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HMCS Nipigon (DDH 266)

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HMCS Nipigon (DDH 266) underway on 1 September 1985 (6409100).jpg
HMCS Nipigon underway during NATO Exercise Ocean Safari '85.
History
Canada
NameNipigon
NamesakeNipigon River, Ontario
Ordered1958
BuilderMarine Industries Ltd., Sorel
Laid down5 August 1960
Launched10 December 1961
Commissioned30 May 1964
Decommissioned2 July 1998
Refit22 August 1984 (DELEX)
Motto"We are one"[1]
Honours and
awards
Atlantic 1940–45,[1] Gulf of St. Lawrence 1942, 1944.
FateSunk for an artificial reef north-east of Rimouski, Quebec in 2003.
BadgeGules, in a base a bar fesswise wavy argent charged with a like barrulet azure, out of which leaping two trout or, one to the dexter chief the other to the sinister chief.[1]
General characteristics
Class and type Annapolis-class destroyer
Displacement3,420 long tons (3,474.9 t) full load
Length366 ft (111.6 m)
Beam42 ft (12.8 m)
Draught23.5 ft (7.2 m)
Propulsion
  • 2-shaft English-Electric geared steam turbines
  • 2 Babcock & Wilcox boilers
  • 30,000 shp (22,000 kW)
Speed28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph)
Complement228
Sensors and
processing systems
  • Original:
  • 1 × SPS-12 air search radar
  • 1 × SPS-10B surface search radar
  • 1 × Sperry Mk.2 navigation radar
  • 1 × URN 20 TACAN radar
  • 1 × SQS-501 high frequency bottom profiler sonar
  • 1 × SQS-502 high frequency mortar control sonar
  • 1 × SQS-503 hull mounted active search sonar
  • 1 x SQS-11B hull mounted active scanning sonar
  • 1 × SQS-504 VDS medium frequency active search sonar
  • 1 × UQC-1B "Gertrude" underwater telephone
  • 1 × Mk 64 GFCS fire control with SPG-48 tracker (GUNAR)
  • DELEX:
  • 1 × Marconi SPS-503 air search radar
  • 1 × Raytheon/Sylvania SPS-502 surface search radar
  • 1 × Sperry Mk.127E navigation radar
  • 1 × URN 25 TACAN radar
  • 1 × SQS-510 hull mounted active search sonar
  • 1 × SQR-19(V) ETASS towed array sonar
  • 1 × UQC-1B "Gertrude" underwater telephone
  • 1 × Mk 64 GFCS fire control with SPG-515 tracker
Electronic warfare
& decoys
  • Original:
  • 1 × ULQ-6 jammer
  • 1 × WLR-1C radar analyzer
  • 1 × UPD-501 radar detector
  • 1 × SRD-501 HF/DF
  • DELEX:
  • 1 × SLQ-501 intercept (CANEWS)
  • 1 × ULQ-6 jammer
  • 1 × SRD-501 HF/DF
Armament
  • Original:
  • 1 × FMC 3-inch/50 Mk.33 twin
  • 1 × Mk. NC 10 Limbo ASW mortar
  • 1 × Mk.4 thrower with homing torpedoes
  • DELEX:
  • 1 × FMC 3-inch/50 Mk.33 twin
  • 2 × triple Mk.32 12.75-inch torpedo tubes firing Mk.44 or Mk.46 Mod 5 torpedoes
Aircraft carried1 CH-124 Sea King ASW helicopter
Aviation facilitiesMidships helicopter deck and hangar with Beartrap.

HMCS Nipigon was an Annapolis-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces. She was the second Canadian naval unit to carry this name. Entering service in 1964, she was named for the Nipigon River that flows through Ontario.

Nipigon served throughout the Cold War on the Atlantic coast of Canada. She was paid off in 1998 and sold for use as an artificial reef off the coast of Quebec.

Discover more about HMCS Nipigon (DDH 266) related topics

Annapolis-class destroyer

Annapolis-class destroyer

The Annapolis-class destroyer escort was a two-ship class of destroyer escorts that saw service with the Royal Canadian Navy and Canadian Forces from the 1960s to the 1990s. The final version of the St. Laurent-class design, the class was used extensively for anti-submarine warfare purposes. Both ships were sunk as artificial reefs after being retired, one on each coast of Canada.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

Nipigon River

Nipigon River

The Nipigon River is located in Thunder Bay District in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. The river is about 48 km (30 mi) long and 50 to 200 m wide, and flows from Lake Nipigon to Nipigon Bay on Lake Superior at the community of Red Rock, dropping from an elevation of 260 to 183 m. It is the largest tributary of Lake Superior.

Ontario

Ontario

Ontario is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. Located in Central Canada, it is Canada's most populous province, with 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province by total area. Ontario is Canada's fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto, which is Ontario's provincial capital.

Cold War

Cold War

The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported opposing sides in major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

Artificial reef

Artificial reef

An artificial reef is a human-created underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, to control erosion, block ship passage, block the use of trawling nets, or improve surfing.

Quebec

Quebec

Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is the largest province by area and the second-largest by population. Much of the population lives in urban areas along the St. Lawrence River, between the most populous city, Montreal, and the provincial capital, Quebec City. Quebec is the home of the Québécois nation. Located in Central Canada, the province shares land borders with Ontario to the west, Newfoundland and Labrador to the northeast, New Brunswick to the southeast, and a coastal border with Nunavut; in the south it borders Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York in the United States.

Design and description

The Royal Canadian Navy had intended to place a six ship order under the Mackenzie class of destroyer escorts; however, during the design phase, the last two vessels ordered were altered to the St. Laurent-class DDH design and were classed under the new Annapolis designation.[2]

The ships measured 366 feet (112 m) in length, with a beam of 42 feet (13 m) and a draught of 13 feet 2 inches (4.01 m).[3][note 1] Initially, the ships displaced 2,400 tonnes (2,400 long tons)[4][note 2] and had a complement of 228.[5][note 3]

The ships were powered by two Babcock & Wilcox boilers connected to the two-shaft English-Electric geared steam turbines providing 30,000 shaft horsepower (22,000 kW).[3] This gave the ships a maximum speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph).[4]

The ships were initially armed with two 3-inch (76 mm)/50 caliber[note 4] dual-purpose guns mounted in a single turret forward. The extra topweight of the helicopter required the return of the American Mk 33 3-inch gun over the heavier 3-inch/70 caliber guns used on the preceding class.[5] The guns could fire 45 – 50 rounds per minute with a lifespan of 2,050 rounds.[6] The guns were placed in a Mk 33 mount. The mounting allowed the guns to elevate from −15° to 85°. The elevation rate was 30° per second and train rate was 24° per second. The mounts could train 360°.[6]

For anti-submarine warfare, the ships were armed with a Mk 10 Limbo mortar.[5] The Limbo was a British-designed three-barrel mortar capable of launching a projectile shell between 400–1,000 yards (370–910 m). Placed on stabilized mountings, the projectiles always entered the water at the same angle. The total weight of the shell was 390 pounds (180 kg).[7] They also had a Mk.4 thrower with homing torpedoes.[4]

Initially the ships were outfitted with one SPS-12 air search radar, one SPS-10B surface search radar, and one Sperry Mk.2 navigation radar.[5] For sensing below the surface, the class was given one SQS-501 high frequency bottom profiler sonar, one SQS-502 high frequency mortar control sonar, one SQS-503 hull mounted active search sonar and one SQS-504 VDS medium frequency active search sonar.[5] For fire control purposes they were given one Mk 64 GFCS fire control with SPG-48 tracker (GUNAR).

Close-up of the hangar bay
Close-up of the hangar bay

The two Annapolis-class destroyers were built late enough to incorporate the helicopter hangar retrofitted to the St. Laurent class and the "Beartrap" haul-down device.[4] This allowed the destroyer escorts to deploy with one CH-124 Sea King helicopter.[4]

DELEX refit

The DEstroyer Life EXtension (DELEX) refit was born out of the need to extend the life of the steam-powered destroyer escorts of the Canadian Navy in the 1980s until the next generation of surface ship was built. Encompassing all the classes based on the initial St. Laurent (the remaining St. Laurent, Restigouche, Mackenzie, and Annapolis-class vessels), the DELEX upgrades were meant to improve their ability to combat modern Soviet submarines,[8] and to allow them to continue to operate as part of NATO task forces.[9]

The Annapolis class received the same sensor and communications upgrades that others in the St Laurent family of ships received, including the installation of a new tactical data system (ADLIPS), updated radars and sonars, fire control and satellite navigation. They also received the new Canadian Tactical Towed Array Sensor or CANTASS which was a long-range towed sonar array that was affixed to the stern,[10] which replaced the older VDS.[4] The class also received a new lattice mast.[10]

They were given 12.75-inch (324 mm) torpedo tubes to allow them to fire Mark 46 torpedoes. However, the Limbo mortar was removed in order to install the CANTASS. This visibly altered the overall appearance of the ships.[4]

Discover more about Design and description related topics

Mackenzie-class destroyer

Mackenzie-class destroyer

The Mackenzie-class destroyer was a class of warship used by the Royal Canadian Navy and Canadian Forces from the 1960s–1990s. Six such ships were envisioned, of which four were completed to this specification. The last two hulls were completed to the post DDH conversion St. Laurent-class design ; they were designated as the Annapolis class instead. The four Mackenzie-class destroyers spent most of their service in the Pacific Ocean, used primarily in a training role. Their only significant update was the DELEX program, which was completed between 1982 and 1985 and updated their navigational radar and their sonar.

St. Laurent-class destroyer

St. Laurent-class destroyer

The St. Laurent-class destroyer was a class of destroyer escorts that served the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from the mid-1950s to the mid-1990s.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Steam turbine

Steam turbine

A steam turbine is a machine that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Charles Parsons in 1884. Fabrication of a modern steam turbine involves advanced metalwork to form high-grade steel alloys into precision parts using technologies that first became available in the 20th century; continued advances in durability and efficiency of steam turbines remains central to the energy economics of the 21st century.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Gun turret

Gun turret

A gun turret is a mounting platform from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility and ability to turn and aim. A modern gun turret is generally a rotatable weapon mount that houses the crew or mechanism of a projectile-firing weapon and at the same time lets the weapon be aimed and fired in some degree of azimuth and elevation.

Limbo (weapon)

Limbo (weapon)

Limbo, or Anti Submarine Mortar Mark 10, was the final development of the forward-throwing anti-submarine weapon Squid, designed during the Second World War and was developed by the Admiralty Underwater Weapons Establishment in the 1950s.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands within the British Isles. Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland; otherwise, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242,495 square kilometres (93,628 sq mi), with an estimated 2020 population of more than 67 million people.

Restigouche-class destroyer

Restigouche-class destroyer

The Restigouche-class destroyer was a class of seven destroyer escorts that served the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from the late-1950s to the late-1990s. All seven vessels in the class were named after rivers in Canada.

NATO

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American. Established in the aftermath of World War II, the organization implemented the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949. NATO is a collective security system: its independent member states agree to defend each other against attacks by third parties. During the Cold War, NATO operated as a check on the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union. The alliance remained in place after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and has been involved in military operations in the Balkans, the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa. The organization's motto is animus in consulendo liber.

Torpedo tube

Torpedo tube

A torpedo tube is a cylindrical device for launching torpedoes.

Mark 46 torpedo

Mark 46 torpedo

The Mark 46 torpedo is the backbone of the United States Navy's lightweight anti-submarine warfare torpedo inventory and is the NATO standard. These aerial torpedoes are designed to attack high-performance submarines. In 1989, an improvement program for the Mod 5 to the Mod 5A and Mod 5A(S) increased its shallow-water performance. The Mark 46 was initially developed as Research Torpedo Concept I, one of several weapons recommended for implementation by Project Nobska, a 1956 summer study on submarine warfare.

Construction and career

HMCS Nipigon docked at Montreal, Quebec in 1992
HMCS Nipigon docked at Montreal, Quebec in 1992

Nipigon was ordered in 1958, initially as a repeat Restigouche-class vessel. However, in 1959, the last two repeat Restigouches were altered to incorporate variable depth sonar and a helicopter landing area and became a separate class.[11] The ship was laid down on 5 August 1960 by Marine Industries Ltd. at Sorel and launched on 10 December 1961.[12] Her construction was overseen by Cdr Donald Clark CD, who also oversaw the laying-down and commencement of HMCS Bras d'Or. She was commissioned into the Royal Canadian Navy on 30 May 1964 with classification number 266[12] and with the wife of the then Governor-General Georges Vanier, Madame Pauline Vanier, as her sponsor. She was actually the first vessel to commission in the class.[13] In 1964, the ship escorted the royal yacht HMY Britannia on its tour of Canada.[14]

On 18 October 1965, a fire broke out in the fuel-handling room, killing one and seriously injuring others. Eight crew members were evacuated to HMCS Bonaventure.[15]

Nipigon awaiting her fate in Rimouski harbour, summer 2003
Nipigon awaiting her fate in Rimouski harbour, summer 2003

Nipigon served most of her career with the RCN and later Canadian Forces' Atlantic Fleet. During her service with Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT), she was primarily used as a training ship. After the discovery of cracks in the boilers of HMCS Ottawa, all the Annapolis-class destroyers were temporarily taken out of service for an inspection in 1981.[16] However, no cracks were discovered in Nipigon.[17] In 1982, Nipigon was tasked with searching for and recovering any survivors from Ocean Ranger, a semi-submersible oil platform that had sunk in heavy seas.[18] Nipigon's DELEX refit was performed by Davie Shipbuilding at Lauzon, taking place from 27 June 1983 to 22 August 1984[12] and cost $16 million.[19]

On 28 April 1985, the warship shelled and sank the fishing trawler Lady Marjorie after it had been abandoned by its crew and became a hazard to navigation. Initially the decision was questioned, but Nipigon was later cleared by a Canadian Coast Guard report.[20] In June 1985, Nipigon, while participating in naval exercises, suffered structural damage after a 15-metre (49 ft)[21] stress crack sheared 215 rivets in the vessel's superstructure.[19] The problem was not resolved until 1986.[12] On 27 February 1987, her CH-124 helicopter rescued crewmen from the tug Gulf Gale which had caught fire off Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. The ship became the second to have a mixed-gender crew in the Canadian Forces in September 1987.[15]

Nipigon underwent another refit, this time at Port Weller, Ontario beginning on 30 August 1988 and lasting to 16 February 1990. In August 1991, the destroyer was deployed to STANAVFORLANT, the standing NATO fleet. In May 1993, Nipigon took part in commemorative events remembering the Battle of the Atlantic in Liverpool and off the Welsh coast. In 1995, Nipigon was deployed into the Atlantic as a guard ship during the Turbot War.[12] In June 1995, the destroyer intercepted the Spanish fishing vessel Patricia Nores, and boarded her just outside Canada's exclusive economic zone. Eleven tonnes of unrecorded turbot catch was found aboard Patricia Nores in a secret compartment.[22]

She was decommissioned from the Canadian Forces on 2 July 1998[12] and sold for use as an artificial reef. She was sunk in the St. Lawrence River north-east of Rimouski, Quebec on 22 July 2003.[23]

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Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

HMCS Bras d'Or (FHE 400)

HMCS Bras d'Or (FHE 400)

HMCS Bras d'Or was a hydrofoil that served in the Canadian Forces from 1968 to 1971. During sea trials in 1969, the vessel exceeded 63 knots, making her the fastest unarmed warship in the world at the time.

Hull classification symbol (Canada)

Hull classification symbol (Canada)

The Royal Canadian Navy uses hull classification symbols to identify the types of its ships, which are similar to the United States Navy's hull classification symbol system. The Royal Navy and some European and Commonwealth navies use a somewhat analogous system of pennant numbers.

Georges Vanier

Georges Vanier

Georges-Philias Vanier was a Canadian military officer and diplomat who served as governor general of Canada, the first Quebecer and second Canadian-born person to hold the position.

HMY Britannia

HMY Britannia

Her Majesty's Yacht Britannia, also known as the Royal Yacht Britannia, is the former royal yacht of the British monarchy. She was in service from 1954 until 1997. She was the 83rd such vessel since King Charles II acceded to the throne in 1660, and is the second royal yacht to bear the name, the first being the racing cutter built for the Prince of Wales in 1893. During her 43-year career, the yacht travelled more than a million nautical miles around the world to more than 600 ports in 135 countries. Now retired from royal service, Britannia is permanently berthed at Ocean Terminal, Leith in Edinburgh, Scotland, where it is a visitor attraction with over 300,000 visits each year.

Rimouski

Rimouski

Rimouski is a city in Quebec, Canada. Rimouski is located in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region, at the mouth of the Rimouski River. It has a population of 48,935. Rimouski is the site of Université du Québec à Rimouski (UQAR), the Cégep de Rimouski and the Music Conservatory. It is also the home of some ocean sciences research centres.

Maritime Forces Atlantic

Maritime Forces Atlantic

In the Canadian Forces, Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT) is responsible for the fleet training and operational readiness of the Royal Canadian Navy in the Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean. It was once referred to as Canadian Atlantic Station.

HMCS Ottawa (DDH 229)

HMCS Ottawa (DDH 229)

HMCS Ottawa was a St. Laurent-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from 1956 to 1992. Ottawa was the first bilingual ship to serve in the Canadian navy.

Ocean Ranger

Ocean Ranger

Ocean Ranger was a semi-submersible mobile offshore drilling unit that sank in Canadian waters on 15 February 1982. It was drilling an exploration well on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, 267 kilometres (166 mi) east of St. John's, Newfoundland, for Mobil Oil of Canada, Ltd. (MOCAN) with 84 crew members on board when it sank. There were no survivors.

Davie Shipbuilding

Davie Shipbuilding

Davie Shipbuilding is a historic shipbuilding company located in Lauzon, Quebec, Canada. The facility is now operating as Chantier Davie Canada Inc. and is the oldest continually operating shipbuilder in North America.

Lauzon, Quebec

Lauzon, Quebec

Lauzon is a former city in southern Quebec, Canada, located on the St. Lawrence River northeast of Lévis. Founded in 1867 as a village it became a town in 1910, Lauzon had a population of about 14,500 when it merged with Lévis in 1989. The then-amalgamated city had the name of Lévis-Lauzon for about one year in 1991, before merging again and changing its name for good to Lévis.

Canadian Coast Guard

Canadian Coast Guard

The Canadian Coast Guard is the coast guard of Canada. Formed in 1962, the coast guard is tasked with marine search and rescue (SAR), communication, navigation, and transportation issues in Canadian waters, such as navigation aids and icebreaking, marine pollution response, and support for other Canadian government initiatives. The coast guard operates 119 vessels of varying sizes and 23 helicopters, along with a variety of smaller craft. The CCG is headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, and is a special operating agency within Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Source: "HMCS Nipigon (DDH 266)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Nipigon_(DDH_266).

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References

Notes

  1. ^ Macpherson and Barrie have the ships at 371 feet long, and a draught of 13 feet 8 inches.
  2. ^ Macpherson and Barrie states that the displacement was 2,400 tons, while Conway's claims it was the same as the St. Laurent class, which was 2,000 tons.
  3. ^ Macpherson and Barrie have the complement at 246. (12 officers and 234 enlisted)
  4. ^ Caliber denotes the length of the barrel. In this case, 50 caliber means that the gun barrel is 50 times as long as it is in diameter

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Arbuckle, p. 75
  2. ^ Hadley, p. 141
  3. ^ a b Gardiner and Chumbley, p. 44
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Macpherson and Barrie (2002), p. 260
  5. ^ a b c d e Gardiner and Chumbley, p. 46
  6. ^ a b "United States of America 3"/50 (7.62 cm) 3"/50 (7.62 cm) Marks 27, 33 and 34". navweaps.com. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  7. ^ "Britain ASW Weapons". navweaps.com. 30 May 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  8. ^ Milner, pp. 277–278
  9. ^ Gimblett, p. 179
  10. ^ a b Milner, p. 278
  11. ^ Milner, pp. 224–225
  12. ^ a b c d e f Macpherson and Barrie (2002), p. 261
  13. ^ "Vanier to commission Nipigon". Montreal Gazette. 6 May 1964. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  14. ^ "Rendezvous". Montreal Gazette. Canadian Press. 13 October 1964. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  15. ^ a b Barrie and Macpherson (1996), p. 63
  16. ^ "Boiler cracks drydock ships leaving only four destroyers". Ottawa Citizen. 7 November 1981. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  17. ^ Barrie and Macpherson (1996), p. 13
  18. ^ "Coast Guard recovers two more bodies". The Bulletin. 21 February 1982. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  19. ^ a b "Aging warship cracks despite refit". Ottawa Citizen. 5 June 1985. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  20. ^ "Shelled trawler unsafe: report". Ottawa Citizen. 10 October 1985. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  21. ^ Beltrame, Julian (29 June 1985). "Our tinpot navy is a laughingstock". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  22. ^ Harris, p. 1880
  23. ^ Hanes, Allison (23 July 2003). "Warship on Last Mission". Montreal Gazette.

Sources

  • Arbuckle, J. Graeme (1987). Badges of the Canadian Navy. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 0-920852-49-1.
  • Barrie, Ron; Macpherson, Ken (1996). Cadillac of Destroyers: HMCS St. Laurent and Her Successors. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-036-5.
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chumbley, Stephen; Budzbon, Przemysław, eds. (1995). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-132-7.
  • Gimblett, Richard H., ed. (2009). The Naval Service of Canada 1910–2010: The Centennial Story. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-4597-1322-2.
  • Hadley, Michael L.; Huebert, Rob; Crickard, Fred W., eds. (1992). A Nation's Navy: In Quest of Canadian Naval Identity. Montreal, Quebec and Kingston, Ontario: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-1506-2.
  • Harris, Michael (1999). Lament for an Ocean: The Collapse of the Atlantic Cod Fishery: A True Crime Story. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-1-55199-476-5.
  • Macpherson, Ken; Barrie, Ron (2002). The Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002 (Third ed.). St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-072-1.
  • Milner, Marc (2010). Canada's Navy: The First Century (Second ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9604-3.
External links

Coordinates: 48°36′28.8″N 68°25′42.2″W / 48.608000°N 68.428389°W / 48.608000; -68.428389

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