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HMCS Fraser (DDH 233)

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HMCS Fraser (DDH 233) underway in 1983.JPEG
HMCS Fraser (DDH 233) underway in 1983
History
Canada
NameFraser
NamesakeFraser River
BuilderBurrard Yarrows, Vancouver and Esquimalt
Laid down11 December 1951
Launched19 February 1953
Commissioned28 June 1957
Decommissioned5 October 1994
Reclassified22 October 1966 (as DDH)
HomeportHalifax, Nova Scotia
Motto"Je suis pret"[1]
Honours and
awards
Atlantic 1939–1940[1]
FateScrapped by Marine Recycling Corporation, Port Colborne, Ontario
BadgeAzure, a buck's head erased or, attired argent, charged on the shoulder with a maple leaf gules[1]
General characteristics
Type St. Laurent-class destroyer escort
Displacement
  • As DDE:
  • 2263 tons (normal), 2800 tons (deep load)
  • As DDH:
  • 2260 tons (normal), 3051 tons (deep load)[3]
Length366 ft (111.6 m)
Beam42 ft (12.8 m)
Draught
  • As DDE: 13 ft (4.0 m)[2]
  • As DDH:14 ft (4.3 m)[3]
Propulsion2-shaft English-Electric geared steam turbines, 3 Babcock & Wilcox boilers 22,000 kW (30,000 shp)
Speed28.5 knots (52.8 km/h)[2]
Range4,570 nautical miles (8,463.6 km) at 12 knots (22.2 km/h)
Complement
  • As DDE: 249
  • As DDH: 213 plus 20 aircrew
Sensors and
processing systems
  • As DDE:
  • 1 × SPS-12 air search radar
  • 1 × SPS-10B surface search radar
  • 1 × Sperry Mk.2 navigation radar
  • 1 × SQS-10 or −11 hull mounted active search and attack sonar
  • 1 × SQS-501 (Type 162) high frequency bottom profiling sonar
  • 1 × SQS-502 (Type 170) high frequency Limbo mortar control sonar
  • 1 × UQC-1B "Gertrude" underwater telephone
  • 1 × GUNAR (Mk.64 GFCS with 2 on-mount SPG-48 directors)
  • As DDH:
  • 1 × SPS-12 air search radar
  • 1 × SPS-10B surface search radar
  • 1 × Sperry Mk.2 navigation radar
  • 1 × URN 20 TACAN radar
  • 1 × SQS-10 or −11 hull mounted active search and attack sonar
  • 1 × SQS-501 (Type 162) high frequency bottom profiling sonar
  • 1 × SQS-502 (Type 170) high frequency Limbo mortar control sonar
  • 1 × SQS-504 VDS, medium frequency active search (except 233 after 1986)
  • 1 × UQC-1B "Gertrude" underwater telephone
  • 1 × GUNAR (Mk.64 GFCS with 1 on-mount SPG-48 director)
Electronic warfare
& decoys
  • As DDE:
  • 1 × DAU HF/DF (high frequency direction finder)
  • As DDH:
  • 1 × WLR 1C radar warning
  • 1 × UPD 501 radar detection
  • 1 × SRD 501 HF/DF
Armament
  • As DDE:
  • 2 × 3 in (76 mm) Mk.33 FMC twin mounts guns
  • 2 × 40 mm "Boffin" single mount guns
  • 2 × Mk NC 10 Limbo ASW mortars
  • 2 × single Mk.2 "K-gun" launchers with homing torpedoes
  • As DDH:
  • 1 × 3"/50 Mk.33 FMC twin mount gun
  • 1 × Mk NC 10 Limbo ASW mortar
  • 2 × triple Mk.32 12.75 inch launchers firing Mk.44 or Mk.46 Mod 5 torpedoes
Aircraft carried
Aviation facilities
  • As DDH:
  • 1 × midships helicopter deck with Beartrap and hangar

HMCS Fraser (DDH 233) was a St. Laurent-class destroyer that served in the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) and later the Canadian Forces from 1957–1994. Fraser was the last survivor of the St. Laurent-class destroyer, which were the first Canadian designed and built warships.

Design and description

Two St. Laurent-class destroyers in their original configuration. Fraser is on the left
Two St. Laurent-class destroyers in their original configuration. Fraser is on the left

The need for the St. Laurent class came about in 1949 when Canada joined NATO and the Cold War was in its infancy. The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was assigned responsibility for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and controlling sea space in the western North Atlantic. The St Laurent class were built to an operational requirement much like that which produced the British Type 12, and were powered by the same machinery plant. The rounded deck-edge forward was adopted to prevent ice forming.[4] The vessels were designed to operate in harsh Canadian conditions. They were built to counter nuclear, biological and chemical attack conditions, which led to a design with a rounded hull, a continuous main deck, and the addition of a pre-wetting system to wash away contaminants. The living spaces on the ship were part of a "citadel" which could be sealed off from contamination for the crew safety. The ships were sometimes referred to as "Cadillacs" for their relatively luxurious crew compartments; these were also the first Canadian warships to have a bunk for every crew member since previous warship designs had used hammocks.[5]

As built, the ships were 366 feet (112 m) long overall with a beam of 42 feet (13 m) and a draught of 13 feet 2 inches (4.01 m).[6] The destroyer escorts displaced 2,263 tonnes (2,227 long tons) standard and 2,800 tonnes (2,800 long tons) at deep load.[6][note 1] The destroyer escorts had a crew of 12 officers and 237 enlisted.[6]

Armament

The St. Laurent class was fitted with twin 3-inch (76 mm)/L50 calibre guns in two mounts for engaging both surface and air targets. The ships were also fitted with two single-mounted 40 mm (1.6 in) guns.[6] The class's anti-submarine armament consisted of a pair of triple-barreled Mk. NC 10 Limbo ASW mortars in a stern well. The stern well had a roller top to close it off from following seas. As with the British Type 12 design, the provision for long-range homing torpedoes (in this case BIDDER [Mk 20E] or the US Mark 35 were included. However, they were never fitted.[4]

Machinery

The vessels of the St. Laurent class had two Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers installed.[6] The steam produced by these boilers was directed at two geared steam turbines which powered two shafts, providing 22,000 kilowatts (30,000 shp) to drive the ship at a maximum speed of 28.5 knots (52.8 km/h).[7] The ships had an endurance of 4,570 nautical miles (8,460 km) at 12 knots (22 km/h).[6]

DDH conversion

Following successful trials aboard the frigate Buckingham and sister ship Ottawa, plans to convert the St. Laurent class took shape.[8][9][10] The development of the beartrap, installed in Assiniboine during her 1962–63 conversion, finalised the concept.[9] By keeping the aircraft secure, the beartrap eliminated the need for deck handling from landing to the hangar, or from hangar to takeoff.[9]

In the conversion to a helicopter-carrying vessel, Fraser was gutted except for machinery and some forward spaces. The hull was strengthened, fuelling facilities for the helicopter and activated fin stabilizers installed. The fin stabilizers were to reduce roll in rough weather during helicopter operations.[11] All seven St Laurents were fitted with helicopter platforms and SQS 504 Variable Depth Sonar (VDS). The single funnel was altered to twin stepped funnels to permit the forward extension of the helicopter hangar.[7] To make room for the helicopter deck, the aft 3-inch mount and one of the Limbos were removed.[11][12] The two 40 mm guns were also removed.[12] Following the conversion, the displacement remained the same at standard load but at full load, it increased to 3,051 tonnes (3,003 long tons).[6]

DELEX program

In the late 1970s, under the Destroyer Life Extension (DELEX) program was commissioned to upgrade ten of the St. Laurent-class ships with new electronics, machinery, and hull upgrades and repairs. However, only enough was done to keep the ships in service into the late 1980s. For the St. Laurents, this meant hull and machinery repairs only.[13]

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Cold War

Cold War

The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported opposing sides in major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

Anti-submarine warfare

Anti-submarine warfare

Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, submarines, or other platforms, to find, track, and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines. Such operations are typically carried out to protect friendly shipping and coastal facilities from submarine attacks and to overcome blockades.

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi). It covers approximately 20% of Earth's surface and about 29% of its water surface area. It is known to separate the "Old World" of Africa, Europe and Asia from the "New World" of the Americas in the European perception of the World.

Biological warfare

Biological warfare

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, insects, and fungi with the intent to kill, harm or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war. Biological weapons are living organisms or replicating entities. Entomological (insect) warfare is a subtype of biological warfare.

Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare, biological warfare and radiological warfare, which together make up CBRN, the military acronym for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear, all of which are considered "weapons of mass destruction" (WMDs), a term that contrasts with conventional weapons.

Cadillac

Cadillac

The Cadillac Motor Car Division is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM) that designs and builds luxury vehicles. Its major markets are the United States, Canada, and China. Cadillac models are distributed in 34 additional markets worldwide. Cadillac automobiles are at the top of the luxury field within the United States. In 2019, Cadillac sold 390,458 vehicles worldwide, a record for the brand.

Hammock

Hammock

A hammock is a sling made of fabric, rope, or netting, suspended between two or more points, used for swinging, sleeping, or resting. It normally consists of one or more cloth panels, or a woven network of twine or thin rope stretched with ropes between two firm anchor points such as trees or posts. Hammocks were developed by native inhabitants of the Americas for sleeping, as well as the English. Later, they were used aboard ships by sailors to enable comfort and maximize available space, by explorers or soldiers travelling in wooded regions and eventually by parents in the early 1920s for containing babies just learning to crawl. Today they are popular around the world for relaxation; they are also used as a lightweight bed on camping trips. The hammock is often seen as a symbol of summer, leisure, relaxation and simple, easy living.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Caliber (artillery)

Caliber (artillery)

In artillery, caliber or calibre is the internal diameter of a gun barrel, or - by extension - a relative measure of the barrel length.

Babcock & Wilcox

Babcock & Wilcox

Babcock & Wilcox is an American renewable, environmental and thermal energy technologies and service provider that is active and has operations in many international markets across the globe with its headquarters in Akron, Ohio, USA. Historically, the company is best known for their steam boilers.

Service history

Fraser's keel was laid down on 11 December 1951 at Burrard Dry Dock in North Vancouver, British Columbia. The ship was launched on 19 February 1953 and commissioned into the Royal Canadian Navy on 28 June 1957, initially carrying the hull number DDE 233 as a destroyer escort.[14] Following her commissioning, the destroyer escort joined the Second Canadian Escort Squadron at Esquimalt, British Columbia.[15][16] While transiting to Pearl Harbor in November 1960, the destroyer escort aided the crippled yacht Red Witch. Fraser remained with the vessel until the arrival of the United States Coast Guard.[17] On 6 February 1965, Fraser underwent the first of two shock trials off the coast of Hawaii. The destroyer escort returned in April to undergo the second one, passing both of them.[15]

Fraser began conversion to a destroyer helicopter escort on 2 July 1965 at Canadian Vickers in Montreal, Quebec, the last of her class to undergo the transformation.[15] The refit finished, the ship was officially reclassed with hull number DDH 233 on 22 October 1966.[14] The first helicopter landing aboard Fraser, made by a CH-124 Sea King, was performed on 15 June 1967.[15] In October 1967, Fraser demonstrated the Canadian "beartrap" helicopter haul-down system during a visit to Washington, DC. In 1969, the ship represented Canada during the Spithead Review. In May 1973, the ship was placed in reserve, but was reactivated on 11 March 1974. The ship was sent to Davie Shipbuilding in Quebec and returned to operational service in Fall 1974.[15] In 1976, Fraser was assigned to security duties associated with the 1976 Summer Olympics held in Montreal.[18]

On 28 November 1980, Fraser rescued twelve British fisherman from the fishing vessel St Irene off the coast of the Netherlands.[19] While on deployment in December with STANAVFORLANT, the NATO fleet in the Atlantic, Fraser was held at Portsmouth for use in the Skagerrak if NATO had needed to respond to a Soviet incursion into Poland.[19][20] In 1981, Fraser returned to Canadian Vickers in Montreal on 19 October 1981 to undergo the DELEX refit. The ship completed this refit on 28 May 1982.[19]

Following the refit, Fraser became a test ship. In 1986, the vessel was the testbed for the Experimental Towed Array Sonar System. In 1987, Fraser was the first Canadian ship to carry and was the first to test the NIXIE torpedo decoy system. The warship followed that with testing the TACAN antenna, for operating jointly with aircraft in combat areas. In 1988, the ship became the first to operate a HELTAS Sea King, a Sea King helicopter equipped with passive array sonar.[19]

On 18 October 1993, Fraser was among the Canadian vessels deployed off the coast of Haiti to enforce United Nations sanctions.[19][21] The destroyer escort returned to Canada in December before sailing to Haitian waters again in January 1994. On 10 January, the ship suffered a minor boiler room fire. Fraser continued to her patrol area until being relieved by Annapolis on 25 March. In July 1994, Fraser intercepted and seized the American fishing vessels Warrior and Alpha Omega II on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland after they were caught illegally fishing. On 13–14 September, while performing a fisheries patrol, the ship aided the sailing vessel Maja Romm, which had broken down.[19]

The destroyer was decommissioned from active service in the Canadian Forces on 5 October 1994 and placed in category C reserve. The ship was used as a floating classroom at Halifax, replacing Assiniboine.[19]

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Keel

Keel

The keel is the bottom-most longitudinal structural element on a vessel. On some sailboats, it may have a hydrodynamic and counterbalancing purpose, as well. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event.

Burrard Dry Dock

Burrard Dry Dock

Burrard Dry Dock Ltd. was a Canadian shipbuilding company headquartered in North Vancouver, British Columbia. Together with the neighbouring North Van Ship Repair yard and the Yarrows Ltd. yard in Esquimalt, which were eventually absorbed, Burrard built over 450 ships, including many warships built and refitted for the Royal Navy and Royal Canadian Navy in the First and Second World Wars.

North Vancouver (city)

North Vancouver (city)

The City of North Vancouver is a city on the north shore of Burrard Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. It is the smallest in area and the most urbanized of the North Shore municipalities. Although it has significant industry of its own – including shipping, chemical production, and film production – the city is considered to be a suburb of Vancouver. The city is served by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, British Columbia Ambulance Service, and the North Vancouver City Fire Department.

British Columbia

British Columbia

British Columbia, commonly abbreviated as BC, is the westernmost province of Canada, situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It has a diverse geography, with rugged landscapes that include rocky coastlines, sandy beaches, forests, lakes, mountains, inland deserts and grassy plains, and borders the province of Alberta to the east and the Yukon and Northwest Territories to the north. With an estimated population of 5.3 million as of 2022, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The capital of British Columbia is Victoria and its largest city is Vancouver. Vancouver is the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada; the 2021 census recorded 2.6 million people in Metro Vancouver.

Hull classification symbol (Canada)

Hull classification symbol (Canada)

The Royal Canadian Navy uses hull classification symbols to identify the types of its ships, which are similar to the United States Navy's hull classification symbol system. The Royal Navy and some European and Commonwealth navies use a somewhat analogous system of pennant numbers.

Destroyer escort

Destroyer escort

Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a 20-knot warship designed with the endurance necessary to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships.

CFB Esquimalt

CFB Esquimalt

Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt is Canada's Pacific Coast naval base and home port to Maritime Forces Pacific and Joint Task Force Pacific Headquarters. As of 2018, 4,411 military personnel and 2,762 civilians work at CFB Esquimalt.

Hawaii

Hawaii

Hawaii is a state in the Western United States, located in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from the U.S. mainland. It is the only U.S. state outside North America, the only state that is an archipelago, and the only state in the tropics.

Canadian Vickers

Canadian Vickers

Canadian Vickers Limited was an aircraft and shipbuilding company that operated in Canada during the early part of the 20th century until 1944. A subsidiary of Vickers Limited, it built its own aircraft designs as well as others under licence. Canadair absorbed the Canadian Vickers aircraft operations in November 1944.

Montreal

Montreal

Montreal is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill around which the early city of Ville-Marie is built. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which obtained its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. The city is 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) southwest of the provincial capital, Quebec City.

Davie Shipbuilding

Davie Shipbuilding

Davie Shipbuilding is a historic shipbuilding company located in Lauzon, Quebec, Canada. The facility is now operating as Chantier Davie Canada Inc. and is the oldest continually operating shipbuilder in North America.

1976 Summer Olympics

1976 Summer Olympics

The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad and commonly known as Montreal 1976, were an international multi-sport event held from July 17 to August 1, 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam on May 12, 1970, over the bids of Moscow and Los Angeles. It was the first and, so far, only Summer Olympic Games to be held in Canada. Toronto hosted the 1976 Summer Paralympics the same year as the Montreal Olympics, which still remains the only Summer Paralympics to be held in Canada. Calgary and Vancouver later hosted the Winter Olympic Games in 1988 and 2010, respectively.

Fate

Purchase by Artificial Reef Society of Nova Scotia

Fraser was declared surplus in the late 1990s by the Canadian Forces and given to the Artificial Reef Society of Nova Scotia (ARSNS) in 1998. ARSNS had never considered sinking Fraser as an artificial reef diving attraction and she was towed to Bridgewater where she was stored for possible use as a museum ship.[22]

ARSNS had purchased the government wharf in Bridgewater on the east bank of the Lahave River, which became Fraser's home for close to 12 years. The society made the vessel available to for possible conversion to a museum ship, should funding be secured. The ship never opened as a museum, although guided tours were offered by appointment in 2003 and 2004.[23] During that period, some groups such as the Sea Cadets, LaHave River Tourism Association, Atlantic Lighthouse Council, Bridgewater Fire Department, and Katimavik used the ship for events and the wardroom hosted meetings with visiting politicians. The ship was also used for some years as the site for the annual Canada Day fireworks display in Bridgewater.

HMCS Fraser at Bridgewater, 1999.
HMCS Fraser at Bridgewater, 1999.

In 1997, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada recognised the St. Laurent Class as being historically significant to Canadians and in 2000[24] installed a bronze plaque aboard HMCS Fraser which reads:

St. Laurent Class of Canadian Warship

The pride of the Canadian Navy during the Cold War, these anti-submarine escorts were the first naval vessels conceived and built in Canada. Designed in 1948–1949, they influenced naval construction internationally with their smooth above-water surfaces and distinctive convex deck. They could also be sealed to protect crews against biological and radioactive threats. All seven St. Laurent-class ships were modified during the 1960s to carry helicopters and enhance their anti-submarine capability. Launched in 1953, the HMCS Fraser is the last surviving example of this innovative class of warship.

— National Historic Site plaque

The Government of Nova Scotia and the Town of Bridgewater were taken to court by the ARSNS over Fraser being assessed for commercial property taxes. ARSNS fought this litigation in the Supreme Court of Canada and then Appeals Court, arguing that vessels could not be assessed as commercial property. Although the society was legally successful in its argument, the court challenge caused significant financial hardship and resulted in the vessel's exterior paint deteriorating considerably in the absence of funding over this 12-year period. The vessel became an irritant to local residents whose waterfront properties faced the former warship and the "deplorable state" of the ship brought complaints from residents, municipal politicians, and naval veterans.[25] The condition of Fraser became a local issue in the Nova Scotia's 2009 provincial election when signs appeared around Bridgewater criticising ARSNS chair Rick Welsford who was running as a Liberal candidate for the neglect of the ship.[26]

Purchase by Government of Canada

After a year of negotiations and a proposal made to the Department of National Defence (DND) by the Artificial Reef Society of Nova Scotia, Minister of National Defence Peter MacKay announced in a press release on 30 January 2009 that DND had reached an agreement with the ARSNS to re-purchase the ship and transfer ownership of the warship back to the federal government. The release stated that ""DND may sink her to create an artificial reef, or scrap her, or move her to preserve her for heritage purposes."[27][28]

At the time, DND indicated that it would purchase the vessel from ARSNS by 1 June 2009. Rick Welsford, chairman of the Society, as well as being the ship's strongest supporter and a constant target of criticism relating to the vessel's appearance, stated in February 2009 that the ship could still be restored for less than the cost of scrapping.[22]

On the morning of 21 July 2009, two MARCOM tugboats from CFB Halifax entered the Lahave River. While a Canadian Forces officer exchanged a cheque in the amount of $1.00 from the Government of Canada to the Artificial Reef Society of Nova Scotia, receiving a ceremonial key to the vessel, the two tugboats took Fraser in tow and returned her to Halifax Harbour in approximately 12 hours. Fraser was secured in the Bedford Basin pending further discussions over her fate; she was subsequently moved to the Shearwater Jetty.

Scrapping

On 27 August 2010, DND announced that Fraser would be sold to the Marine Recycling Corporation and towed to MRC's facility in Port Colborne, Ontario for scrapping; historic artefacts had been removed from the ship by DND and placed at the Maritime Command Museum at CFB Halifax.[29] Later that day, ARSNS filed a lawsuit against DND in the Federal Court of Canada citing breach of contract. A clause in the December 2008 agreement between DND and ARSNS had stated that should DND decide to scrap the ship, the society would receive "first consideration" to present a proposal to turn it into an artificial reef and that DND must find the proposal acceptable. ARSNS stated that its claim exceeded $50,000 not including interest and court costs. As a result of the lawsuit, the Federal Court of Canada ordered that the former HMCS Fraser be arrested at its berth at Jetty Lima at HMC Dockyard Annex in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. DND was given 30 days to file its defence.

On 1 September 2010 the Federal Court of Canada quashed the arrest warrant, allowing DND to move the ship, however, the towing operation which was originally scheduled to begin on 2 September was interrupted by the passage of Hurricane Earl. On the morning of 7 September 2010 the former HMCS Fraser was taken under tow by the civilian tug Tony MacKay and departed Halifax Harbour. Fraser arrived at her destination in Port Maitland, Ontario on the afternoon of 19 September 2010. The scrapping process was completed in 2011.[30]

HMCS Fraser undergoing scrapping process

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Bridgewater, Nova Scotia

Bridgewater, Nova Scotia

Bridgewater is a town in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, Canada, at the navigable limit of the LaHave River. With a 2021 population of 8,790, Bridgewater is the largest town in the South Shore region.

Museum ship

Museum ship

A museum ship, also called a memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public for educational or memorial purposes. Some are also used for training and recruitment purposes, mostly for the small number of museum ships that are still operational and thus capable of regular movement.

Katimavik

Katimavik

Katimavik is a registered charity that engages Canadian youth through volunteer work. Katimavik provides opportunities for young Canadians to participate in five to six-month periods of community service throughout the country via the National Experience program. It was founded in 1977 by the late Senator Jacques Hébert and the Honourable Barney Danson, a former Minister of National Defence.

Government of Nova Scotia

Government of Nova Scotia

The Government of Nova Scotia refers to the provincial government of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia is one of Canada's four Atlantic Provinces, and the second-smallest province by area. The capital of the province, Halifax, is Nova Scotia's largest city and its political capital. Halifax is where the Province House, Canada's oldest legislative building, is located.

2009 Nova Scotia general election

2009 Nova Scotia general election

The 2009 Nova Scotia general election was held on June 9, 2009 to elect members of the 61st House of Assembly of the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The government was defeated on a money bill on May 4, and the Nova Scotia House of Assembly was dissolved by Lieutenant Governor Mayann Francis on May 5. thereby triggering an election. The NDP won a majority government, forming government the first time in the province's history, and for the first time in an Atlantic Canadian province. The governing Progressive Conservatives were reduced to third place.

Minister of National Defence (Canada)

Minister of National Defence (Canada)

The minister of national defence is a minister of the Crown in the Cabinet of Canada responsible for the management and direction of all matters relating to the national defence of Canada.

Peter MacKay

Peter MacKay

Peter Gordon MacKay is a Canadian lawyer and politician. He was a Member of Parliament from 1997 to 2015 and has served as Minister of Justice and Attorney General (2013–2015), Minister of National Defence (2007–2013), and Minister of Foreign Affairs (2006–2007) in the Cabinet of Canada under Prime Minister Stephen Harper. MacKay was the final leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, and he agreed to merge the party with Stephen Harper's Canadian Alliance in 2003, forming the Conservative Party of Canada and making MacKay one of the co-founders of the current conservative wing of Canadian politics.

CFB Halifax

CFB Halifax

Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Halifax is Canada's east coast naval base and home port to the Royal Canadian Navy Atlantic fleet, known as Canadian Fleet Atlantic (CANFLTLANT), that forms part of the formation Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT).

Halifax Harbour

Halifax Harbour

Halifax Harbour is a large natural harbour on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, located in the Halifax Regional Municipality. Halifax largely owes its existence to the harbour, being one of the largest and deepest ice-free natural harbours in the world. Before Confederation it was one of the most important commercial ports on the Atlantic seaboard. In 1917, it was the site of the world's largest man-made accidental explosion, when the SS Mont-Blanc blew up in the Halifax Explosion of December 6.

CFB Shearwater

CFB Shearwater

Canadian Forces Base Shearwater, commonly referred to as CFB Shearwater and formerly named HMCS Shearwater, is a Canadian Forces facility located 4.5 nautical miles east southeast of Shearwater, Nova Scotia, on the eastern shore of Halifax Harbour in the Halifax Regional Municipality. Following a base rationalization program in the mid-1990s, the Canadian Forces closed CFB Shearwater as a separate Canadian Forces base and realigned the property's various facilities into CFB Halifax. These include:Shearwater Heliport, which is operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force. The primary RCAF lodger unit is 12 Wing, commonly referred to as 12 Wing Shearwater. 12 Wing provides maritime helicopter operations in support of the Royal Canadian Navy's Atlantic Fleet (MARLANT) from the Shearwater Heliport and Pacific Fleet (MARPAC) from the Patricia Bay Heliport in British Columbia. 12 Wing is also headquartered at Shearwater Heliport. Shearwater Jetty, the former CFB Shearwater Annex, which provides dock facilities in support of Fleet Diving Unit Atlantic and MARLANT warships.

Federal Court of Canada

Federal Court of Canada

The Federal Court of Canada, which succeeded the Exchequer Court of Canada in 1971, was a national court of Canada that had limited jurisdiction to hear certain types of disputes arising under the federal government's legislative jurisdiction. Originally composed of two divisions, the Appellate Division and the Trial Division, in 2003 the Court was split into two separate Courts, the Federal Court and the Federal Court of Appeal. The jurisdiction and powers of the two courts remained largely unchanged from the predecessor divisions.

Dartmouth, Nova Scotia

Dartmouth, Nova Scotia

Dartmouth is an urban community and former city located in the Halifax Regional Municipality of Nova Scotia, Canada. Dartmouth is located on the eastern shore of Halifax Harbour. Dartmouth has been nicknamed the City of Lakes, after the large number of lakes located within its boundaries.

Source: "HMCS Fraser (DDH 233)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Fraser_(DDH_233).

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Notes
  1. ^ Conway's says 2,000 tons standard displacement, 2,600 deep load.
References
  1. ^ a b c Arbuckle (1987), p. 41.
  2. ^ a b Blackman (1964).
  3. ^ a b Sharpe (1992), p. 84.
  4. ^ a b Friedman (1986), p. 161.
  5. ^ Barrie & Macpherson (1996), pp. 9–11.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Barrie & Macpherson (1996), p. 17.
  7. ^ a b Blackman (1964), p. 35.
  8. ^ Soward (1995), pp. 63–65.
  9. ^ a b c "The Beartrap – A Canadian Invention". The Crowsnest. Vol. 17, no. 3. March 1965. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014 – via ReadyAyeReady.com.
  10. ^ Blackman (1964), p. 35, 37.
  11. ^ a b Barrie & Macpherson (1996), pp. 12–13.
  12. ^ a b Gardiner, Chumbley & Budzbon (1995), p. 44.
  13. ^ Barrie & Macpherson (1996), p. 16.
  14. ^ a b Macpherson & Barrie (2002), p. 246.
  15. ^ a b c d e Barrie & Macpherson (1996), p. 21.
  16. ^ "Second Escort Squadron". The Crowsnest. Vol. 12, no. 9. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. July 1960. p. 17.
  17. ^ "HMCS Fraser". The Crowsnest. Vol. 13, no. 4. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. February 1961. p. 20.
  18. ^ Barrie & Macpherson (1996), p. 33.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Barrie & Macpherson (1996), p. 22.
  20. ^ Tracy (2012), p. 172.
  21. ^ Tracy (2012), p. 231.
  22. ^ a b Ware, Beverly (13 February 2009). "Making an Old Ship New Again". The Chronicle-Herald. pp. B2.
  23. ^ Museum Listings (1992). Nova Scotia, The Doers and Dreamers Complete Guide. Nova Scotia Department of Tourisim.
  24. ^ "Parks Canada Directory of National Historic Sites". Parks Canada. 22 February 2005. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  25. ^ Farquarhson, Kenneth L. (12 July 2008). "Restore HMCS Fraser or Bury Her at Sea". The Chronicle-Herald. p. A15.
  26. ^ Ware, Beverly (3 June 2009). "Sign man wants to scuttle 'boat man'". The Chronicle-Herald.
  27. ^ Stewart, Jennifer (31 January 2009). "DND takes back rusting HMCS Fraser". The Chronicle-Herald. p. B1.
  28. ^ Corcoran, Keith (27 January 2009). "Former HMCS Fraser may leave river . . . temporarily". The Bridgewater Bulletin. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009.
  29. ^ "Department of National Defence to Proceed with Disposal of Former HMCS Fraser". Department of National Defence. 27 August 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011.
  30. ^ Wikston, Laura (2 December 2010). "Port Maitland's destroyer". Dunnville Chronicle. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2011.

Sources

  • Arbuckle, J. Graeme (1987). Badges of the Canadian Navy. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 0-920852-49-1.
  • Barrie, Ron; Macpherson, Ken (1996). Cadillac of Destroyers: HMCS St. Laurent and Her Successors. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-036-5.
  • Blackman, Raymond V.B., ed. (1964). Jane's Fighting Ships 1963–64. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0070321612.
  • Friedman, Norman (1986). The Postwar Naval Revolution. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-952-9.
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chumbley, Stephen; Budzbon, Przemysław, eds. (1995). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-132-7.
  • Macpherson, Ken; Barrie, Ron (2002). The Ships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002 (Third ed.). St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 1-55125-072-1.
  • Sharpe, Richard, ed. (May 1992). Jane's Fighting Ships 1992–93 (85th ed.). Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0710609833.
  • Soward, Stuart E. (1995). Hands to Flying Stations, a Recollective History of Canadian Naval Aviation, Volume II. Victoria, British Columbia: Neptune Developments. ISBN 0-9697229-1-5.
  • Tracy, Nicholas (2012). A Two-Edged Sword: The Navy as an Instrument of Canadian Foreign Policy. Montreal, Quebec and Kingston, Ontario: McGill-Queens University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-4051-4.
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