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HMCS Lynx

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History
Name
  • Dolphin (1922–1929)
  • Ramona (1929–1940)
Owner
  • Mortimer L. Schiff (1922–1929)
  • Guernsey Curran (1929)
  • John W. Hubbard (1929–1940)
Port of registryUnited States New York
BuilderNewport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia
Yard number263
CompletedJune 1922
Out of service1940
FateAcquired by Royal Canadian Navy in 1940
Canada
NameLynx
Namesakelynx
Commissioned26 August 1940
Decommissioned23 April 1943
FateSold 1943
Name
  • Elena (1943–1951)
  • Samana Queen (1951)
  • Rican Star (1952–1960)
In service1943
Out of service1960
FateSank off Hummocky Island, Queensland on 25 May 1960
General characteristics in naval service
TypeArmed yacht
Displacement495 long tons (503 t)
Length181 ft (55.2 m)
Beam24 ft (7.3 m)
Draught9 ft (2.7 m)
PropulsionDiesel engine, 2 propellers
Speed10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)
Complement40
Sensors and
processing systems
Asdic
Armament

HMCS Lynx was an armed yacht in service with the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) during World War II. The vessel was built at Newport News Shipbuilding as the yacht Dolphin in 1922. The yacht was sold in 1929, becoming Ramona. In 1940, the RCN acquired the vessel as part of the effort to bolster its patrol forces, armed and renamed the vessel Lynx. However, the vessel suffered a series of mechanical issues and was taken out of service in 1943 and sold for commercial service. Renamed Elena and then Samana Queen the ship was used in the banana boat trade, taking on its final name Rican Star in 1952. The vessel was converted to a fishing trawler in 1959 before sinking on 25 May 1960 off Hummocky Island, Queensland.

Discover more about HMCS Lynx related topics

Armed yacht

Armed yacht

An armed yacht was a yacht that was armed with weapons and was typically in the service of a navy. The word "yacht" was originally applied to small, fast and agile naval vessels suited to piracy and to employment by navies and coast guards against smugglers and pirates. Vessels of this type were adapted to racing by wealthy owners. The origin of civilian yachts as naval vessels, with their speed and maneuverability, made them useful for adaptation to their original function as patrol vessels. In the United States Navy armed yachts were typically private yachts expropriated for government use in times of war. Armed yachts served as patrol vessels during the Spanish–American War and the World Wars. In the latter conflicts, armed yachts were used as patrol vessels, convoy escorts, and in anti-submarine duties. In the United States, yachts were purchased from their owners with the owners given an option to repurchase their yacht at the close of hostilities.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries, including all of the great powers, fought as part of two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. Many participants threw their economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind this total war, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. Aircraft played a major role, enabling the strategic bombing of population centres and the only two nuclear weapons ever used in war.

Newport News Shipbuilding

Newport News Shipbuilding

Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries, is the largest industrial employer in Virginia, and sole designer, builder and refueler of United States Navy aircraft carriers and one of two providers of U.S. Navy submarines. Founded as the Chesapeake Dry Dock and Construction Co. in 1886, Newport News Shipbuilding has built more than 800 ships, including both naval and commercial ships. Located in the city of Newport News, its facilities span more than 550 acres (2.2 km2), strategically positioned in one of the great harbors of the East Coast.

Yacht

Yacht

A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, though the term generally applies to vessels with a cabin intended for overnight use. To be termed a yacht, as opposed to a boat, such a pleasure vessel is likely to be at least 33 feet (10 m) in length and may have been judged to have good aesthetic qualities.

Banana boat (ship)

Banana boat (ship)

Banana boat is a descriptive nickname that was given to fast ships, also called banana carriers, engaged in the banana trade. They were designed to transport easily spoiled bananas rapidly from tropical growing areas to North America and Europe. They often carried passengers as well as fruit.

Fishing trawler

Fishing trawler

A fishing trawler is a commercial fishing vessel designed to operate fishing trawls. Trawling is a method of fishing that involves actively dragging or pulling a trawl through the water behind one or more trawlers. Trawls are fishing nets that are pulled along the bottom of the sea or in midwater at a specified depth. A trawler may also operate two or more trawl nets simultaneously.

Description

Built as a yacht, the vessel measured 495 gross register tons (GRT), 169 feet 0 inches (51.5 m) long between perpendiculars with a beam of 23 feet 11 inches (7.3 m). The vessel was powered by a diesel engine driving two propellers.[1]

In naval service Lynx had a displacement of 495 long tons (503 t) with a length of 181 ft (55.2 m), a beam of 24 ft (7.3 m) and a draught of 9 ft (2.7 m). Using the same propulsion unit, the vessel had a maximum speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) and a complement of 5 officers and 35 ratings. The ship was armed with one 4-inch (102 mm) gun.[2] Lynx was given 15 depth charges, depth charge rails and throwers, asdic and a Lewis machine gun.[3]

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Yacht

Yacht

A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, though the term generally applies to vessels with a cabin intended for overnight use. To be termed a yacht, as opposed to a boat, such a pleasure vessel is likely to be at least 33 feet (10 m) in length and may have been judged to have good aesthetic qualities.

Gross register tonnage

Gross register tonnage

Gross register tonnage or gross registered tonnage, is a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", each of which is equal to 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3). Replaced by Gross Tonnage (GT), gross register tonnage uses the total permanently enclosed capacity of the vessel as its basis for volume. Typically this is used for dockage fees, canal transit fees, and similar purposes where it is appropriate to charge based on the size of the entire vessel. Internationally, GRT may be abbreviated as BRT for the German "Bruttoregistertonne".

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars is the length of a ship along the summer load line from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. When there is no sternpost, the centerline axis of the rudder stock is used as the aft end of the length between perpendiculars.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Diesel engine

Diesel engine

The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression; thus, the diesel engine is called a compression-ignition engine. This contrasts with engines using spark plug-ignition of the air-fuel mixture, such as a petrol engine or a gas engine.

Propeller

Propeller

A propeller is a device with a rotating hub and radiating blades that are set at a pitch to form a helical spiral which, when rotated, exerts linear thrust upon a working fluid such as water or air. Propellers are used to pump fluid through a pipe or duct, or to create thrust to propel a boat through water or an aircraft through air. The blades are shaped so that their rotational motion through the fluid causes a pressure difference between the two surfaces of the blade by Bernoulli's principle which exerts force on the fluid. Most marine propellers are screw propellers with helical blades rotating on a propeller shaft with an approximately horizontal axis.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Ship's company

Ship's company

A ship's company comprises all officers, non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel aboard a naval vessel. The size of the ship's company is the number of people on board, excluding civilians and guests.

Naval rating

Naval rating

In a navy, a rate, rating or bluejacket is a junior enlisted sailor who is not a warrant officer or commissioned officer. Depending on the country and navy that uses it, the exact term and the range of ranks that it refers to may vary.

Depth charge

Depth charge

A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) weapon. It is intended to destroy a submarine by being dropped into the water nearby and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive hydraulic shock. Most depth charges use high explosive charges and a fuze set to detonate the charge, typically at a specific depth. Depth charges can be dropped by ships, patrol aircraft, and helicopters.

Service history

The yacht was constructed by Newport News Shipbuilding at their yard in Newport News, Virginia, United States with the yard number 263. Given the name Dolphin by its owner Mortimer L. Schiff, the yacht was completed in June 1922 and registered in New York. In 1929, Dolphin was sold to Guernsey Curran and renamed Ramona. John W. Hubbard acquired the yacht in 1930, keeping the name, but re-registering the vessel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.[1]

With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) sought to augment the local sea defences of East Coast ports. The RCN sought large, steel-hulled yachts to requisition to bolster their patrols. However, a significant lack of capable vessels were owned by Canadians. Canada turned to its southern neighbour for suitable ships, finding several that met the navy's requirements. However, US neutrality laws prevented their sale to belligerents in the war. In order to circumvent these laws, the RCN requisitioned the yachts of prominent Canadian yachtsmen. The RCN then sent them to the US to purchase the yachts that had been identified by the navy without the US government knowing they were working for the navy. The money to acquire the vessels was provided by the Canadian government through bank loans.[4] Tom K. Wade of Toronto, Ontario, a member of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and an executive of the Salada Tea Company was among those chosen and he was sent south to acquire the yacht Ramona.[5] After arrival at Halifax, Nova Scotia, the yacht was sent to Quebec City, Quebec for conversion to an armed yacht with HMCS Husky.[2]

Renamed Lynx, the armed yacht returned to Halifax, where it was commissioned on 26 August 1940 and assigned to Sydney Force, the local escort force operating from Sydney, Nova Scotia. On the way to Sydney, Lynx broke a crankshaft and was forced to return to Halifax on one engine due to the lack of spare parts at end of 1940. Laid up under repair until July 1941, Lynx returned to service with Gaspe Force, the naval unit charged with defending the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River. Once again, Lynx broke a shaft, this time off Rimouski, Quebec. The armed yacht was laid up for repairs and returned to service after the river had closed due to ice in the winter months. Lynx was assigned to Shelburne, Nova Scotia for anti-submarine patrols and use as an examination vessel. On 18 January 1942, Lynx rescued the entire crew of Empire Kingfisher which had sunk off Cape Sable after striking an object. That same month, Lynx was hunting a German submarine off Cape Sable when one of its depth charges, which had been set too shallow, damaged the ship. This caused further engine troubles which led the RCN to dispose of the ship.[2][6]

Lynx was paid off on 23 April 1942. The RCN initially intended to use the ship as a target and for it to be sunk offshore and Lynx was stripped of all usable parts. However, plans changed and instead, the vessel was sold on 3 November 1942 to John Sims of Halifax for $100. The sale was stopped, as the ship was considered more valuable then price, and once again, Lynx was intended to be used as a gunnery target. As before, before the ship was sunk, the vessel was purchased.[7]

Commercial service and fate

The vessel was acquired in July 1943 by Cia Central de Nav SA, renamed Elena and registered in Puerto Cortés, Honduras for use in the banana boat trade in the Caribbean Sea, Mexico and Toronto.[1][8] In 1951, Samara Lines Inc. acquired the vessel, renaming it Samara Queen but continuing to use it in the banana boat trade. In 1952, Samara Queen was purchased by Rican Star Line for use as a banana boat and registered in Puerto Limón, Costa Rica and renamed Rican Star.[1] During its time as a banana boat, the vessel became embroiled in a conflict between the fruit companies United Fruit Company and Standard Fruit. While in port, the ship was intentionally scuttled when someone opened the sea cocks and flooded the engine room. The ship settled onto the bottom and was later raised and returned to service. In 1958, Northland Navigation Company of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada acquired the vessel and intended to use it for coastal trading. The ship did not pass inspection and its registry was refused in Canada.[8] In 1959, Rican Star was acquired by Pacific Sg Co Pty Ltd, converted to a fishing trawler in the shrimp trade and registered in Brisbane, Australia. In 1960 H. Middleborough bought the vessel. On 25 May 1960, Rican Star sank near Hummocky Island, Queensland, Australia.[1]

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Newport News Shipbuilding

Newport News Shipbuilding

Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries, is the largest industrial employer in Virginia, and sole designer, builder and refueler of United States Navy aircraft carriers and one of two providers of U.S. Navy submarines. Founded as the Chesapeake Dry Dock and Construction Co. in 1886, Newport News Shipbuilding has built more than 800 ships, including both naval and commercial ships. Located in the city of Newport News, its facilities span more than 550 acres (2.2 km2), strategically positioned in one of the great harbors of the East Coast.

Newport News, Virginia

Newport News, Virginia

Newport News is an independent city in the U.S. state of Virginia. At the 2020 census, the population was 186,247. Located in the Hampton Roads region, it is the 5th most populous city in Virginia and 140th most populous city in the United States.

New York City

New York City

New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over 300.46 square miles (778.2 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States, and is more than twice as populous as second-place Los Angeles. New York City lies at the southern tip of New York State, and constitutes the geographical and demographic center of both the Northeast megalopolis and the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the United States both by population and by urban landmass. With over 20.1 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and 23.5 million in its combined statistical area as of 2020, New York is one of the world's most populous megacities, and over 58 million people live within 250 mi (400 km) of the city. New York City is a global cultural, financial, entertainment, and media center with a significant influence on commerce, health care and life sciences, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, dining, art, fashion, and sports. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, and is sometimes described as the capital of the world.

Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. It is the most populous city in both Allegheny County and Western Pennsylvania, the second-most populous city in Pennsylvania after Philadelphia, and the 68th-largest city in the U.S. with a population of 302,971 as of the 2020 census. The city anchors the Pittsburgh metropolitan area of Western Pennsylvania; its population of 2.37 million is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 27th-largest in the U.S. It is the principal city of the greater Pittsburgh–New Castle–Weirton combined statistical area that extends into Ohio and West Virginia.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

Royal Canadian Yacht Club

Royal Canadian Yacht Club

The Royal Canadian Yacht Club (RCYC) is a private yacht club in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Founded in 1852, it is one of the world's older and larger yacht clubs. Its summer home is on a trio of islands in the Toronto Islands. Its winter home since 1984 has been a purpose-built clubhouse located at 141 St. George Street in Toronto, which includes facilities for sports and social activities. In 2014, the club had approximately 4700 members, about 450 yachts and a number of dinghies, principally International 14s.

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax is the capital and largest municipality of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, and the largest municipality in Atlantic Canada. Halifax is one of Canada's fastest growing municipalities, and as of 2022, it is estimated that the CMA population of Halifax was 480,582,with 348,634 people in its urban area. The regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, and Halifax County.

Quebec City

Quebec City

Quebec City, officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2021, the city had a population of 549,459, and the metropolitan area had a population of 839,311. It is the eleventh-largest city and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is also the second-largest city in the province after Montreal. It has a humid continental climate with warm summers coupled with cold and snowy winters.

HMCS Husky

HMCS Husky

HMCS Husky was an armed yacht used for patrol and training purposes during World War II by the Royal Canadian Navy. The ship was constructed as the yacht Wild Duck in 1930 in Bay City, Michigan. Having several owners through the 1930s, the vessel was renamed Xania II. Acquired by the Royal Canadian Navy in 1940 for patrol, escort and training duties in Atlantic Canada, the ship was taken out of service at the end of the war and sold into commercial service. The vessel was purchased by the Port of New Orleans, Louisiana for use as an inspection ship. In 1967 the ship was sold again, renamed Aquarius No. 2 and used as a diving tender based in Honduras. In 1979 the vessel was acquired by American interests who brought the ship back to New Orleans and converted it to a floating restaurant.

Crankshaft

Crankshaft

A crankshaft is a mechanical component used in a piston engine to convert the reciprocating motion into rotational motion. The crankshaft is a rotating shaft containing one or more crankpins, that are driven by the pistons via the connecting rods.

Gulf of St. Lawrence

Gulf of St. Lawrence

The Gulf of St. Lawrence is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the St. Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semi-enclosed sea, covering an area of about 226,000 square kilometres (87,000 sq mi) and containing about 34,500 cubic kilometres (8,300 cu mi) of water, at an average depth of 152 metres (500 ft).

Rimouski

Rimouski

Rimouski is a city in Quebec, Canada. Rimouski is located in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region, at the mouth of the Rimouski River. It has a population of 48,935. Rimouski is the site of Université du Québec à Rimouski (UQAR), the Cégep de Rimouski and the Music Conservatory. It is also the home of some ocean sciences research centres.

Source: "HMCS Lynx", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Lynx.

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Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e Miramar Ship Index.
  2. ^ a b c Macpherson & Barrie 2002, p. 208.
  3. ^ McKee 1983, p. 126.
  4. ^ McKee 1983, pp. 53, 63–64.
  5. ^ McKee 1983, pp. 67, 68, 72.
  6. ^ McKee 1983, pp. 126–127.
  7. ^ McKee 1983, pp. 155–156.
  8. ^ a b McKee 1983, p. 156.
References
  • Macpherson, Ken & Barrie, Ron (2002). The Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002 (Third ed.). St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 1-55125-072-1.
  • McKee, Fraser (1983). The Armed Yachts of Canada. Erin, Ontario: The Boston Mills Press. ISBN 0-919822-55-X.
  • "Dolphin (2222157)". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 18 May 2019.

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