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HMCS Terra Nova

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HMCS Terra Nova (DDE 259) at Pearl Harbor 1986.JPEG
HMCS Terra Nova at Pearl Harbor in 1986
History
Canada
NameTerra Nova
NamesakeTerra Nova River
BuilderVictoria Machinery Depot Ltd., Victoria
Laid down11 June 1953
Launched21 June 1955
Commissioned6 June 1959
Decommissioned11 July 1997
Refit
  • 1968 (IRE)
  • 9 November 1984 (DELEX)
  • August–September 1990 (Persian Gulf)
HomeportCFB Halifax
IdentificationHull number: DDE 259
MottoTenax propositi ("Do not falter")[1]
Honours and
awards
Gulf and Kuwait, 1991
FateSold for scrap, 2009
BadgeGules, a bend wavy argent charged with two like cotises azure, debruised with a cross of the second charged with a penguin erect proper[1]
General characteristics (As built)
Class and type Restigouche-class destroyer
Displacement2800 tonnes (deep load)
Length366 ft (111.6 m)
Beam42 ft (12.8 m)
Draught14 ft (4.3 m)
Propulsion2-shaft English-Electric geared steam turbines, 2 Babcock & Wilcox boilers 30,000 shp (22,000 kW)
Speed28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph)
Range4,750 nautical miles (8,800 km; 5,470 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
ComplementAs built: 249
Sensors and
processing systems
  • 1 × SPS-503 air search radar
  • 1 × SPS-502 surface search radar
  • 1 × Sperry Mk.2 navigation radar
  • 1 × SQS-501 high frequency bottom profiler sonar
  • 1 × SQS-502 high frequency mortar control sonar
  • 1 × SQS-503 hull mounted active search sonar
  • 1 × SQS-10 hull mounted active search sonar
  • 1 × Mk.69 gunnery control system with SPG-48 director forward
  • GUNAR Mk.64 GFCS with on-mount SPG-48 director aft
Electronic warfare
& decoys
1 × DAU HF/DF (high frequency direction finder)
Armament
  • 1 × 3-inch/70 Mk.6 Vickers twin mount forward
  • 1 × 3-inch/50 Mk.33 FMC twin mount aft
  • 2 × Mk NC 10 Limbo ASW mortars
  • 2 × single Mk.2 "K-gun" launchers with homing torpedoes
  • 1 × 103 mm Bofors illumination rocket launchers

HMCS Terra Nova (DDE 259) was a Restigouche-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from 1959 until 1997. After her final refit, she was a guided missile destroyer.

She was the sixth ship of her class and the first Canadian war ship to bear the name Terra Nova. The ship's badge honours the Terra Nova River in Newfoundland as well as an earlier civilian ship, Terra Nova, which gained fame during a scientific exploration voyage to Antarctica. They are represented as a river and the Antarctic (symbolized by a penguin) on the ship's badge.

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Restigouche-class destroyer

Restigouche-class destroyer

The Restigouche-class destroyer was a class of seven destroyer escorts that served the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from the late-1950s to the late-1990s. All seven vessels in the class were named after rivers in Canada.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

Terra Nova River

Terra Nova River

The Terra Nova River is a river in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

Newfoundland (island)

Newfoundland (island)

Newfoundland is a large island off the east coast of the North American mainland and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

Terra Nova (ship)

Terra Nova (ship)

Terra Nova was a whaler and polar expedition ship. She is best known for carrying the 1910 British Antarctic Expedition, Robert Falcon Scott's last expedition.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

Design and description

Based on the preceding St. Laurent-class design, the Restigouche-class ships had the same hull and propulsion, but different weaponry.[2] Initially the St. Laurent-class had been planned to be 14 ships. However the order was halved, and the following seven were redesigned to take into improvements made on the St. Laurent-class ships. As time passed, their design diverged further from that of the St. Laurent-class ships [3]

The ships had a displacement of 2,000 tonnes (2,000 long tons), 2,500 t (2,500 long tons) at deep load. They were designed to be 112 metres (366 ft) long with a beam of 13 metres (42 ft) and a draught of 4.01 metres (13 ft 2 in).[2] The Restigouches had a complement of 214.[4]

The Restigouche-class ships were by powered by two English Electric geared steam turbines, each driving a propeller shaft, using steam provided by two Babcock & Wilcox boilers. They generated 22,000 kilowatts (30,000 shp) giving the vessels a maximum speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph).[2]

The Restigouche-class ships were equipped with SPS-10, SPS-12, Sperry Mk 2 and SPG-48 radar along with SQS-501 and SQS-503 sonar.[5]

Armament

The Restigouche-class ships diverged from the St. Laurent-class ships in their weaponry. The Restigouche-class ships were equipped with two twin mounts of Vickers 3-inch (76 mm)/70 calibre Mk 6 dual-purpose guns forward and maintained a single twin mount of 3-inch/50 calibre Mk 22 guns aft used in the preceding class.[note 1] A Mk 69 fire control director was added to control the new guns.[6] They were also armed with two Limbo Mk 10 mortars and two single Bofors 40 mm guns.[5] However the 40 mm guns were dropped in the final design.[6] The 3 in/70 mounting was placed in the 'A' position and the 3 in/50 mounting was placed in the 'Y' position.[4]

The destroyers were also equipped beginning in 1958 with Mk 43 homing torpedoes in an effort to increase the distance between the ships and their targets. The Mk 43 torpedo had a range of 4,100 metres (4,500 yd) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph). They were pitched over the side by a modified depth charge thrower.[7]

Improved Restigouche Escorts (IRE)

As part of the 1964 naval program, the Royal Canadian Navy planned to improve the attack capabilities of the Restigouche-class. Unable to convert the vessels to helicopter-carrying versions like the St. Laurents due to budget constraints, instead Restigouche-class ships were to receive variable depth sonar (VDS) to improve their sonar range, placed on the stern, and the RUR-5 anti-submarine rocket (ASROC).[3] The destroyers also received a stepped latticed mast.[2] Called the Improved Restigouche Escorts (IRE), Terra Nova was the first to undergo conversion, beginning in May 1965. The conversion took ten months to complete, followed by sea trials. The sea trials delayed the conversion of the next ship for four years.[8] By 1969, the budget for naval programs had been cut and only four out of the seven (Terra Nova, Restigouche, Gatineau and Kootenay) would get upgraded to IRE standards and the remaining three (Chaudière, Columbia, and St. Croix) were placed in reserve.[4][9]

The ASROC launcher replaced the 3 in/50 cal twin mount and one Mk 10 Limbo mortars aft.[2] The ASROC was rocket-propelled acoustically-guided Mk 44 torpedo that had a minimum range of 820 metres (900 yd) and a maximum range of 9,100 metres (10,000 yd).[10][11]

Destroyer Life Extension (DELEX)

The Destroyer Life Extension (DELEX) refit for the four surviving Restigouche-class ships was announced in 1978. An effort by Maritime Command to update their existing stock of naval escorts, the DELEX program affected 16 ships in total and came in several different formats depending on the class of ship it was being applied to.[12] On average, the DELEX refit cost $24 million per ship.[13] For the Restigouches this meant updating their sensor, weapon and communications systems. The class received the new ADLIPS tactical data system, new radar and fire control systems and satellite navigation. They were also fitted with a triple torpedo tube mounting to use the new Mk 46 torpedo.[14] The ships began undergoing their DELEX refits in the early 1980s.[15] However, by the time the ships emerged from their refits, they were already obsolete as the Falklands War had changed the way surface battles were fought.[14]

Gulf War refit

With the advent of the Gulf War in August 1990, Maritime Command was asked to have a fleet of ships available to send to the Persian Gulf, preferably three ships. The Iroquois-class destroyer Athabaskan and the replenishment ship Protecteur would be made part of the task force; however, all the other Iroquois-class vessels were in refit. Maritime Command chose from among the remaining fleet the vessel with the best electronic countermeasures suite, Terra Nova, to deploy with the task force.[16] Terra Nova was quickly altered to make her ready for an active war zone. The ship's ASROC system was landed and instead two quad Harpoon surface-to-surface missile systems were installed. A Mk 15 Phalanx close-in weapon system was placed on the quarterdeck in place of the landed Limbo ASW mortar, and two 40 mm/60 calibre Boffin guns were installed in single mounts where the ship's boats were. The ship was also fitted with new chaff, electronic and communications systems.[2][16][17] Restigouche received a similar refit before deploying as Terra Nova's intended replacement in the Persian Gulf in 1991.[2][18][19]

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St. Laurent-class destroyer

St. Laurent-class destroyer

The St. Laurent-class destroyer was a class of destroyer escorts that served the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from the mid-1950s to the mid-1990s.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Length overall

Length overall

Length overall is the maximum length of a vessel's hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship. It is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is also used for calculating the cost of a marina berth.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

English Electric

English Electric

The English Electric Company Limited (EE) was a British industrial manufacturer formed after the armistice of World War I by amalgamating five businesses which, during the war, had been making munitions, armaments and aeroplanes.

Babcock & Wilcox

Babcock & Wilcox

Babcock & Wilcox is an American energy technology and service provider that is active and has operations in many international markets across the globe with its headquarters in Akron, Ohio, USA. Historically, the company is best known for their steam boilers.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Limbo (weapon)

Limbo (weapon)

Limbo, or Anti Submarine Mortar Mark 10, was the final development of the forward-throwing anti-submarine weapon Squid, designed during the Second World War and was developed by the Admiralty Underwater Weapons Establishment in the 1950s.

Depth charge

Depth charge

A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) weapon. It is intended to destroy a submarine by being dropped into the water nearby and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive hydraulic shock. Most depth charges use high explosive charges and a fuze set to detonate the charge, typically at a specific depth. Depth charges can be dropped by ships, patrol aircraft, and helicopters.

RUR-5 ASROC

RUR-5 ASROC

The RUR-5 ASROC is an all-weather, all sea-conditions anti-submarine missile system. Developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s, it was deployed in the 1960s, updated in the 1990s, and eventually installed on over 200 USN surface ships, specifically cruisers, destroyers, and frigates. The ASROC has been deployed on scores of warships of many other navies, including Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Republic of China, Greece, Pakistan and others.

Mark 44 torpedo

Mark 44 torpedo

The Mark 44 torpedo is a now-obsolete air-launched and ship-launched lightweight torpedo manufactured in the United States, and under licence in Canada, France, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom, with 10,500 being produced for U.S. service. It was superseded by the Mark 46 torpedo, beginning in the late 1960s. The Royal Australian Navy, however, continued to use it alongside its successor for a number of years, because the Mark 44 was thought to have superior performance in certain shallow-water conditions.

Construction and career

Terra Nova, named for river in Newfoundland and Labrador, was laid down on 14 November 1952 by Victoria Machinery Depot Co. Ltd at Victoria, British Columbia. The ship was launched on 21 June 1955 and commissioned at Victoria on 6 June 1959 with the classification DDE 259.[17][20]

Following her commissioning, Terra Nova joined the ceremonies for the opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in July 1959.[17][21] The following year, in August, with sister ships St. Croix, Kootenay and Gatineau, she took part in the 500th anniversary of Prince Henry the Navigator's death off Lisbon.[22] After work ups, the ship was assigned to the Fifth Canadian Escort Squadron.[20] In March 1961, the destroyer escort was among the ships that took part in a combined naval exercise with the United States Navy off Nova Scotia.[23]

In March 1965, Terra Nova and Gatineau participated in the search for a Royal Canadian Air Force Canadair CP-107 Argus that had disappeared 60 miles (97 km) north of San Juan, Puerto Rico.[24] In May, the ship began her IRE refit. As the first to undergo the conversion, Terra Nova tested the new SQS-505 sonar for several months before the refit was considered completed.[17] In all the conversion took ten months to complete. However Terra Nova's sea trials delayed the conversion program by four years.[8] During this period, the ship first transferred from to the Third Canadian Escort Squadron in January 1966,[25] before being transferred to the west coast as part of the re-ordering of naval forces following the Unification of the Canadian Armed Forces in 1968. She was one of four Restigouche-class vessels that were transferred to the west coast, to replace the Mackenzie-class destroyers in the Second Canadian Escort Squadron.[26] The ship returned to duty on 4 May 1971 at Esquimalt, British Columbia.[17] From 29 January to 26 June 1973, Kootenay and Terra Nova were deployed off the coast of Vietnam as part of the Canadian contribution to the International Commission of Control and Supervision following the end of the Vietnam War.[26]

In November 1981, cracks were found in the superheater headers of Ottawa. Inspections were ordered for the Restigouche-class vessels, of which Terra Nova was found to have similar issues. The ship was repaired and back in service within six months.[27] In May 1983, the ship made a four-day visit to China on behalf of the Department of External Affairs.[21] Terra Nova was taken in hand on 21 November 1983 for her DELEX refit, performed at Esquimalt. She returned to service on 9 November 1984.[17]

Terra Nova during a port visit to Norfolk, Virginia in 1995 alongside the US aircraft carrier Enterprise.
Terra Nova during a port visit to Norfolk, Virginia in 1995 alongside the US aircraft carrier Enterprise.

On 12 December 1989, Terra Nova transferred to the east coast in exchange for Annapolis as part of the reorganization of the fleet.[17][28] Due to a shortage of Iroquois-class destroyers, Terra Nova was selected for deployment as part of Canada's contribution to Operation Desert Shield. She received a Gulf War refit before deploying and sailed for the Persian Gulf with the destroyer Athabaskan and the replenishment ship Preserver on 24 August 1990. They arrived in theatre on 27 September and Terra Nova performed her first patrol on 1 October.[29] Terra Nova returned to Halifax on 7 April 1991.[17] The Task Group was assigned to the international coalition maritime interdiction force in the central Persian Gulf which consisted of a variety of coalition naval forces on station through the fall of 1990. After Operation Desert Storm began in January, the Canadian Naval Task Group undertook escort duties for hospital ships and other coalition naval vessels.

In October 1992, Terra Nova began a refit at Port Weller Dry Dock in St. Catharines, Ontario, reentering service in 1993.[21] On 22 February 1994, Terra Nova boarded the private vessel MV Pacifico, seizing 5.9 tonnes (5.8 long tons; 6.5 short tons) of cocaine. That same year, Terra Nova was part of the blockade enforcing United Nations resolutions on Haiti from 28 April to 18 July, rescuing two boatloads of refugees during this tour.[17][21] She returned to blockade duty from 7 September to 19 October.[21]

On 11 July 1997, the ship was taken out of active service and on 1 July 1998, paid off on 1 July 1998.[17] The ship was sold in October 2009, along with Gatineau for $4,258,529 to Aecon Fabco for scrapping.[30][31] The ships were towed to Pictou, Nova Scotia in mid-November 2009 for breaking up.[31] During the scrapping process, Terra Nova sank at her moorings. The hulk was later raised by crane.[32]

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic region. The province comprises the island of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador, having a total size of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2021, the population of Newfoundland and Labrador was estimated to be 521,758. The island of Newfoundland is home to around 94 per cent of the province's population, with more than half residing in the Avalon Peninsula. Labrador borders the province of Quebec, and the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon lies about 20 km west of the Burin Peninsula.

Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

Hull classification symbol (Canada)

Hull classification symbol (Canada)

The Royal Canadian Navy uses hull classification symbols to identify the types of its ships, which are similar to the United States Navy's hull classification symbol system. The Royal Navy and some European and Commonwealth navies use a somewhat analogous system of pennant numbers.

HMCS St. Croix (DDE 256)

HMCS St. Croix (DDE 256)

HMCS St. Croix was a Restigouche-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from 1958 to 1974. The fourth ship commissioned in the class, she was the second ship to bear the name. Following her decommissioning, the ship was used as a training ship at Halifax, Nova Scotia until 1991, when St. Croix was sold for scrapping.

HMCS Kootenay (DDE 258)

HMCS Kootenay (DDE 258)

HMCS Kootenay was a Restigouche-class destroyer escort that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and Canadian Forces from 1959 until 1996. She was the fifth ship in her class and the second vessel to carry the designation HMCS Kootenay. The ship suffered two serious incidents in her career: a 1969 explosion and ensuing fire that killed nine, and a 1989 collision that required the complete replacement of her bow. Following her service, the ship was sunk as an artificial reef.

HMCS Gatineau (DDE 236)

HMCS Gatineau (DDE 236)

HMCS Gatineau was a Restigouche-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces during the Cold War from 1959 to 1996. She was the third ship in her class and the second vessel to carry the designation HMCS Gatineau. She was sold for scrapping in 2009.

Prince Henry the Navigator

Prince Henry the Navigator

Dom Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu, better known as Prince Henry the Navigator, was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion. Through his administrative direction, he is regarded as the main initiator of what would be known as the Age of Discovery. Henry was the fourth child of King Dom John I of Portugal, who founded the House of Aviz.

Lisbon

Lisbon

Lisbon is the capital and largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live in the Lisbon metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the Iberian Peninsula, after Madrid and Barcelona. It represents approximately 27% of the country's population. It is mainland Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean and the River Tagus. The westernmost portions of its metro area, the Portuguese Riviera, form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, culminating at Cabo da Roca.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland".

Royal Canadian Air Force

Royal Canadian Air Force

The Royal Canadian Air Force is the air and space force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant, responsive and effective airpower". The RCAF is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2020, the Royal Canadian Air Force consists of 12,074 Regular Force and 1,969 Primary Reserve personnel, supported by 1,518 civilians, and operates 258 manned aircraft and nine unmanned aerial vehicles. Lieutenant-General Eric Kenny is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force and chief of the Air Force Staff.

Canadair CP-107 Argus

Canadair CP-107 Argus

The Canadair CP-107 Argus is a maritime patrol aircraft designed and manufactured by Canadair for the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). In its early years, the Argus was reputedly the finest anti-submarine patrol bomber in the world. The Argus served throughout the Cold War in the RCAF's Maritime Air Command and later the Canadian Force's Maritime Air Group and Air Command.

San Juan, Puerto Rico

San Juan, Puerto Rico

San Juan is the capital city and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2020 census, it is the 57th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, with a population of 342,259. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico.

Source: "HMCS Terra Nova", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Terra_Nova.

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References

Notes

  1. ^ Calibre denotes the length of the barrel. In this case, 50 calibre means that the gun barrel is 50 times as long as it is in diameter

Citations

  1. ^ a b Arbuckle, p. 120
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Gardiner and Chumbley, p. 45
  3. ^ a b Milner, p. 248
  4. ^ a b c Macpherson and Barrie (2002), p. 251
  5. ^ a b Gardiner and Chumbly, p. 46
  6. ^ a b Boutiller, p. 323
  7. ^ Milner, p. 225
  8. ^ a b Milner, p. 259
  9. ^ Milner, p. 265
  10. ^ "United States of America ASROC RUR-5A and VLA". navweaps.com. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  11. ^ "United States of America Torpedoes since World War II". navweaps.com. 28 December 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  12. ^ Milner, p. 277
  13. ^ German, p. 317
  14. ^ a b Milner, p. 278
  15. ^ Macpherson and Barrie (2002), pp. 251–255
  16. ^ a b Milner, p. 296
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Macpherson and Barrie (2002), p. 255
  18. ^ Milner, p. 300
  19. ^ Macpherson and Barrie (2002), p. 254
  20. ^ a b "Navy's First 'Terra Nova'". Montreal Gazette. 1 June 1959. p. 31. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  21. ^ a b c d e Barrie and Macpherson (1996), pp. 49–51
  22. ^ "RCN Ships at Review in Portugal". Ottawa Citizen. 13 August 1960. p. 20. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  23. ^ "A/S Exercise Off Nova Scotia". The Crowsnest. Vol. 13, no. 6. Queen's Printer. April 1961. p. 2.
  24. ^ "Four Feared Lost When Canadian Air Force Craft Crashes". Ocala Star-Banner. 24 March 1965. p. 2. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  25. ^ "Canada's fleet has 31 ships". The Saturday Citizen. 6 June 1968. p. 19. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  26. ^ a b Zimmerman, p. 162
  27. ^ Barrie and Macpherson (1996), p. 13
  28. ^ Gimblett, p. 179
  29. ^ Milner, p. 297
  30. ^ Lambie, Chris (4 November 2009). "That's a lot of scrap metal". Chronicle Herald. Archived from the original on 7 November 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  31. ^ a b "Piece by piece: shipyard slowly dismantling two destroyers". The News. 23 July 2010. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  32. ^ "Crane raising sunken decomissioned [sic] ship". The News. 18 April 2011. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.

Sources

  • Arbuckle, J. Graeme (1987). Badges of the Canadian Navy. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 0-920852-49-1.
  • Barrie, Ron; Macpherson, Ken (1996). Cadillac of Destroyers: HMCS St. Laurent and Her Successors. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-036-5.
  • Boutiller, James A., ed. (1982). RCN in Retrospect, 1910–1968. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0196-4.
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chumbley, Stephen; Budzbon, Przemysław, eds. (1995). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-132-7.
  • German, Tony (1990). The Sea is at our Gates: The History of the Canadian Navy. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Incorporated. ISBN 0-7710-3269-2.
  • Gimblett, Richard H., ed. (2009). The Naval Service of Canada 1910–2010: The Centennial Story. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-4597-1322-2.
  • Macpherson, Ken; Barrie, Ron (2002). The Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002 (Third ed.). St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 1-55125-072-1.
  • Milner, Marc (2010). Canada's Navy: The First Century (Second ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9604-3.
  • Zimmerman, David (2015). Maritime Command Pacific: The Royal Canadian Navy's West Coast Fleet in the Early Cold War. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-3037-9.
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