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HMCS Iroquois (G89)

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HMCS Iroquois (G89) underway, circa in 1942.jpg
HMCS Iroquois (G89) underway
History
Canada
NameIroquois
NamesakeThe Iroquois people
Ordered5 April 1940
BuilderVickers Armstrong, Newcastle-on-Tyne
Laid down19 September 1940
Launched23 September 1941
Commissioned30 November 1942
Decommissioned22 February 1946
IdentificationPennant number; G89
RecommissionedOctober 1951
Decommissioned24 October 1962
IdentificationDDE 217
Honours and
awards
  • Atlantic 1943
  • Arctic 1943–45
  • Biscay 1943–44
  • Norway 1945
  • Korea 1952–53[1]
FateScrapped 1966
General characteristics
Class and typeTribal-class destroyer
Displacement
  • 1,959 long tons (1,990 t) tons standard
  • 2,519 long tons (2,559 t) deep load
Length377 ft (115 m)
Beam37.5 ft (11.4 m)
Draught11.2 ft (3.4 m)
Propulsion2 shafts, 3 Admiralty 3-drum type boilers, 2 Parsons geared steam turbines, 44,000 shp (33,000 kW)
Speed36 knots (67 km/h)
Complement259 (14 officers, 245 ratings)
Sensors and
processing systems
  • 1 type 268 radar
  • 1 type 271 radar
  • 1 type 291 radar
  • 1 × Mk.III fire control director with Type 285 fire control radar
  • 1 type 144 sonar
  • 1 type 144Q sonar
  • 1 type 147F sonar
Armament

HMCS Iroquois was a Tribal-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy during the Second World War and Korean War. She was named for the Iroquois First Nations. Iroquois was the first ship to bear this name and the first ship of the class to serve with the Royal Canadian Navy.[2]

Discover more about HMCS Iroquois (G89) related topics

Tribal-class destroyer (1936)

Tribal-class destroyer (1936)

The Tribal class, or Afridi class, were a class of destroyers built for the Royal Navy, Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Australian Navy that saw service in World War II. Originally conceived during design studies for a light fleet cruiser, the Tribals evolved into fast, powerful destroyers, with greater emphasis on guns over torpedoes than previous destroyers, in response to new designs by Japan, Italy, and Germany. The Tribals were well admired by their crews and the public when they were in service due to their power, often becoming symbols of prestige while in service.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

Korean War

Korean War

The Korean War was fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following clashes along the border and rebellions in South Korea. North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union while South Korea was supported by the United States and allied countries. The fighting ended with an armistice on 27 July 1953.

Iroquois

Iroquois

The Iroquois, officially the Haudenosaunee, are an Iroquoian-speaking confederacy of First Nations peoples in northeast North America/Turtle Island. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, and later as the Iroquois Confederacy. The English called them the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. After 1722, the Iroquoian-speaking Tuscarora people from the southeast were accepted into the confederacy, which became known as the Six Nations.

Design and description

The Tribals were designed to fight heavily armed destroyers of other navies, such as the Japanese Fubuki class.[3] Canada chose the design based on its armament, with the size and power of the Tribal class allowing them to act more like small cruisers than as fleet destroyers.[4] Iroquois was among the first batch of Tribal-class destroyers ordered by the RCN in 1940–1941. They were ordered with modified ventilation and heating systems for North Atlantic winter service. Design modifications were made after deficiencies were noted in Iroquois, the lead ship of the Canadian Tribals.

Iroquois, as one of the British-built Tribal-class destroyers, was 335 ft 6 in (102.26 m) long between perpendiculars and 377 ft (115 m) long overall with a beam of 36 ft 6 in (11.13 m) and a draught of 13 ft (4.0 m) . As built, the destroyer displaced 1,927 long tons (1,958 t) standard and 2,745 long tons (2,789 t) at deep load.[3][5] Iroquois had a complement of 14 officers and 245 ratings.[5]

The destroyer was propelled by two shafts driven by two Parsons geared turbines powered by steam created by three Admiralty-type three drum boilers. This created 44,000 shp (33,000 kW) and gave the ship a maximum speed of 36.5 kn (67.6 km/h; 42.0 mph) . The destroyers could carry 505–516 long tons (513–524 t) of fuel oil.[3]

As built, Iroquois was fitted with six quick firing QF 4.7-inch (120 mm)} Mk XII guns placed in three twin turrets, designated 'A', 'B' and 'Y' from bow to stern.[note 1] The turrets were placed on 40° mountings with open-backed shields.[3] The ship also had one twin turret of QF 4-inch (102 mm) Mk XVI guns in the 'X' position.[3][5] For secondary anti-aircraft armament, the destroyer was equipped with four single-mounted 2-pounder "pom-pom" guns. The vessel was also fitted with four 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes for Mk IX torpedoes.[3]

Discover more about Design and description related topics

Fubuki-class destroyer

Fubuki-class destroyer

The Fubuki-class destroyers were a class of twenty-four destroyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Fubuki class has been described as the world's first modern destroyer. The Fubuki class set a new standard not only for Japanese vessels, but for destroyers around the world. They remained formidable opponents to the end of World War II, despite being much older than many of their adversaries.

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars is the length of a ship along the summer load line from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. When there is no sternpost, the centerline axis of the rudder stock is used as the aft end of the length between perpendiculars.

Length overall

Length overall

Length overall is the maximum length of a vessel's hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship. It is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is also used for calculating the cost of a marina berth.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company

Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company

Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company was a British engineering company based on the River Tyne at Wallsend, North East England.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

QF 4.7-inch Mk IX & XII naval gun

QF 4.7-inch Mk IX & XII naval gun

The 4.7 inch QF Mark IX and Mark XII were 45-calibre, 4.7-inch (120 mm) naval guns which armed the majority of Royal Navy and Commonwealth destroyers in World War II, and were exported to many countries after World War II as the destroyers they were mounted on were sold off.

Gun turret

Gun turret

A gun turret is a mounting platform from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility and ability to turn and aim. A modern gun turret is generally a rotatable weapon mount that houses the crew or mechanism of a projectile-firing weapon and at the same time lets the weapon be aimed and fired in some degree of azimuth and elevation.

Anti-aircraft warfare

Anti-aircraft warfare

Anti-aircraft warfare, counter-air or air defence forces is the battlespace response to aerial warfare, defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action". It includes surface based, subsurface, and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements, and passive measures. It may be used to protect naval, ground, and air forces in any location. However, for most countries, the main effort has tended to be homeland defence. NATO refers to airborne air defence as counter-air and naval air defence as anti-aircraft warfare. Missile defence is an extension of air defence, as are initiatives to adapt air defence to the task of intercepting any projectile in flight.

QF 2-pounder naval gun

QF 2-pounder naval gun

The 2-pounder gun, officially the QF 2-pounder and universally known as the pom-pom, was a 40 mm (1.6 in) British autocannon, used as an anti-aircraft gun by the Royal Navy. The name came from the sound that the original models make when firing. This QF 2-pounder was not the same gun as the Ordnance QF 2-pounder, used by the British Army as an anti-tank gun and a tank gun, although they both fired 2 lb (0.91 kg), 40 mm (1.6 in) projectiles.

Construction and career

Iroquois was ordered on 5 April 1940 as part of the 1940 shipbuilding programme.[6] The destroyer was laid down on 19 September 1940 by Vickers-Armstrong at Newcastle on Tyne in the United Kingdom and launched 23 September the following year.[2] Iroquois was originally laid down as Athabaskan. However, due to bomb damage, she and her sister had their names switched in order to ensure Iroquois commissioned first.[7] She was commissioned into the Royal Canadian Navy at Newcastle on Tyne on 30 November 1942. The destroyer was not completed until 30 January 1943.[2]

Following her completion, Iroquois began sea trials, suffering storm damage near the Faroes, which included a bent keel and required repairs. Further trials continued in the North Sea until May 1943 when she departed for Plymouth.[8] From there the destroyer was used as a convoy escort on Gibraltar convoys. On 11 July, three Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condors from Kampfgeschwader 40 attacked a troop transport convoy west of Oporto in the Bay of Biscay. Iroquois was attacked by the aircraft, missing the destroyer with bombs 200 yards (180 m) astern.[9] The German aircraft hit SS California and SS Duchess of York which were abandoned.[10] Iroquois rescued 628 survivors from Duchess of York.[2] On 19 July an event termed "incident" in official reports took place where according to the inquiry afterwards, a large section of the ship's company refused to perform their duties.[11][12] Iroquois was among the destroyers deployed to cover escort forces attacking U-boats in the Bay of Biscay from 12 June to 2 August 1943.[13]

Northern operations

Following her return to the UK, Iroquois was assigned to escort convoys heading to the Soviet Union over the following months. From 1–11 October, Iroquois and the destroyers Huron and Onslaught transported supplies to Murmansk for the escorts that remained there in the summer.[14] Beginning in November, Iroquois provided support to Russian convoys, beginning with convoy JW 54A from Loch Ewe on 18–24 November and convoy RA 54B from Molotvsk on 28 November.[15] In late December, Iroquois escorted the convoy JW 55B. It came under air attack on 23 December, but was unscathed.[16] The convoy sailed as a lure for the German battleship Scharnhorst, which was sunk by British forces on 26 December.[17] On 31 December, the warship was among the escort for RA 55B which departed Kola Inlet on 31 December and reached Loch Ewe on 8 January without loss.[16]

English Channel and the end of the war

In February 1944, she sailed to Halifax to undergo a refit that would keep her out of action until early June.[2][18] She returned to the UK and was assigned to the 10th Destroyer Flotilla in preparation for the Invasion of Normandy. After D-day, she carried out patrols of the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay.[2] During this period, Iroquois took part in many operations, including Kinetic, the objective of which was to eliminate the German navy all along the French Atlantic ports, taking part in three actions, including the Battle of Audierne Bay in August 1944.

On 5 August 1944, a force comprising the cruiser Bellona and the destroyers Tartar, Ashanti, Haida and Iroquois engaged and sank the German minesweepers M 263 and M 486 and the patrol boat V 414, coastal launch Otto from a German convoy north of Île d'Yeu.[19] Iroquois was responsible for the sinking of two of the vessels.[20] On 14 August, Iroquois joined the destroyer Ursa and cruiser Mauritius to attack a German force off Les Sables d'Olonne and sank Sperrbrecher 157; they also badly damaged M 275 and ran M 385 aground. On 22–23 August Mauritius, Ursa and Iroquois sank V 702, V 717, V 720, V 729 and V 730 of Audierne.[19] The destroyer continued patrolling the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel until October 1944, when she transferred to Scapa Flow.[21]

Iroquois rejoined the Home Fleet in March 1945 at Scapa Flow.[2] The ship was part of the screening force for aircraft carriers on 19 March and again on 24 March, which were performing air strikes along coastal Norway.[22] She then escorted one more convoy to the Soviet Union.[2] On 16 April, Iroquois departed as part of the escort of JW 66.[23] From 29 April-2 May, Iroquois participated in the last convoy battle of the war as part of the escort for convoy RA 66. Iroquois and Haida were just missed by torpedoes in an attack by U-427. They in turn pursued the submarine in which by the end of the engagement, 678 depth charge explosions were counted without sinking the submarine.[24] Iroquois remained in British waters until the German surrender.[25]

Following the capitulation, Iroquois was part of Crown Prince Olav's return to Norway after its liberation. She then sailed on to Copenhagen where she was an escort to the German cruisers Prinz Eugen and Nürnberg until their formal surrender.[2][26] The destroyer returned to Canada and began a tropicalization refit that was halted upon the surrender of Japan. Iroquois was then paid off on 22 February 1946.[2]

Cold War service

Beginning in 1947, Iroquois underwent conversion to a destroyer escort, the first of her class to undergo the alterations. The changes involved her 4.7-inch main armament which were replaced with 4-inch guns in the 'A' and 'B' turret positions; in the 'X', a twin 3-inch (76 mm)/50 calibre gun mount was installed and in the 'Y' site, two Squid anti-submarine mortars were located.[note 2] Other alterations included an aluminum lattice with new radar.[27][28] Iroquois was equipped with Type 275, SPS-10, SPS-6, Type 293 and 262 radars and Type 140 and 174 sonars.[28] She emerged from her refit on 24 June 1949 and was recommissioned as a training ship with Lieutenant Commander T. C. Pullen in command.[2] She was renumbered as DDE217.

On 21 October 1951, Commander William Landymore assumed command of the ship as a regular vessel of the Royal Canadian Navy.[2] Iroquois served off Korea during the Korean War, commanded by Landymore.[29] Iroquois departed Halifax on 21 April 1952 and arrived in theatre to replace Cayuga on 12 June. Her first assignment was carrier screening on Korean the west coast.[30] For the majority of 1952, Iroquois supported the Island campaign off the west coast.[31] On 2 October, Iroquois in concert with USS Marsh, was bombarding a rail line on the east coast southwest of Songjin when she was hit by a shell on the starboard side abreast of 'B' gun. Two men were killed and eleven injured, with one dying later of his injuries. The destroyer remained on station for two weeks before returning to Sasebo.[32] These were the only Royal Canadian Navy casualties in the war.[33] Iroquois saw service screening the aircraft carrier HMS Glory and an inshore patrol on the west coast before sailing for Canada on 26 November. She was replaced by Athabaskan. Iroquois returned to Halifax on 8 January 1953.[34]

Iroquois sailed for Korea on 29 April 1953 and upon her return to the theatre on 18 June 1953, the destroyer returned to the Chodo area to support the Island campaign off the west coast.[35] The destroyer supported the Island campaign in the Haeju area and performed screening missions with carriers off the west coast before the end of hostilities on 29 July 1953.[36] Following the end of hostilities, Iroquois was deployed evacuating islands that had been handed back to North Korea in the armistice and completed the first post-armistice patrol.[37] On 1 November 1953, Lieutenant Commander S. G. Moore assumed command of the vessel.[2] Iroquois remained in theatre until 1 January 1954.[38] The destroyer returned to Halifax on 10 February 1954 via the Suez Canal, circumnavigating the globe in the process. Iroquois made one further post-Armistice patrol off the Korean coasts, departing Halifax on 1 July 1954 and arriving off Korea on 22 August. The ship departed the theatre on 26 December and returned to Halifax via the Suez Canal again on 19 March 1955. Iroquois circumnavigated the globe a second time on her return to Halifax.[39]

She returned to her training role and remained as such until 1962. Iroquois was paid off at Halifax on 24 October 1962 and laid up at Sydney. In 1966 the vessel was taken to Bilbao, Spain and broken up in September.[2][40]

Discover more about Construction and career related topics

Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

Sister ship

Sister ship

A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of virtually identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, and roughly comparable features and equipment. They often share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing or person or with some kind of alliteration. Typically the ship class is named for the first ship of that class. Often, sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered.

Ship commissioning

Ship commissioning

Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to placing a warship in active duty with its country's military forces. The ceremonies involved are often rooted in centuries-old naval tradition.

Plymouth

Plymouth

Plymouth is a port city and unitary authority in South West England. It is located on the south coast of Devon, approximately 36 miles (58 km) south-west of Exeter and 193 miles (311 km) south-west of London. It is bordered by Cornwall to the west and south-west.

Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory and city located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar, at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 32,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.

Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor

Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor

The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, also known as Kurier to the Allies, was a German all-metal four-engined monoplane originally developed by Focke-Wulf as a long-range airliner. A Japanese request for a long-range maritime patrol aircraft led to military versions that saw service with the Luftwaffe as long-range reconnaissance and anti-shipping/maritime patrol bomber aircraft. The Luftwaffe also made extensive use of the Fw 200 as a transport aircraft.

Kampfgeschwader 40

Kampfgeschwader 40

Kampfgeschwader 40 was a Luftwaffe medium and heavy bomber wing of World War II, and the primary maritime patrol unit of any size within the World War II Luftwaffe. It is best remembered as the unit operating a majority of the four-engine Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor maritime patrol bombers. The unit suffered from the poor serviceability and low production rates of the Fw 200 bombers, and from repeated diversion of its long-haul capability aircraft to undertake transport duties in various theatres, especially for the airlift operations to supply encircled forces in the Battle of Stalingrad. Later in the war, KG 40 became one of several Luftwaffe bomber wings to use the Heinkel He 177A heavy bomber.

Bay of Biscay

Bay of Biscay

The Bay of Biscay, known in Spain as the Gulf of Biscay, and in France and some border regions as the Gulf of Gascony, is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It lies along the western coast of France from Point Penmarc'h to the Spanish border, and the northern coast of Spain west to Cape Ortegal. The south area of the Bay of Biscay that washes over the northern coast of Spain is known locally as the Cantabrian Sea.

SS California (1923)

SS California (1923)

SS California was a British 16,792 GRT steam turbine ocean liner built in Glasgow in 1923 for the Anchor Line. She was a sister ship of Cameronia, Tyrrhenia, Tuscania, Transylvania and Caledonia. In 1939 the Royal Navy requisitioned her. She was bombed and abandoned along with the Duchess of York west of Spain by a Luftwaffe attack in July 1943.

SS Duchess of York

SS Duchess of York

SS Duchess of York was the name of a couple of ships between 1895–1928.SS Duchess of York (1895), a South Eastern Railway passenger ferry SS Duchess of York (1928), a Canadian Pacific Railway ocean liner

Arctic convoys of World War II

Arctic convoys of World War II

The Arctic convoys of World War II were oceangoing convoys which sailed from the United Kingdom, Iceland, and North America to northern ports in the Soviet Union – primarily Arkhangelsk (Archangel) and Murmansk in Russia. There were 78 convoys between August 1941 and May 1945, sailing via several seas of the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, with two gaps with no sailings between July and September 1942, and March and November 1943.

HMCS Huron (G24)

HMCS Huron (G24)

HMCS Huron was a Tribal-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy in the Second World War and the Korean War. She was the first ship to bear this name, entering service in 1943. She was named for the Huron people. During the Second World War the vessel saw service in Operation Neptune in the Bay of Biscay and along the French coast in support of the invasion of Normandy and escorted convoys to the Soviet Union. Following the war, the ship was placed in reserve. The destroyer was activated in 1950 as a training ship, but with the onset of the Korean War, was modernized and deployed twice to Korea. Following the war, Huron reverted to a training ship and took part in Cold War-era North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) naval exercises until being paid off for the final time in 1963 and broken up for scrap in 1965.

Ship's badge

The ship's badge is described as a blazon or, the head of an Iroquois brave, couped at the base of the neck, properly coloured and wearing two eagle feathers in his hair and a gold ring pendant from the ear.[1] During the Second World War and up to 1948 when official badges were created for the Royal Canadian Navy, Iroquois had an unofficial crest. This crest consisted of an Iroquois brave, red, drawing a bow on a black background. Below the warrior was the ship's motto "Ongwanonsionni" which translates as "Relentless in pursuit". Above the warrior was a ship's crown.

Source: "HMCS Iroquois (G89)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Iroquois_(G89).

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Notes
  1. ^ Mark XII = Mark 12. Britain used Roman numerals to denote Marks (models) of ordnance until after World War II.
  2. ^ The 50 calibre denotes the length of the gun. This means that the length of the gun barrel is 50 times the bore diameter.
Citations
  1. ^ a b "Volume 2, Part 1: Extant Commissioned Ships". Department of National Defence. 7 July 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Macpherson and Barrie, p. 62
  3. ^ a b c d e f Chesneau, p. 40
  4. ^ Tucker, p. 26
  5. ^ a b c Macpherson and Barrie, p. 59
  6. ^ "HMCS Iroquois (G89)". uboat.net. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  7. ^ Boutiller, p. 107
  8. ^ Schull, pp. 188–190
  9. ^ Schull, p. 191
  10. ^ Rohwer, p. 262
  11. ^ Boutiller, p. 236
  12. ^ Schull, p. 192
  13. ^ Rohwer, p. 257
  14. ^ Rohwer, p. 279
  15. ^ Rohwer, p. 286
  16. ^ a b Rohwer, pp. 292–93
  17. ^ Schull, p. 198
  18. ^ Schull, p. 250
  19. ^ a b Rohwer, p. 347
  20. ^ Schull, p. 349
  21. ^ Schull, p. 359
  22. ^ Schull, p. 401
  23. ^ Rohwer, p. 410
  24. ^ Rohwer, p. 412
  25. ^ Schull, p. 405
  26. ^ Rohwer, p. 416
  27. ^ Boutiller, p. 322
  28. ^ a b Gardiner and Chumbley, p. 41
  29. ^ Milner, p. 1173
  30. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, pp. 99, 141
  31. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, p. 104
  32. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, pp. 110–11
  33. ^ "Land of the Morning Calm: Canadians in Korea 1950–1953". Historical Calendar – 1952. Veterans Affairs Canada. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  34. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, pp. 113, 141
  35. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, pp. 127, 141
  36. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, pp. 128–29
  37. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, pp. 129–30
  38. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, p. 130
  39. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, p. 141
  40. ^ Colledge, p. 320
References
  • Brice, Martin H. (1971). The Tribals. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0245-2.
  • Chesneau, Roger, ed. (1980). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7.
  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8.
  • English, John (2001). Afridi to Nizam: British Fleet Destroyers 1937–43. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-95-0.
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chumbley, Stephen; Budzbon, Przemysław, eds. (1995). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-132-7.
  • Macpherson, Ken; Barrie, Ron (2002). The Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002 (Third ed.). St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 1-55125-072-1.
  • Milner, Marc (1988). "Landymore, William Moss". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Edmonton, Alberta: Hurtig Publishers. 2.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Revised & Expanded ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Schull, Joseph (1961). The Far Distant Ships: An Official Account of Canadian Naval Operations in the Second World War. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.
  • Thorgrimsson, Thor; Russell, E.C. (1965). Canadian Naval Operations in Korean Waters 1950–1955. Ottawa: King's Printer. OCLC 5285395.
  • Tucker, Gilbert Norman (1952). The Naval Service of Canada, Its Official History – Volume 2: Activities on Shore During the Second World War. Ottawa: King's Printer.
Further reading
  • Whitby, Michael (2022). "The Challenges of Operation 'Tunnel', September 1943 — April 1944". In Jordan, John (ed.). Warship 2022. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. pp. 29–46. ISBN 978-1-4728-4781-2.
External links

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