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HMCS Huron (G24)

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HMCS HURON.JPG
Huron underway
History
Canada
NameHuron
NamesakeHuron people
Ordered5 April 1940
BuilderVickers-Armstrongs, Newcastle upon Tyne
Laid down15 July 1941
Launched25 June 1942
Commissioned28 July 1943
Decommissioned9 March 1946
IdentificationPennant number: G24
Recommissioned1950
Decommissioned30 April 1963
IdentificationPennant number: DDE 216
MottoReady the brave
Honours and
awards
  • Arctic, 1943–1945
  • English Channel, 1944
  • Normandy, 1944
  • Korea, 1951–1953[1]
FateScrapped, La Spezia, 1965
NotesColours: Gold and crimson
BadgeOr nicotine bloom Gules seed pod Vert and stamens Or.[2]
General characteristics
Class and typeTribal-class destroyer
Displacement
  • 1,927 long tons (1,958 t) standard
  • 2,559 long tons (2,600 t) full load
Length
  • 335 ft 6 in (102.3 m) pp
  • 377 ft (114.9 m) oa
Beam36 ft 6 in (11.1 m)
Draught13 ft (4.0 m)
Propulsion2 shaft Parsons geared steam turbines, 3 Admiralty boilers, 44,000 hp (32,811 kW)
Speed36.5 knots (67.6 km/h; 42.0 mph)
Range5,700 nmi (10,600 km) at 17 kn (31 km/h; 20 mph)
Complement259
Armament
  • 6 × 4.7 in (119 mm) guns (3×2)
  • 2 × 4 in (102 mm) guns (1×2)
  • 4 × 2-pounder QF guns (1x4)
  • 6 × 20 mm cannon (6X1)
  • 4 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes (1×4)

HMCS Huron was a Tribal-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy in the Second World War and the Korean War. She was the first ship to bear this name, entering service in 1943. She was named for the Huron people. During the Second World War the vessel saw service in Operation Neptune in the Bay of Biscay and along the French coast in support of the invasion of Normandy and escorted convoys to the Soviet Union. Following the war, the ship was placed in reserve. The destroyer was activated in 1950 as a training ship, but with the onset of the Korean War, was modernized and deployed twice to Korea. Following the war, Huron reverted to a training ship and took part in Cold War-era North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) naval exercises until being paid off for the final time in 1963 and broken up for scrap in 1965.

Discover more about HMCS Huron (G24) related topics

Tribal-class destroyer (1936)

Tribal-class destroyer (1936)

The Tribal class, or Afridi class, were a class of destroyers built for the Royal Navy, Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Australian Navy that saw service in World War II. Originally conceived during design studies for a light fleet cruiser, the Tribals evolved into fast, powerful destroyers, with greater emphasis on guns over torpedoes than previous destroyers, in response to new designs by Japan, Italy, and Germany. The Tribals were well admired by their crews and the public when they were in service due to their power, often becoming symbols of prestige while in service.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

Korean War

Korean War

The Korean War was fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following clashes along the border and rebellions in South Korea. North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union while South Korea was supported by the United States and allied countries. The fighting ended with an armistice on 27 July 1953.

Bay of Biscay

Bay of Biscay

The Bay of Biscay, known in Spain as the Gulf of Biscay, and in France and some border regions as the Gulf of Gascony, is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It lies along the western coast of France from Point Penmarc'h to the Spanish border, and the northern coast of Spain west to Cape Ortegal. The south area of the Bay of Biscay that washes over the northern coast of Spain is known locally as the Cantabrian Sea.

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen national republics; in practice, both its government and its economy were highly centralized until its final years. It was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the city of Moscow serving as its capital as well as that of its largest and most populous republic: the Russian SFSR. Other major cities included Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It was the largest country in the world, covering over 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi) and spanning eleven time zones.

Reserve fleet

Reserve fleet

A reserve fleet is a collection of naval vessels of all types that are fully equipped for service but are not currently needed; they are partially or fully decommissioned. A reserve fleet is informally said to be "in mothballs" or "mothballed"; an equivalent expression in unofficial modern US naval usage is "ghost fleet". In earlier times, especially in British usage, the ships were said to be "laid up in ordinary".

Training ship

Training ship

A training ship is a ship used to train students as sailors. The term is mostly used to describe ships employed by navies to train future officers. Essentially there are two types: those used for training at sea and old hulks used to house classrooms.

Cold War

Cold War

The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported opposing sides in major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

NATO

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American. Established in the aftermath of World War II, the organization implemented the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949. NATO is a collective security system: its independent member states agree to defend each other against attacks by third parties. During the Cold War, NATO operated as a check on the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union. The alliance remained in place after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and has been involved in military operations in the Balkans, the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa. The organization's motto is animus in consulendo liber.

Military exercise

Military exercise

A military exercise, training exercise, or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations. Military exercises are conducted to explore the effects of warfare or test tactics and strategies without actual combat. They also ensure the combat readiness of garrisoned or deployable forces prior to deployment from a home base.

Ship breaking

Ship breaking

Ship-breaking is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for either a source of parts, which can be sold for re-use, or for the extraction of raw materials, chiefly scrap. Modern ships have a lifespan of 25 to 30 years before corrosion, metal fatigue and a lack of parts render them uneconomical to operate. Ship-breaking allows the materials from the ship, especially steel, to be recycled and made into new products. This lowers the demand for mined iron ore and reduces energy use in the steelmaking process. Fixtures and other equipment on board the vessels can also be reused. While ship-breaking is sustainable, there are concerns about the use by poorer countries without stringent environmental legislation. It is also labour-intensive, and considered one of the world's most dangerous industries.

Design and description

The Tribals were designed to fight heavily armed destroyers of other navies, such as the Japanese Fubuki class.[3] Canada chose the design based on its armament, with the size and power of the Tribal class allowing them to act more like small cruisers than as fleet destroyers.[4] Huron was among the first batch of Tribal-class destroyers ordered by the Royal Canadian Navy in 1940–1941. They were ordered with modified ventilation and heating systems for North Atlantic winter service. Design modifications were made after deficiencies were noted in Iroquois, the lead ship of the Canadian Tribals. Canadian Tribals were a foot longer than their British counterparts and carried an auxiliary boiler for heating and additional power requirements.[5]

Huron, as one of the British-built Tribal-class destroyers, was 335 feet 6 inches (102.3 m) long between perpendiculars and 377 feet (114.9 m) long overall with a beam of 36 feet 6 inches (11.1 m) and a draught of 13 feet (4.0 m). As built, the destroyer had a standard displacement of 1,927 long tons (1,958 t) and 2,745 long tons (2,789 t) at deep load.[3][6] Huron had a complement of 14 officers and 245 ratings.[6]

The destroyer was propelled by two shafts driven by two Parsons geared turbines powered by steam created by three Admiralty-type three drum boilers. This created 44,000 shaft horsepower (33,000 kW) and gave the ship a maximum speed of 36.5 knots (67.6 km/h; 42.0 mph). The destroyers could carry 505–516 long tons (513–524 t) of fuel oil.[3]

As built, Huron was fitted with six quick firing 4.7-inch (119 mm) Mk XII guns placed in three twin turrets, designated 'A', 'B' and 'Y' from bow to stern.[note 1] The turrets were placed on 40° mountings with open-backed shields.[3] The ship also had one twin turret of QF 4-inch (102 mm) Mk XVI guns in the 'X' position.[3][6] For secondary anti-aircraft armament, the destroyer was equipped with one quad mount 2-pounder "pom-pom" gun and six single Oerlikon 20 mm cannon. The vessel was also fitted with four 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes for Mk IX torpedoes.[3][7]

The ship was equipped with Type 291 radar for air search, Type 293 radar for target indication and Type 285 radar for 4.7-inch gun control and a DCT controller for the 4-inch guns (working with the Type 285 radar). The radar was carried on a lattice mast and the HF/DF was situated on a pole aft.[8]

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Fubuki-class destroyer

Fubuki-class destroyer

The Fubuki-class destroyers were a class of twenty-four destroyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Fubuki class has been described as the world's first modern destroyer. The Fubuki class set a new standard not only for Japanese vessels, but for destroyers around the world. They remained formidable opponents to the end of World War II, despite being much older than many of their adversaries.

Cruiser

Cruiser

A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, and can usually perform several roles.

HMCS Iroquois (G89)

HMCS Iroquois (G89)

HMCS Iroquois was a Tribal-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy during the Second World War and Korean War. She was named for the Iroquois First Nations. Iroquois was the first ship to bear this name and the first ship of the class to serve with the Royal Canadian Navy.

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars is the length of a ship along the summer load line from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. When there is no sternpost, the centerline axis of the rudder stock is used as the aft end of the length between perpendiculars.

Length overall

Length overall

Length overall is the maximum length of a vessel's hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship. It is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is also used for calculating the cost of a marina berth.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company

Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company

Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company was a British engineering company based on the River Tyne at Wallsend, North East England.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Quick-firing gun

Quick-firing gun

A quick-firing or rapid-firing gun is an artillery piece, typically a gun or howitzer, which has several characteristics which taken together mean the weapon can fire at a fast rate. Quick-firing was introduced worldwide in the 1880s and 1890s and had a marked impact on war both on land and at sea.

Gun turret

Gun turret

A gun turret is a mounting platform from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility and ability to turn and aim. A modern gun turret is generally a rotatable weapon mount that houses the crew or mechanism of a projectile-firing weapon and at the same time lets the weapon be aimed and fired in some degree of azimuth and elevation.

Construction and career

Huron was ordered on 5 April 1940 as part of the 1940 shipbuilding programme.[9] However, due to the increased workload on British shipyards due to losses on the continent, her keel-laying was delayed.[10] She was laid down on 15 July 1941 by Vickers-Armstrongs on the River Tyne in England and launched on 25 June 1942.[9] She was commissioned into the Royal Canadian Navy on 19 July 1943 at Newcastle upon Tyne.[11] She was completed on 28 July.[10]

Russian convoys

After commissioning, Huron was assigned to the 3rd Destroyer Flotilla of the British Home Fleet.[11] From 1–11 October 1943 she carried special supplies and personnel to Murmansk in the Soviet Union as part of Operation Holder.[12] On her return to Scapa Flow she was damaged in a collision with an oiler and spent a month in repair at Leith.[10] After her return from the dockyard she then spent the rest of the year escorting convoys bound for the Soviet Union.[11] She made six escort trips on the Murmansk Run.[13] The first, convoy JW 54A sailed from Loch Ewe on 15 November and Huron joined the escort from 18–24 November. On 28 November, the destroyer was among the escort of convoy RA 54B returning from the Soviet Union and arriving at Loch Ewe on 9 December. Both convoys arrived without loss. Huron was escorting her next convoy, Convoy JW 55B, when it came under attack by German Junkers Ju 88 bombers on 22 December. The convoy escaped unscathed.[14] Huron and was present at the Battle of the North Cape on 26 December 1943, for the sinking of the German battleship Scharnhorst, and observed the Royal Norwegian Navy destroyer HNoMS Stord advance to within 400 yards (370 m) and fire torpedoes at the much larger Scharnhorst.[13] The convoy arrived without loss and Huron escorted the return convoy, also without loss. On the next convoy escort mission, Convoy JW 56B, the convoy came under attack during the night of 25/26 January. Three merchant vessels were sunk and the British destroyer HMS Obdurate damaged.[15]

Operations along the French coast

Huron continued to escort Arctic convoys until February 1944, when she was transferred to the 10th Destroyer Flotilla based at Plymouth to take part in the lead up to the invasion of Normandy. Two operations were run by Plymouth Command in preparation. The first, Operation Tunnel, were patrols against German convoys in the Bay of Biscay and English Channel. In Operation Hostile, the second, the destroyers and cruisers covered minelayers laying minefields in enemy waters. By late April 1944, Huron had carried out eleven Hostile and Tunnel missions. The time between missions was spent training in night-fighting, radar-controlled gunnery, and radar detection.[16]

On 25 April 1944, Huron, along with several other destroyers, encountered three torpedo boats of the German 4th Torpedo Boat Flotilla while performing an Operation Tunnel mission. The result of the engagement saw the Canadian destroyers sink T29 and severely damage the others.[17][18] Huron was damaged in the action, colliding with HMS Ashanti. This was followed by several more Tunnel and Hostile missions in May 1944, with no encounters with Germans.[19] At the end of May, the 10th Destroyer Flotilla was assigned to the Hurd Deep Patrol, maintaining a patrol line to intercept German surface craft still based at Brest, Cherbourg, and ports in the Bay of Biscay. On D-day, Huron was performing a Hurd Deep patrol, returning to Plymouth that afternoon. Within an hour of their arrival, German naval movement was detected, and the following day Huron and sister ship HMCS Haida sailed to relieve destroyers already on patrol.

On 9 June 1944, as a result of Ultra intercepts, Huron and several other destroyers intercepted a force of German destroyers heading for the Allied invasion fleet in what became known as the Battle of Ushant, off the coast of Brittany. After a fierce gun battle, she assisted Haida in running Z32 aground and pummeling the wreck.[20][21] Later that month, on 27 and 28 June 1944, while on patrol with fellow Tribal-class destroyer HMS Eskimo, they intercepted a German detachment composed of a heavily armed minesweeper and two naval trawlers. After the destroyers were detected, the Germans attempted to get in closer to shore under the protection of their coastal artillery. Huron sank the minesweeper and a trawler. However, the second trawler severely damaged Eskimo, knocking that destroyer out of action.[17][22][note 2] On 8 July 1944, Huron and HMS Tartar attacked two naval trawlers before being driven off by coastal artillery.[23] Rohwer states that Huron and Tartar attacked the German 4th Minesweeping Flotilla off the Channel Islands during the night of 7/8 July. The two destroyers combined to sink two of the minesweepers, M 4605 and M 4601.[24] Plymouth Command ran a final operation in support of the Normandy landings, Operation Kinetic, which was designed to break up German coastal supply. On 31 July 1944, the 10th Destroyer Flotilla sailed from Plymouth and returned on 3 August. They sailed again the next day on what was to be Huron's final patrol before departing for Canada.[25]

Refit and end of war

In August 1944, Huron returned to Canada to undergo a refit at Halifax, Nova Scotia. She returned to UK waters in November 1944, carrying out escort duties in the Western Approaches. In March 1945, she was transferred to the Home Fleet for screening duties, traveling from Scapa Flow and the River Clyde. On 16 April 1945, Huron sailed for Murmansk on one final Arctic convoy to the Soviet Union, returning to Scapa Flow on 6 May 1945.[10][26] On the return convoy to Scapa Flow, the last convoy battle of the European war takes place. The convoy is attacked by German U-boats, with one member of the escort, HMS Goodall being sunk.[27] Huron, Haida and the cruiser HMS Berwick departed Scapa Flow for Trondheim, Norway, calling in fjords with relief supplies. Upon reaching Trondheim, the Allied units take over custody of surrendered U-boats. Huron returned to Greenock, Scotland on 24 April 1945.[26][28] In May 1945 she returned to Canada. She began a tropicalization refit to prepare her for possible service in the southern Pacific Ocean. However, this was cancelled due to the surrender of Japan.[11] Following the end of the war, she was decommissioned into the reserve on 9 March 1946.[10][11]

Postwar service

In 1950, Huron was recommissioned with the new pennant number 216[9] for training purposes, but with the onset of the Korean War she was sent overseas. She sailed for her first tour in Korean waters on 22 January 1951.[11] She arrived in theatre on 15 March 1951 and in early April, Huron and sister ship HMCS Athabaskan screened aircraft carriers on the east coast of Korea while they performed airstrikes on Wonsan. In May, Huron transferred to the west coast, screening carriers and performing inshore patrols. During one of her patrols, the destroyer captured a large Chinese junk and its eight crew. In late June, the destroyer switched to the east coast, screening carriers and performing shore bombardment and inshore patrol missions. Huron screened the aircraft carriers HMS Glory and USS Sicily during airstrikes on North Korea, which became known as the "Han River Demonstration" during truce talks in July. Huron left for Canada on 14 August, relieved by Athabaskan.[29]

Upon her return to Canada on 21 September 1951, Huron underwent a major refit, completing in 1953.[10][30] The refit changed her armament, replacing the 'Y' gun mount with a double Squid anti-submarine mortar mount. Huron's main guns became uniform, with the 4.7-inch guns replaced with 4-inch guns. This was later changed to the guns in mounts 'A' and 'B' remaining as 4-inch guns, but the 'X' mount became a twin 3-inch (76 mm)/50 calibre mount. The anti-aircraft armament was upgraded as well, with four single 40 mm Bofors guns. The DCT was upgraded to a US Mark 63 fire control system and the radars to SPS-6 air search and Sperry surface search models.[31] Her second tour of duty as a member of the Commonwealth Task Force lasted from 18 June 1953 until 5 February 1954. The latter part of that tour was spent during the Armistice period. Her third tour from 1 October to 26 December 1954 was spent with the United Nations fleet monitoring Korean waters.[10] Following her Korean tours she reverted to her training role, taking part in NATO activities until she was paid off into reserve at Halifax on 20 April 1963 and scrapped at La Spezia, Italy in August 1965.[10][11]

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Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Ceremonial ship launching

Ceremonial ship launching

Ceremonial ship launching involves the performance of ceremonies associated with the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a nautical tradition in many cultures, dating back thousands of years, to accompany the physical process with ceremonies which have been observed as public celebration and a solemn blessing, usually but not always, in association with the launch itself.

3rd Destroyer Flotilla

3rd Destroyer Flotilla

The British 3rd Destroyer Flotilla, also styled as Third Destroyer Flotilla, was a naval formation of the Royal Navy from 1909 to 1939 and again from 1945 to 1951.

Home Fleet

Home Fleet

The Home Fleet was a fleet of the Royal Navy that operated from the United Kingdom's territorial waters from 1902 with intervals until 1967. In 1967, it was merged with the Mediterranean Fleet creating the new Western Fleet.

Murmansk

Murmansk

Murmansk is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia. It sits on both slopes and banks of a modest ria or fjord, Kola Bay, an estuarine inlet of the Barents Sea. Its bulk is on the east bank of the inlet. It is in the north of the rounded Kola Peninsula which covers most of the oblast. The city is 108 kilometres (67 mi) from the border with Norway and 182 kilometres (113 mi) from the border with Finland.

Leith

Leith

Leith is a port area in the north of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, founded at the mouth of the Water of Leith. In 2021, it was ranked by Time Out as one of the top five neighbourhoods to live in the world.

Loch Ewe

Loch Ewe

Loch Ewe is a sea loch in the region of Wester Ross in the Northwest Highlands of Scotland. The shores are inhabited by a traditionally Gàidhlig-speaking people living in or sustained by crofting villages, the most notable of which, situated on the north-eastern shore, is the Aultbea settlement.

Convoy JW 55B

Convoy JW 55B

Convoy JW 55B was an Arctic convoy sent from Great Britain by the Western Allies to aid the Soviet Union during World War II. It sailed in late December 1943, reaching the Soviet northern ports at the end of the month. All ships arrived safely.

Junkers Ju 88

Junkers Ju 88

The Junkers Ju 88 is a German World War II Luftwaffe twin-engined multirole combat aircraft. Junkers Aircraft and Motor Works (JFM) designed the plane in the mid-1930s as a so-called Schnellbomber that would be too fast for fighters of its era to intercept. It suffered from technical problems during its development and early operational periods but became one of the most versatile combat aircraft of the war. Like a number of other Luftwaffe bombers, it served as a bomber, dive bomber, night fighter, torpedo bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, heavy fighter and at the end of the war, as a flying bomb.

Bomber

Bomber

A bomber is a military combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry, launching torpedoes, or deploying air-launched cruise missiles. The first use of bombs dropped from an aircraft occurred in the Italo-Turkish War, with the first major deployments coming in the First World War and Second World War by all major airforces causing devastating damage to cities, towns, and rural areas. The first purpose built bombers were the Italian Caproni Ca 30 and British Bristol T.B.8, both of 1913. Some bombers were decorated with nose art or victory markings.

Battle of the North Cape

Battle of the North Cape

The Battle of the North Cape was a Second World War naval battle that occurred on 26 December 1943, as part of the Arctic campaign. The German battleship Scharnhorst, on an operation to attack Arctic convoys of war materiel from the western Allies to the Soviet Union, was brought to battle and sunk by the Royal Navy's battleship HMS Duke of York with cruisers and destroyers, including an onslaught from the destroyer HNoMS Stord of the exiled Royal Norwegian Navy, off the North Cape, Norway.

Legacy

The 4-inch (102 mm) twin high-angle Mk XIX naval gun turret was removed from Huron was presented to the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario.

Source: "HMCS Huron (G24)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Huron_(G24).

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Notes
  1. ^ Mark XII = Mark 12. Britain used Roman numerals to denote Marks (models) of ordnance until after the Second World War.
  2. ^ Rohwer on page 336 claims the force was a converted trawler M 4611 and one patrol boat V 213. M 4611 was sunk and V 213 was the ship that damaged Eskimo and escaped.
Citations
  1. ^ "Battle Honours". Britain's Navy. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  2. ^ "Volume 2, Part 1: Extant Commissioned Ships". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. 2006. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Chesneau, p. 40
  4. ^ Tucker, p. 26
  5. ^ Friedman, pp. 53–55
  6. ^ a b c Macpherson and Barrie, p. 59
  7. ^ Friedman, p. 55
  8. ^ Friedman, pp. 52–53
  9. ^ a b c "HMCS Huron (G24)". uboat.net. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Mason, Geoffrey B. (2001). "HMCS Huron, destroyer". naval-history.net. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Macpherson & Barrie, p. 61.
  12. ^ Rohwer, p. 279.
  13. ^ a b Forrest, Laura (18 May 2015). "A Canadian veteran remembers the "terrible" Murmansk Run". Barents Observer. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  14. ^ Rohwer, pp. 286, 292–93.
  15. ^ Rohwer, pp. 293, 300.
  16. ^ Schull, pp. 250–51.
  17. ^ a b Gimblett, pp. 68, 75.
  18. ^ Rohwer, p. 318.
  19. ^ Schull, pp. 252, 258.
  20. ^ Zuehlke, pp. 218–225.
  21. ^ Schull, pp. 258, 288–295.
  22. ^ Schull, pp. 339–40.
  23. ^ Schull, p. 340.
  24. ^ Rohwer, p. 341.
  25. ^ Schull, p. 348.
  26. ^ a b Schull, pp. 401, 406
  27. ^ Rohwer, p. 412.
  28. ^ Rohwer, p. 416.
  29. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, pp. 49–50, 55, 59–60.
  30. ^ Thorgrimsson and Russell, p. 141.
  31. ^ Friedman, p. 394
References
  • Brice, Martin H. (1971). The Tribals. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0245-2.
  • Chesneau, Roger, ed. (1980). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7.
  • English, John (2001). Afridi to Nizam: British Fleet Destroyers 1937–43. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-95-0.
  • Friedman, Norman (2006). British Destroyers and Frigates, the Second World War and After. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-86176-137-6.
  • Gimblett, Richard H., ed. (2009). The Naval Service of Canada 1910–2010: The Centennial Story. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55488-470-4.
  • Macpherson, Ken; Barrie, Ron (2002). The Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002 (Third ed.). St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 1-55125-072-1.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Schull, Joseph (1961). The Far Distant Ships: An Official Account of Canadian Naval Operations in the Second World War. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. OCLC 19974782.
  • Thorgrimsson, Thor; Russell, E.C. (1965). Canadian Naval Operations in Korean Waters 1950–1955. Ottawa: King's Printer. OCLC 5285395.
  • Tucker, Gilbert Norman (1952). The Naval Service of Canada, Its Official History – Volume 2: Activities on Shore During the Second World War. Ottawa: King's Printer. OCLC 4346983.
  • Whitley, M. J. (1988). Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-326-1.
  • Zuehlke, Marc (2006). Holding Juno: Canada's Heroic Defence of the D-Day Beaches: June 7-12, 1944. Douglas & Mcintyre. ISBN 1553651944.
Further reading
  • Whitby, Michael (2022). "The Challenges of Operation 'Tunnel', September 1943 — April 1944". In Jordan, John (ed.). Warship 2022. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. pp. 29–46. ISBN 978-1-4728-4781-2.
External links

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