried out convoy escort operations.[5] At the end of May 1940, the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was trapped by German forces at Dunkirk, and it was decided to launch Operation Dynamo, the evacuation of the BEF from Dunkirk, and Shikari was one of the destroyers that took part in the operation,[18] carrying out her first evacuation trip on 28 May, making a second trip on 29 May.[19] On 29 May, Admiral of the Fleet Dudley Pound, First Sea Lord, ordered the withdrawal of modern destroyers from the Dunkirk operations owing to the high losses, putting greater pressure on old destroyers such as Shikari.[20] On 1 June, the steamer Prague was badly damaged by near misses from German artillery and bombing. Shikari, along with the sloop Shearwater and the paddle minesweeper Queen of Thanet, took off Prague's load of 3,000 French troops before Prague beached herself on the Sandwich Flats. Shikari herself was damaged by German bombing on 1 June.[21][22] Shikari continued to make evacuation runs and at 03:40 on the night of 3/4 June 1940 was the last ship to leave Dunkirk.[22][23] In total, Shikari made seven trips to Dunkirk during Operation Dynamo, embarking 3349 troops.[24]

After Dunkirk, Shikari returned to escort work, and on 4 July, when the cargo ship Dallas City was damaged by German dive bombers and then collided with Flimstone, Shikari took off the crew of Dallas City before the cargo ship sank, surviving unscathed when attacked by German bombers.[25] On 24 July, the French troopship Meknès, repatriating French sailors after the French armistice with Germany, was torpedoed by the German Schnellboot S.27, and Shikari, together with the destroyers Sabre, Viscount and Wolverine rescued the survivors.[26]

On 9 September 1940, Convoy HX 72 left Halifax, Nova Scotia, bound for the UK. The convoy was escorted most of the way across the Atlantic by the armed merchant cruiser Jervis Bay, with an escort of destroyers and corvettes (including Shikari) to protect the convoy for the dangerous final stages through the Western Approaches. Jervis Bay left the convoy on 20 September, before the escort group had rendezvoused with the convoy. The German submarine U-47 spotted the unescorted convoy shortly after Jervis Bay had left, and shadowed the convoy allowing a "wolfpack" of U-boats to be assembled against the convoy. U-boats sank four merchant ships before the escort group, consisting of the sloop Lowestoft, the corvettes Calendula, Heartsease and La Malouine and Shikari arrived. Shikari was tasked with rescuing the crews from the torpedoed merchant ships, while the remaining four escorts stayed with the convoy. Shikari picked up survivors from Blairangus, Elmbank and Baron Blythswood. Attacks on the convoy continued, with seven ships being sunk by U-100 on the night of 21/22 September.[27][28][29]

Shikari continued in the convoy escort role in the Western Approaches area,[5] serving with the 2nd Escort Group based at Londonderry in Northern Ireland,[30] and along with sister ship Sardonyx attacked a suspected submarine on 22 December 1940 when escorting Convoy OB 262.[31] On 24 October 1941, Shikari sustained serious damage in high seas south of Iceland, losing a funnel, and was under repair at Belfast until December that year,[5] joining the 21st Escort Group, based at Iceland.[12][32] Shikari continued in the convoy escort role into 1944, entering reserve and being used for training from September 1944.[5][b]

Shikari was sold for scrap in September 1945, arriving at Cashmore's shipbreaking yard on 4 November 1945.[5][33]

Discover more about Service related topics

HMS Centurion (1911)

HMS Centurion (1911)

HMS Centurion was the second of four King George V-class dreadnought battleships built for the Royal Navy in the early 1910s. She spent the bulk of her career assigned to the Home and Grand Fleets. Aside from participating in the failed attempt to intercept the German ships that had bombarded Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby in late 1914, and the Battle of Jutland in May 1916, her service during the First World War generally consisted of routine patrols and training in the North Sea.

Invergordon

Invergordon

Invergordon is a town and port in Easter Ross, in Ross and Cromarty, Highland, Scotland. It lies in the parish of Rosskeen.

Invergordon Mutiny

Invergordon Mutiny

The Invergordon Mutiny was an industrial action by around 1,000 sailors in the British Atlantic Fleet that took place on 15–16 September 1931. For two days, ships of the Royal Navy at Invergordon were in open mutiny, in one of the few military strikes in British history.

Commander

Commander

Commander is a common naval officer rank as well as a job title or "billet" in many armies. Commander is also used as a rank or title in other formal organizations, including several police forces. In several countries this naval rank is termed frigate captain.

Frederic John Walker

Frederic John Walker

Captain Frederic John Walker, was a Royal Navy officer noted for his exploits during the Second World War. Walker was the most successful anti-submarine warfare commander during the Battle of the Atlantic and was known more popularly as Johnnie Walker.

HMS Griffin (H31)

HMS Griffin (H31)

HMS Griffin (H31) was a G-class destroyer, built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1930s. In World War II she took part in the Norwegian Campaign of April–May 1940 and the Battle of Dakar in September before being transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet in November. She generally escorted larger ships of the Mediterranean Fleet as they protected convoys against attacks from the Italian Fleet. Griffin took part in the Battle of Cape Matapan in March 1941 and the evacuations of Greece and Crete in April–May 1941. In June she took part in the Syria-Lebanon Campaign and was escorting convoys and the larger ships of the Mediterranean Fleet until she was transferred to the Eastern Fleet in March 1942.

Malta

Malta

Malta, officially the Republic of Malta, is an island country in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of an archipelago, between Italy and Libya, and is part of Southern Europe. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Sicily (Italy), 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. The official languages are Maltese and English, and 66% of the current Maltese population is at least conversational in the Italian language.

British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the contingent of the British Army sent to France in 1939 after Britain and France declared war on Nazi Germany on 3 September, beginning the Second World War. The BEF existed from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down and its troops reverted to the command of Home Forces. During the 1930s, the British government had planned to deter war by abolishing the Ten Year Rule and rearming from the very low level of readiness of the early 1930s. The bulk of the extra money went to the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force but plans were made to re-equip a small number of Army and Territorial Army divisions for service overseas.

Dudley Pound

Dudley Pound

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Alfred Dudley Pickman Rogers Pound, was a British senior officer of the Royal Navy. He served in the First World War as a battleship commander, taking part in the Battle of Jutland with notable success, contributing to the sinking of the German cruiser Wiesbaden. He served as First Sea Lord, the professional head of the Royal Navy, for the first four years of the Second World War. In that role his greatest achievement was his successful campaign against the German U-boats and the winning of the Battle of the Atlantic but his judgment has been questioned over the failed Norwegian Campaign in 1940, and his dismissal of Admiral Dudley North in 1940. His order in July 1942 to disperse Convoy PQ 17 and withdraw its covering forces, to counter a threat from heavy German surface ships, led to its destruction by submarines and aircraft. His health failed in 1943 and he resigned, dying shortly thereafter.

HMS Shearwater (L39)

HMS Shearwater (L39)

HMS Shearwater was a Kingfisher-class sloop of the Royal Navy.

Dive bomber

Dive bomber

A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy for the bomb it drops. Diving towards the target simplifies the bomb's trajectory and allows the pilot to keep visual contact throughout the bomb run. This allows attacks on point targets and ships, which were difficult to attack with conventional level bombers, even en masse.

E-boat

E-boat

E-boat was the Western Allies' designation for the fast attack craft of the Kriegsmarine during World War II; E-boat could refer to a patrol craft from an armed motorboat to a large Torpedoboot. The name of E-boats was a British designation using the letter E for Enemy,

Source: "HMS Shikari (D85)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, May 15th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Shikari_(D85).

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

Notes
  1. ^ Sources differ as to when Shikari was modified. Whitley states late 1940,[3] with Lenton giving 1941–42 for modification of the remaining S-class ships to escort configuration.[7] Friedman suggests that Shikari and Sardonyx may have been modified later than other S-class ships, stating that these two ships were modified by "mid-1942".[8]
  2. ^ Whitley says that the S class were withdrawn to training duties in 1943.[12]
  1. ^ Friedman 2009, p. 311.
  2. ^ Friedman 2009, pp. 168–169.
  3. ^ a b c d e Whitley 2000, p. 83.
  4. ^ Lenton 1970, p. 15.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mason, Geoffry B. (2003). "HMS SHIKARI (D 95) - Old S-class Destroyer including Convoy Escort Movements". Service Histories Of Royal Navy Warships In World War 2. Naval-History.net. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  6. ^ Parkes 1931, p. 65.
  7. ^ Lenton 1970, p.14.
  8. ^ Friedman 2009, p. 236.
  9. ^ Whitley 2000, pp. 83–84.
  10. ^ a b Brown 2007, p. 17.
  11. ^ Friedman 2009, p. 237.
  12. ^ a b c Whitley 2000, p. 84.
  13. ^ Friedman 2009, pp. 242–243.
  14. ^ "History of H.M.S. Hood: The Invergordon Mutiny". H.M.S. Hood Association. 21 October 2006. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  15. ^ "Royal Navy (RN) Officers 1939-1945:Walker, Frederic John "Johnnie"". World War II unit histories & officers. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  16. ^ "Target Ship's Escort in Collision: Two Vessels in Accident off Malta". The Glasgow Herald. 4 February 1939. p. 3. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  17. ^ English 1993, p. 100.
  18. ^ Rohwer and Hümmelchen 1992, p. 21.
  19. ^ Kindell, Don (7 April 2012). "Naval Events, May 1940 (Part 4 of 4): Wednesday 22nd – Friday 31st". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. Naval-History.net. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  20. ^ Barnett 2000, p. 150.
  21. ^ Barnett 2000, p. 156.
  22. ^ a b Kindall, Don (7 April 2012). "Naval Events, June 1940 (Part 1 of 4): Saturday 1st – Friday 7th". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. Naval-History.net. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  23. ^ Barnett 2000, pp. 160–161.
  24. ^ Winser 1999, p. 98.
  25. ^ Kindell, Don (7 April 2012). "Naval Events, July 1940 (Part 1 of 2): Monday 1st- Sunday 14th". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. Naval-History.net. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  26. ^ Kindell, Don (7 April 2012). "Naval Events, July 1940 (Part 2 of 2): Monday 15th - Wednesday 31st". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. Naval-History.net. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  27. ^ Rohwer and Hümmelchen 1992, p. 34.
  28. ^ Kindell, Don (7 April 2012). "Naval Events, September 1940 (Part 1 of 2): Sunday 1st – Saturday 14th". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. naval-history.net. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  29. ^ Kindell, Don (7 April 2012). "Naval Events, September 1940 (Part 2 of 2): Sunday 15th – Monday 30th". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. naval-history.net. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  30. ^ Kindell, Don (7 April 2012). "ROYAL NAVY SHIPS, January 1941 (Part 1 of 2)". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. naval-history.net. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  31. ^ Kindell, Don (7 April 2012). "Naval Events, December 1940 (Part 2 of 2): Sunday 15th - Tuesday 31st". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. naval-history.net. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  32. ^ Kindell, Don (8 April 2012). "ROYAL NAVY SHIPS, January 1942 (Part 3 of 4)". British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day. naval-history.net. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  33. ^ Dittmar and Colledge 1972, p. 74.
References
  • Barnett, Correlli (2000). Engage The Enemy More Closely. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-141-39008-5.
  • Brown, David K (2007). Atlantic Escorts: Ships, Weapons & Tactics in World War II. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84415-702-0.
  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8.
  • Dittmar, F. J.; Colledge, J. J. (1972). British Warships 1914–1919. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0380-7.
  • English, John (1993). Amazon to Ivanhoe: British Standard Destroyers of the 1930s. Kendal, UK: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-64-9.
  • Friedman, Norman (2009). British Destroyers: From Earliest Days to the Second World War. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-049-9.
  • Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal, eds. (1985). Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
  • Lenton, H. T. (1970). Navies of the Second World War: British Fleet & Escort Destroyers Volume One. London: Macdonald & Co. ISBN 0-356-02950-6.
  • March, Edgar J. (1966). British Destroyers: A History of Development, 1892–1953; Drawn by Admiralty Permission From Official Records & Returns, Ships' Covers & Building Plans. London: Seeley Service. OCLC 164893555.
  • Parkes, Oscar (1973) [First published 1931 by Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Ltd: London]. Jane's Fighting Ships 1931. Newton Abbot, UK: David and Charles. ISBN 0-7153-5849-9.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen; Hümmelchen, Gerhard (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-117-7.
  • Whitley, M. J. (2000). Destroyers of World War Two: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. London: Cassell & Co. ISBN 1-85409-521-8.
  • Winser, John de S. (1999). B.E.F. Ships Before, At and After Dunkirk. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-91-6.

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.