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HMCS Kootenay (DDE 258)

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HMCS Kootenay (DDE 258) at Pearl Harbor 1986.JPEG
HMCS Kootenay (DDE 258) at Pearl Harbor in 1986
History
Canada
NameKootenay
NamesakeKootenay River
BuilderBurrard Dry Dock Ltd., North Vancouver
Laid down21 August 1952
Launched15 June 1954
Commissioned7 March 1959
Decommissioned18 December 1995
Refit
  • 7 January 1972 (IRE)
  • 21 October 1983 (DELEX)
MottoWe are as one[1]
Honours and
awards
  • Atlantic 1943–1945
  • Normandy 1944
  • English Channel 1944
  • Biscay 1944[1]
FateSunk as an artificial reef off Mexico in 2001.
BadgeArgent, three cotises in bend wavy azure, over all a crescent sable debruised by an Indian fish spear-head gules, bound around the hilt with thongs argent[1]
General characteristics (As built)
Class and type Restigouche-class destroyer
Displacement
  • 2,000 tonnes (2,000 long tons) standard
  • 2,500 t (2,500 long tons) at deep load
Length
  • 366 ft (111.6 m) (waterline)
  • 371 ft (113.1 m) (overall)
Beam42 ft (12.8 m)
Draught
  • 13.17 ft (4.0 m) normal
  • 14 ft (4.3 m) deep load
Propulsion
Speed28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph)
Range4,750 nautical miles (8,800 km; 5,470 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
Complement249
Sensors and
processing systems
  • 1 × SPS-12 air search radar
  • 1 × SPS-10B surface search radar
  • 1 × Sperry Mk.2 navigation radar
  • 1 × SQS-501 high frequency bottom profiler sonar
  • 1 × SQS-502 high frequency mortar control sonar
  • 1 × SQS-503 hull mounted active search sonar
  • 1 × SQS-10 hull mounted active search sonar
  • 1 × Mk.69 gunnery control system with SPG-48 director forward
  • 1 × GUNAR Mk.64 GFCS with on-mount SPG-48 director aft
Electronic warfare
& decoys
1 × DAU HF/DF (high frequency direction finder)
Armament
  • 1 × 3-inch/70 Mk.6 Vickers twin mount forward
  • 1 × 3-inch/50 Mk.22 FMC twin mount aft
  • 2 × Limbo Mk 10 3-barrelled ASW mortars
  • 2 × single Mk.2 "K-gun" homing torpedo launchers (though never carried torpedoes for them)[2]
  • 1 × 103 mm Bofors illumination rocket launchers

HMCS Kootenay was a Restigouche-class destroyer escort that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and Canadian Forces from 1959 until 1996. She was the fifth ship in her class and the second vessel to carry the designation HMCS Kootenay. The ship suffered two serious incidents in her career: a 1969 explosion and ensuing fire that killed nine, and a 1989 collision that required the complete replacement of her bow. Following her service, the ship was sunk as an artificial reef.

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Restigouche-class destroyer

Restigouche-class destroyer

The Restigouche-class destroyer was a class of seven destroyer escorts that served the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from the late-1950s to the late-1990s. All seven vessels in the class were named after rivers in Canada.

Destroyer escort

Destroyer escort

Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a 20-knot warship designed with the endurance necessary to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

HMCS Kootenay

HMCS Kootenay

Several Canadian naval units have been named HMCS Kootenay.HMCS Kootenay (H75) (I) was formerly HMS Decoy (H75) an ex-Royal Navy escort destroyer, which served in the Royal Canadian Navy from 1943 to 1945, and was broken up in 1946 HMCS Kootenay (DDE 258) (II) was a Restigouche-class destroyer which served from 1959 to 1995

Artificial reef

Artificial reef

An artificial reef is a human-created underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, to control erosion, block ship passage, block the use of trawling nets, or improve surfing.

Design and description

Based on the preceding St. Laurent-class design, the Restigouches had the same hull and propulsion, but different weaponry.[3] Initially the St. Laurent class had been planned to be 14 ships. However the order was halved, and the following seven were redesigned to take into improvements made on the St. Laurents. As time passed, their design diverged further from that of the St. Laurents.[4]

The ships had a displacement of 2,000 tonnes (2,000 long tons), 2,500 t (2,500 long tons) at deep load. They were designed to be 112 metres (366 ft) long with a beam of 13 metres (42 ft) and a draught of 4.01 metres (13 ft 2 in).[3] The Restigouches had a complement of 214.[5]

The Restigouches were by powered by two English Electric geared steam turbines, each driving a propeller shaft, using steam provided by two Babcock & Wilcox boilers. They generated 22,000 kilowatts (30,000 shp) giving the vessels a maximum speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph).[3]

The Restigouches were equipped with SPS-10, SPS-12, Sperry Mk 2 and SPG-48 radar along with SQS-501 and SQS-503 sonar.[6]

Armament

The Restigouches diverged from the St. Laurents in their weaponry. The Restigouches were equipped with two twin mounts of Vickers 3-inch (76 mm)/70 calibre Mk 6 dual-purpose guns forward and maintained a single twin mount of 3-inch/50 calibre Mk 22 guns aft used in the preceding class.[note 1] A Mk 69 fire control director was added to control the new guns.[7] They were also armed with two Limbo Mk 10 mortars and two single Bofors 40 mm guns.[6] However, the 40 mm guns were dropped in the final design.[7]

The destroyers were also equipped beginning in 1958 with Mk 43 homing torpedoes in an effort to increase the distance between the ships and their targets. The Mk 43 torpedo had a range of 4,100 metres (4,500 yd) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph). They were pitched over the side by a modified depth charge thrower.[8]

Improved Restigouche Escorts (IRE)

As part of the 1964 naval program, the Royal Canadian Navy planned to improve the attack capabilities of the Restigouche class. Unable to convert the vessels to helicopter-carrying versions like the St. Laurents due to budget constraints, instead the Restigouches were to receive variable depth sonar (VDS) to improve their sonar range, placed on the stern, and the RUR-5 anti-submarine rocket (ASROC).[4] The destroyers also received a stepped lattice mast.[3] Called the Improved Restigouche Escorts (IRE), Terra Nova was the first to undergo conversion, beginning in May 1965. The conversion took ten months to complete, followed by sea trials. The sea trials delayed the conversion of the next ship for four years.[9] By 1969, the budget for naval programs had been cut and only four out of the seven (Terra Nova, Restigouche, Gatineau and Kootenay) would get upgraded to IRE standards and the remaining three (Chaudière, Columbia, and St. Croix) were placed in reserve.[5][10]

The ASROC launcher replaced the 3 in/50 cal twin mount and one Mk 10 Limbo mortar aft.[3] The ASROC was a rocket-propelled Mk 44 torpedo that had a minimum range of 820 metres (900 yd) and a maximum range of 9,100 metres (10,000 yd).[11] The Mk 44 torpedo had a weight of 193 kilograms (425 lb), was 2.5 metres (100 in) long and carried a 34-kilogram (75 lb) warhead. The torpedo itself had a maximum range of 5,500 metres (6,000 yd) at 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). The torpedo was acoustically guided.[12]

Destroyer Life Extension (DELEX)

The Destroyer Life Extension (DELEX) refit for the four surviving Restigouches was announced in 1978. An effort by Maritime Command to update their existing stock of naval escorts, the DELEX program affected 16 ships in total and came in several different formats depending on the class of ship it was being applied to.[13] On average, the DELEX refit cost $24 million per ship.[14] For the Restigouches this meant updating their sensor, weapon and communications systems. The class received the new ADLIPS tactical data system, new radar and fire control systems and satellite navigation. They were also fitted with a triple torpedo tube mounting to use the new Mk 46 torpedo.[15] The ships began undergoing their DELEX refits in the early 1980s.[16] However, by the time the ships emerged from their refits, they were already obsolete as the Falklands War had changed the way surface battles were fought.[15]

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St. Laurent-class destroyer

St. Laurent-class destroyer

The St. Laurent-class destroyer was a class of destroyer escorts that served the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from the mid-1950s to the mid-1990s.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Length overall

Length overall

Length overall is the maximum length of a vessel's hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship. It is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is also used for calculating the cost of a marina berth.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

Babcock & Wilcox

Babcock & Wilcox

Babcock & Wilcox is an American renewable, environmental and thermal energy technologies and service provider that is active and has operations in many international markets across the globe with its headquarters in Akron, Ohio, USA. Historically, the company is best known for their steam boilers.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Limbo (weapon)

Limbo (weapon)

Limbo, or Anti Submarine Mortar Mark 10, was the final development of the forward-throwing anti-submarine weapon Squid, designed during the Second World War and was developed by the Admiralty Underwater Weapons Establishment in the 1950s.

Depth charge

Depth charge

A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) weapon. It is intended to destroy a submarine by being dropped into the water nearby and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive hydraulic shock. Most depth charges use high explosive charges and a fuze set to detonate the charge, typically at a specific depth. Depth charges can be dropped by ships, patrol aircraft, and helicopters.

RUR-5 ASROC

RUR-5 ASROC

The RUR-5 ASROC is an all-weather, all sea-conditions anti-submarine missile system. Developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s, it was deployed in the 1960s, updated in the 1990s, and eventually installed on over 200 USN surface ships, specifically cruisers, destroyers, and frigates. The ASROC has been deployed on scores of warships of many other navies, including Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Republic of China, Greece, Pakistan and others.

Mark 44 torpedo

Mark 44 torpedo

The Mark 44 torpedo is a now-obsolete air-launched and ship-launched lightweight torpedo manufactured in the United States, and under licence in Canada, France, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom, with 10,500 being produced for U.S. service. It was superseded by the Mark 46 torpedo, beginning in the late 1960s. The Royal Australian Navy, however, continued to use it alongside its successor for a number of years, because the Mark 44 was thought to have superior performance in certain shallow-water conditions.

Mark 46 torpedo

Mark 46 torpedo

The Mark 46 torpedo is the backbone of the United States Navy's lightweight anti-submarine warfare torpedo inventory and is the NATO standard. These aerial torpedoes are designed to attack high-performance submarines. In 1989, an improvement program for the Mod 5 to the Mod 5A and Mod 5A(S) increased its shallow-water performance. The Mark 46 was initially developed as Research Torpedo Concept I, one of several weapons recommended for implementation by Project Nobska, a 1956 summer study on submarine warfare.

Construction and career

Kootenay, named for a river in British Columbia, was laid down on 21 August 1952 by Burrard Dry Dock Co. Ltd. at North Vancouver, British Columbia. The ship was launched on 15 June 1954, the first of her class to do so. Kootenay was commissioned into the Royal Canadian Navy on 7 March 1959 at North Vancouver with the classification DDE 258.[17]

Kootenay transferred to the east coast following work ups.[17] She was named the Senior Officer Ship of the escort for the royal yacht HMY Britannia which brought Queen Elizabeth II to and around Canada for a royal visit in 1959.[18] Following workups she joined the Fifth Canadian Escort Squadron.[19] In August 1960, the destroyer escort, along with sister ships Terra Nova, St. Croix and Gatineau, took part in the 500th anniversary of Prince Henry the Navigator's death off Lisbon.[20] In March 1961, the destroyer escort was among the ships that took part in a combined naval exercise with the United States Navy off Nova Scotia.[21] In January 1966, with the restructuring of the Royal Canadian Navy into Maritime Command, Kootenay was assigned to the First Canadian Escort Squadron.[22]

Explosion

On 23 October 1969 Kootenay was operating in European waters with a Canadian task group comprising the aircraft carrier Bonaventure and seven other destroyer escorts. The task group was returning to Canada, transiting the English Channel when Kootenay and Saguenay separated from the rest of the ships to perform sea trials of their engines, roughly 200 miles (320 km) off Plymouth, United Kingdom. Following the completion of Saguenay's trials, Kootenay began hers at 0810, going to maximum speed. By 0821, the starboard gearbox had reached critical temperature level of approximately 650 °C (1,202 °F) and exploded.[23][24] The explosion and resultant fire killed seven and injured 53 others; several had facial and body hair entirely burnt off.[17] Two others died later of injuries suffered during the fire.[25] While the fire burned, the ship turned in large circles at full speed for 40 minutes, and the intense heat created a bulge in the starboard side of the vessel. Flares were fired to alert other ships, and Saguenay and Bonaventure responded to Kootenay's distress, airlifting supplies and personnel to the destroyer.[24]

HMCS Kootenay window CFB Halifax
HMCS Kootenay window CFB Halifax

The fire was brought under control by 1010 and extinguished between 1030 and 1100.[23] The ship was towed to Plymouth by the Royal Navy tug Samsonia. Her propellers were removed there and she was then towed to Halifax, Nova Scotia by the salvage tug Elbe, leaving Plymouth on 16 November.[23][25] Kootenay arrived at Halifax on 27 November.[23] This event is considered the Royal Canadian Navy's worst peacetime accident.[17] The event also marked the last time Canadian military personnel were buried overseas, as four of the sailors killed were buried in the United Kingdom. Following this event, policy was changed so that all Canadian military personnel are returned to Canada should they perish while on deployment.[24] The Royal Canadian Navy's damage control training centre for Maritime Forces Atlantic was named Damage Control Training Facility Kootenay (DCTF Kootenay) in honour of this incident.[26]

Return to service

While under repairs for the explosion damage, the ship underwent her IRE conversion. The ship returned to service on 7 January 1972. She transferred to the west coast, based out of Esquimalt, British Columbia, arriving on 12 February 1973.[17] This was part of the re-ordering of naval forces following the Unification of the Canadian Armed Forces in 1968, where four Restigouche-class vessels were transferred to the west coast, to replace the Mackenzie-class destroyers in the Second Canadian Escort Squadron. Later in 1973, Kootenay and Terra Nova were deployed off the coast of Vietnam as part of the Canadian contribution to the International Commission of Control and Supervision following the end of the Vietnam War.[27] In July 1978, Kootenay assisted the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in intercepting $28 million worth of marijuana off the coast of British Columbia.[28]

In October 1981, Kootenay, along with the replenishment ship Provider, tracked a Soviet force operating in the Gulf of Alaska. They were later joined by the U.S. destroyer USS Fife.[29] In November 1981, cracks were discovered in the superheater headers in Ottawa. The Restigouche-class vessels were inspected for similar damage, and Kootenay was found to have similar issues. The ship was repaired within six months.[30] On 1 June 1989, Kootenay collided with the merchant vessel MV Nord Pol in fog approximately 28 miles off Cape Flattery.[17][28] The destroyer escort suffered a 3 by 16 feet (0.91 m × 4.88 m) gash in her bow above the waterline.[28] In order to fix the damage, her bow was removed and replaced with that of sister ship Chaudière which was out of service at the time.[17] Repairs were completed on 6 June 1989. Though Maritime Command absolved the commanding officer of blame, the British Columbia Supreme Court found the ship to be mostly at fault for the collision in a 1996 decision.[28]

In June 1990 Kootenay, as part of Canadian task group, visited Vladivostok, from 3–7 June. She was among the first Canadian warships to do so since the Second World War. In 1994, the destroyer escort was deployed off the coast of Haiti to enforce the blockade sanctioned by the United Nations.[17] She arrived on 13 July and remained until 15 September, returning to Esquimalt.[28]

The ship was paid off on 18 December 1996. She was sold for use as an artificial reef. On 6 November 2000, she was towed out of Esquimalt to be sunk as such off Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.[17] The ship's bell is currently held by the CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum in Esquimalt.[31]

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Kootenay River

Kootenay River

The Kootenay or Kootenai river is a major river in the Northwest Plateau, in southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and northern Montana and Idaho in the United States. It is one of the uppermost major tributaries of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean. The Kootenay River runs 781 kilometres (485 mi) from its headwaters in the Kootenay Ranges of the Canadian Rockies, flowing from British Columbia's East Kootenay region into northwestern Montana, then west into the northernmost Idaho Panhandle and returning to British Columbia in the West Kootenay region, where it joins the Columbia at Castlegar.

British Columbia

British Columbia

British Columbia, commonly abbreviated as BC, is the westernmost province of Canada, situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It has a diverse geography, with rugged landscapes that include rocky coastlines, sandy beaches, forests, lakes, mountains, inland deserts and grassy plains, and borders the province of Alberta to the east, the territories of Yukon and Northwest Territories to the north, and the US states of Washington, Idaho and Montana to the south and Alaska to the northwest. With an estimated population of 5.3 million as of 2022, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The capital of British Columbia is Victoria and its largest city is Vancouver. Vancouver is the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada; the 2021 census recorded 2.6 million people in Metro Vancouver.

Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

Burrard Dry Dock

Burrard Dry Dock

Burrard Dry Dock Ltd. was a Canadian shipbuilding company headquartered in North Vancouver, British Columbia. Together with the neighbouring North Van Ship Repair yard and the Yarrows Ltd. yard in Esquimalt, which were eventually absorbed, Burrard built over 450 ships, including many warships built and refitted for the Royal Navy and Royal Canadian Navy in the First and Second World Wars.

North Vancouver (city)

North Vancouver (city)

The City of North Vancouver is a city on the north shore of Burrard Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. It is the smallest in area and the most urbanized of the North Shore municipalities. Although it has significant industry of its own – including shipping, chemical production, and film production – the city is considered to be a suburb of Vancouver. The city is served by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, British Columbia Ambulance Service, and the North Vancouver City Fire Department.

Hull classification symbol (Canada)

Hull classification symbol (Canada)

The Royal Canadian Navy uses hull classification symbols to identify the types of its ships, which are similar to the United States Navy's hull classification symbol system. The Royal Navy and some European and Commonwealth navies use a somewhat analogous system of pennant numbers.

HMY Britannia

HMY Britannia

Her Majesty's Yacht Britannia, also known as the Royal Yacht Britannia, is the former royal yacht of the British monarchy. She was in service from 1954 until 1997. She was the 83rd such vessel since King Charles II acceded to the throne in 1660, and is the second royal yacht to bear the name, the first being the racing cutter built for the Prince of Wales in 1893. During her 43-year career, the yacht travelled more than a million nautical miles around the world to more than 600 ports in 135 countries. Now retired from royal service, Britannia is permanently berthed at Ocean Terminal, Leith in Edinburgh, Scotland, where it is a visitor attraction with over 300,000 visits each year.

HMCS St. Croix (DDE 256)

HMCS St. Croix (DDE 256)

HMCS St. Croix was a Restigouche-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces from 1958 to 1974. The fourth ship commissioned in the class, she was the second ship to bear the name. Following her decommissioning, the ship was used as a training ship at Halifax, Nova Scotia until 1991, when St. Croix was sold for scrapping.

HMCS Gatineau (DDE 236)

HMCS Gatineau (DDE 236)

HMCS Gatineau was a Restigouche-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy and later the Canadian Forces during the Cold War from 1959 to 1996. She was the third ship in her class and the second vessel to carry the designation HMCS Gatineau. She was sold for scrapping in 2009.

Lisbon

Lisbon

Lisbon is the capital and largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live in the Lisbon metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the Iberian Peninsula, after Madrid and Barcelona. It represents approximately 27% of the country's population. It is mainland Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean and the River Tagus. The westernmost portions of its metro area, the Portuguese Riviera, form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, culminating at Cabo da Roca.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland".

Aircraft carrier

Aircraft carrier

An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft. Typically, it is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft, helicopters, and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, these aircraft have not landed on a carrier. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is often the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or even strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third-party countries, reduces the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore significantly increase the time of availability on the combat zone.

Source: "HMCS Kootenay (DDE 258)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Kootenay_(DDE_258).

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References

Notes

  1. ^ Calibre denotes the length of the barrel. In this case, 50 calibre means that the gun barrel is 50 times as long as it is in diameter

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Arbuckle, p. 54
  2. ^ The Postwar Naval Revolution page 161 says of the St. Laurent class: "As in the case of the Type 12, the design included provision for long-range homing torpedoes (in this case BIDDER [Mk20E] or the UK Mark 35). They were never fitted however."
  3. ^ a b c d e Gardiner and Chumbley, p. 45
  4. ^ a b Milner, p. 248
  5. ^ a b Macpherson and Barrie (2002), p. 251
  6. ^ a b Gardiner and Chumbly, p. 46
  7. ^ a b Boutiller, p. 323
  8. ^ Milner, p. 225
  9. ^ Milner, p. 259
  10. ^ Milner, p. 265
  11. ^ "United States of America ASROC RUR-5A and VLA". navweaps.com. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  12. ^ "United States of America Torpedoes since World War II". navweaps.com. 28 December 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  13. ^ Milner, p. 277
  14. ^ German, p. 317
  15. ^ a b Milner, p. 278
  16. ^ Macpherson and Barrie (2002), pp. 251–255
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Macpherson and Barrie (2002), p. 253
  18. ^ "Atlantic Command". The Crowsnest. Vol. 12, no. 3. January 1960. p. 21.
  19. ^ "Navy's First 'Terra Nova'". Montreal Gazette. 1 July 1959. p. 31. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  20. ^ "RCN Ships at Review in Portugal". Ottawa Citizen. 13 August 1960. p. 20. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  21. ^ "A/S Exercise Off Nova Scotia". The Crowsnest. Vol. 13, no. 6. Queen's Printer. April 1961. p. 2.
  22. ^ "Canada's fleet has 31 ships". The Saturday Citizen. 6 June 1968. p. 19. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  23. ^ a b c d "The HMCS Kootenay Explosion". Royal Canadian Navy. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  24. ^ a b c Bartlett, Sandra; Reber, Susanne (21 October 2009). "Taking stock of Canada's worst peacetime naval disaster". CBC News. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  25. ^ a b McClearn, Sandy. "HMCS Kootenay Gearbox Explosion". hazegray.org. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  26. ^ Assouad, Mayya. "A look inside: the Kootenay damage control training facility". Global News Halifax. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  27. ^ Zimmerman, p. 162
  28. ^ a b c d e Barrie and Macpherson (1996), p. 44
  29. ^ Zimmerman, p. 163
  30. ^ Barrie and Macpherson (1996), p. 13
  31. ^ "The Christening Bells Project". CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2014.

Sources

  • Arbuckle, J. Graeme (1987). Badges of the Canadian Navy. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 0-920852-49-1.
  • Barrie, Ron; Macpherson, Ken (1996). Cadillac of Destroyers: HMCS St. Laurent and Her Successors. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-036-5.
  • Boutiller, James A., ed. (1982). RCN in Retrospect, 1910–1968. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0196-4.
  • Couhat, Jean Labayle (1978). Combat Fleets of the World 1978–79. Arms and Armour Press.
  • Friedman, Norman (1986). The Postwar Naval Revolution. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-952-9.
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chumbley, Stephen; Budzbon, Przemysław, eds. (1995). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-132-7.
  • German, Tony (1990). The Sea is at our Gates: The History of the Canadian Navy. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Incorporated. ISBN 0-7710-3269-2.
  • Macpherson, Ken; Barrie, Ron (2002). The Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002 (Third ed.). St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 1-55125-072-1.
  • Milner, Marc (2010). Canada's Navy: The First Century (Second ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9604-3.
  • Zimmerman, David (2015). Maritime Command Pacific: The Royal Canadian Navy's West Coast Fleet in the Early Cold War. Vancouver: UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-3037-9.

Further reading

External links

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