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HMCS Crusader

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HMCS Crusader (DD 228) underway.jpg
HMCS Crusader underway
History
United Kingdom
NameCrusader
Ordered12 September 1942
BuilderJohn Brown & Company
Laid down15 November 1943
Launched4 October 1944
IdentificationPennant number R20
FateTransferred to Canada 1945, permanently in 1951
Canada
NameCrusader
Acquired26 November 1945
Commissioned26 November 1945
Decommissioned15 January 1960
IdentificationR20/228
MottoBy this sign we conquer.[2]
Honours and
awards
Korea, 1952–53[1]
FateSold for scrap, 1964
BadgeAzure, a crusader's shield bearing in the first canton a maple leaf gules for Canada[2]
General characteristics
Class and typeC-class destroyer
Displacement1730 tonnes
Length326.75 ft (99.59 m)
Beam35.66 ft (10.87 m)
Draught11.5 ft (3.5 m)
Propulsion
  • 2 Admiralty 3-drum boilers
  • 2 Parsons single reduction geared turbines,
  • 40,000 shp (30,000 kW), 2 shafts
Speed
  • 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph)
  • 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph) full load
Range
  • 4,675 nautical miles (8,658 km; 5,380 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)
  • 1,400 nautical miles (2,600 km; 1,600 mi) at 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph)
Complement14 officers, 230 crew
Armament

HMCS Crusader was a C-class destroyer originally ordered by the Royal Navy in 1942 and transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1946. During the Korean War she was the leading ship in the legendary Trainbuster's Club, destroying five North Korean trains in total. She was sold for scrap in 1964.

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C-class destroyer (1943)

C-class destroyer (1943)

The C class was a class of 32 destroyers of the Royal Navy that were launched from 1943 to 1945. The class was built in four flotillas of 8 vessels, the "Ca", "Ch", "Co" and "Cr" groups or sub-classes, ordered as the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th Emergency Flotillas respectively. The sub-class names are derived from the initial 2 letters of the member ships' names, although the "Ca" class were originally ordered with a heterogeneous mix of traditional destroyer names. A fifth flotilla, the "Ce" or 15th Emergency Flotilla, was planned but were cancelled in favour of the Weapon-class destroyers after only the first two ships had been ordered. The pennant numbers were all altered from "R" superior to "D" superior at the close of World War II; this involved some renumbering to avoid duplications.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Navy

Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is consequently known as the Senior Service.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

Korean War

Korean War

The Korean War was fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following clashes along the border and rebellions in South Korea. North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union while South Korea was supported by the United States and allied countries. The fighting ended with an armistice on 27 July 1953.

Design

The C-class destroyer was designed in four groups, Crusader being part of the fourth, or "Cr", group. This group was ordered as the 14th Emergency Flotilla, a group of destroyers based on the machinery of the J-class destroyers.

Armament and construction

For fire control, the class used the Fuze Keeping Clock High Angle Fire Control Computer.[4] The "Cr" group was fitted with the new Mk VI HA/LA Director while remote power control (RPC) gunlaying equipment was fitted. The additional weight of the new fire control equipment and the powered mountings for the 4.5 inch guns[a] meant that only one quadruple torpedo mount was fitted, and the depth charge armament was reduced to 35 depth charges.[6] Most of the ships were fitted with a single Hazemayer Bofors mount, although some of the later ships instead had the lighter and simpler Mk V twin Bofors mount. They also introduced the all-welded hull into Royal Navy destroyer construction, with the "Cr" flotilla all being of all-welded construction.[7] Late delivery of the Mk VI directors delayed completion such that none of the "Cr"s entered service before the end of the Second World War.[8]

Propulsion

The class were all fitted with two Admiralty 3-drum boilers with a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch (2,100 kPa) at 630 °F (332 °C). All had Parsons single-reduction geared turbines, generating 40,000 shaft horsepower (30,000 kW) at 350 RPM, and driving the two shafts to produce a maximum of 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph) (32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph) under full load condition).[9]

Their bunkers could hold 615 tons of oil fuel, giving them a radius of 4,675 nautical miles (8,658 km; 5,380 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) and 1,400 nautical miles (2,600 km; 1,600 mi) at 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph).[10]

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Service history

Crusader was ordered on 12 September 1942[11] as part of the 14th Emergency Flotilla of the War Emergency Programme. The hull was laid down on 15 November 1943 by John Brown & Company at Clydebank and launched on 5 October 1944.[11][12]

After a year's negotiation, the Admiralty agreed to lend the Royal Canadian Navy a flotilla of C-class destroyers in January 1945. These were intended for use against the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. However, the war in the Pacific ended before any of the ships were completed and in the end, only two were lent to Canada. As they were only loaned, the two ships kept their names, unlike the last HMS Crusader to have been transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy.[12]

The vessel was commissioned into the Royal Canadian Navy on 15 November 1945 at Clydebank with the pennant number R20.[12] Crusader was completed on 26 November 1945[13] and transited to the west coast of Canada via the Azores and the Caribbean Sea.[12] The destroyer was placed in reserve shortly after arrival and remained as such until reactivation for the Korean War.[12] The destroyer was reactivated on 2 April 1951, initially as a training ship for cadets.[14]

Crusader performed two tours of service in the Korean War, one prior to and one after the Armistice. The first tour took place from June 1952, lasting until June 1953. The second tour lasted from November 1953 until August 1954.[12]

Following the ship's return from the Korean peninsula, Crusader took up a training role. On 14 February 1955, the destroyer departed Esquimalt for Halifax, Nova Scotia for use as a test and evaluation ship.[15] The ship was used as a test platform for the newly developed variable depth sonar in 1958.[16] The destroyer remained in this role until being paid off 15 January 1960 at Halifax. She was sold for scrap in 1963.[12]

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War Emergency Programme destroyers

War Emergency Programme destroyers

The War Emergency Programme destroyers were destroyers built for the British Royal Navy during World War I and World War II.

Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

John Brown & Company

John Brown & Company

John Brown and Company of Clydebank was a Scottish marine engineering and shipbuilding firm. It built many notable and world-famous ships including RMS Lusitania, RMS Aquitania, HMS Hood, HMS Repulse, RMS Queen Mary, RMS Queen Elizabeth and the Queen Elizabeth 2.

Clydebank

Clydebank

Clydebank is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. Situated on the north bank of the River Clyde, it borders the village of Old Kilpatrick to the west, and the Yoker and Drumchapel areas of the adjacent City of Glasgow immediately to the east. Depending on the definition of the town's boundaries, the suburban areas of Duntocher, Faifley and Hardgate either surround Clydebank to the north, or are its northern outskirts, with the Kilpatrick Hills beyond.

HMS Crusader

HMS Crusader

Three ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Crusader, after the participants in the Medieval Crusades:HMS Crusader (1909) was a Tribal-class destroyer launched in 1909 and sold in 1920. HMS Crusader (H60) was a C-class destroyer launched in 1931. She was transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1938 and renamed HMCS Ottawa. She was sunk in 1942. HMS Crusader (R20) was a destroyer of another C class. She was launched in 1944, transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1945 and sold in 1964.

Pennant number

Pennant number

In the Royal Navy and other navies of Europe and the Commonwealth of Nations, ships are identified by pennant number. Historically, naval ships flew a flag that identified a flotilla or type of vessel. For example, the Royal Navy used a red burgee for torpedo boats and a pennant with an H for torpedo boat destroyers. Adding a number to the type-identifying flag uniquely identified each ship.

Azores

Azores

The Azores, officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago composed of nine volcanic islands in the Macaronesia region of the North Atlantic Ocean, about 1,400 km (870 mi) west of Lisbon, about 1,500 km (930 mi) northwest of Morocco, and about 1,930 km (1,200 mi) southeast of Newfoundland, Canada.

Training ship

Training ship

A training ship is a ship used to train students as sailors. The term is mostly used to describe ships employed by navies to train future officers. Essentially there are two types: those used for training at sea and old hulks used to house classrooms.

Korean Armistice Agreement

Korean Armistice Agreement

The Korean Armistice Agreement is an armistice that brought about a complete cessation of hostilities of the Korean War. It was signed by United States Army Lieutenant General William Harrison Jr. and General Mark W. Clark representing the United Nations Command (UNC), North Korea leader Kim Il-sung and General Nam Il representing the Korean People's Army (KPA), and Peng Dehuai representing the Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA). The armistice was signed on 27 July 1953, and was designed to "ensure a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved."

CFB Halifax

CFB Halifax

Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Halifax is Canada's east coast naval base and home port to the Royal Canadian Navy Atlantic fleet, known as Canadian Fleet Atlantic (CANFLTLANT), that forms part of the formation Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT).

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland".

Source: "HMCS Crusader", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Crusader.

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References

Notes

  1. ^ The new director weighed 10 t compared with 6 t for the Mk I Type K, while adding RPC to the 4.5 in mounts increased weight by 1.7 t per mount.[5]

Citations

  1. ^ "HMS Crusader (1945)". Britain's Navy. 14 April 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  2. ^ a b Arbuckle 1987, p. 34.
  3. ^ Gardiner and Chesneau 1980, pp. 43–44.
  4. ^ Destroyer Weapons of WW2, Hodges/Friedman, ISBN 0-85177-137-8
  5. ^ Hodges and Friedman 1979, pp. 86, 88.
  6. ^ Whitley 2000, pp. 136, 138.
  7. ^ Whitley 2000, p. 138
  8. ^ Lenton 1970, p. 43.
  9. ^ Lenton 1970, pp. 39, 45, 49.
  10. ^ Lenton 1970, p. 39.
  11. ^ a b "HMCS Crusader (R20)". uboat.net. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Macpherson and Barrie, pp. 242–243
  13. ^ Blackman, p. 97
  14. ^ "Crusader Commissions to Be Training Ship". The Crowsnest. Vol. 3, no. 6. Ottawa: King's Printer. April 1961.
  15. ^ "Crusader To Be Based at Halifax". The Crowsnest. Vol. 7, no. 4. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. February 1955. p. 3.
  16. ^ Milner, p. 207

References

  • Arbuckle, J. Graeme. Badges of the Canadian Navy. Halifax, NS: Nimbus Publishing, 1987. ISBN 0-920852-49-1.
  • Raymond V. Blackman (editor), Jane's Fighting Ships 1953–1954, Sampson Low & Marston: London, 1954.
  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8.
  • Gardiner, Robert and Chesneau, Roger, Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946, Conway Maritime Press: London, 1980. ISBN 0-85177-146-7
  • Hodges, Peter and Friedman, Norman, Destroyer Weapons of World War 2, Naval Institute Press: Annapolis Maryland, USA, 1979. ISBN 0-87021-929-4.
  • Lenton, H.T., Navies of the Second World War: British Fleet & Escort Destroyers Volume Two, Macdonald: London, 1970. ISBN 0-356-03122-5
  • Macpherson, Ken; Barrie, Ron (2002). Warships of Canada's Naval Forces 1910–2002 (3 ed.). St. Catharines: Vanwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-55125-072-1.
  • Milner, Marc (1999). Canada's Navy: The First Century. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0802042813.
  • Whitley, M.J., Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia, Cassell and Co.: London, 2000. ISBN 1-85409-521-8.
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