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HMCS Crescent

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HMCS Crescent R16.jpg
Crescent in 1945
History
United Kingdom
NameCrescent
BuilderJohn Brown & Company, Clydebank[1]
Yard number607
Laid down16 September 1943
Launched20 July 1944
IdentificationPennant number: R16
Fatetransferred to Canada in January 1945
Canada
NameCrescent
Acquiredloaned 1945, purchased 1951[3]
Commissioned10 September 1945
Decommissioned1 April 1970
IdentificationPennant number: DDE 226
MottoIn virture cresco (I grow in virture)[2]
FateScrapped 1971
BadgeNavy blue, a crescent argent defamed with a maple leaf gules for Canada[2]
General characteristics (as built)
Class and typeC-class destroyer
Displacement
  • 1,900 long tons (1,930 t) standard
  • 2,535 long tons (2,576 t) full load
Length362.75 ft (110.57 m)
Beam35.6 ft (10.9 m)
Draught10 ft 6 in (3.20 m)
Propulsion
  • 2 Admiralty 3-drum boilers,
  • Parsons single-reduction geared steam turbines,
  • 40,000 shp (30 MW), 2 shafts
Speed
  • 36 kn (67 km/h; 41 mph)
  • 32 kn (59 km/h; 37 mph) (full load)
Range
  • 4,675 nautical miles (8,658 km; 5,380 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)
  • 1,400 nautical miles (2,600 km; 1,600 mi) at 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph)
Complement186
Sensors and
processing systems
Mark 63 fire-control system
Armament

HMCS Crescent was a C-class destroyer that was built for the Royal Navy but was transferred before completion and saw active service with the Royal Canadian Navy. She was one of 32 destroyers of that class built between 1943 and 1945 as part of the War Emergency Programme.

After discussions about Canada's current fleet, the United Kingdom agreed to lend the Royal Canadian Navy a flotilla of C-class destroyers in January 1945. The ships had yet to be constructed and the surrender of Japan ended the war before any of the eight could be finished. In the end, only two were transferred, Crescent and Crusader, both named after ships which had been previously transferred to Canada and renamed. This time, they kept their names as the transfer was only made permanent in 1951.[3][4]

Discover more about HMCS Crescent related topics

C-class destroyer (1943)

C-class destroyer (1943)

The C class was a class of 32 destroyers of the Royal Navy that were launched from 1943 to 1945. The class was built in four flotillas of 8 vessels, the "Ca", "Ch", "Co" and "Cr" groups or sub-classes, ordered as the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th Emergency Flotillas respectively. The sub-class names are derived from the initial 2 letters of the member ships' names, although the "Ca" class were originally ordered with a heterogeneous mix of traditional destroyer names. A fifth flotilla, the "Ce" or 15th Emergency Flotilla, was planned but were cancelled in favour of the Weapon-class destroyers after only the first two ships had been ordered. The pennant numbers were all altered from "R" superior to "D" superior at the close of World War II; this involved some renumbering to avoid duplications.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Royal Navy

Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is consequently known as the Senior Service.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

War Emergency Programme destroyers

War Emergency Programme destroyers

The War Emergency Programme destroyers were destroyers built for the British Royal Navy during World War I and World War II.

Surrender of Japan

Surrender of Japan

The surrender of the Empire of Japan in World War II was announced by Emperor Hirohito on 15 August and formally signed on 2 September 1945, bringing the war's hostilities to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) had become incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with the United Kingdom and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on 26 July 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders were privately making entreaties to the publicly neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese. While maintaining a sufficient level of diplomatic engagement with the Japanese to give them the impression they might be willing to mediate, the Soviets were covertly preparing to attack Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea in fulfillment of promises they had secretly made to the United States and the United Kingdom at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences.

Operational history

Crescent was ordered as the leader of the 14th Emergency Flotilla.[5] The keel was laid down on 16 September 1943 by John Brown & Company, Clydebank[1] and launched on 20 July 1944. The ship was transferred to Canada in August 1945.[4] The ship was commissioned by Canada and assigned to the west coast of Canada, arriving at Esquimalt, British Columbia in November 1945.[6]

In April 1948, while returning from a training cruise with the cruiser Ontario, the two ships came across a floating mine left over from the Second World War. The cruiser was forced to make an emergency turn to avoid the mine and Crescent destroyed it with gunfire.[7] In October 1948, Crescent joined Ontario, destroyers Cayuga, Athabaskan and the frigate Antigonish in sailing to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; the largest deployment of the Royal Canadian Navy following the war.[6] She was given training duties until February 1949 when she was sent to China to safeguard Canadian interests during the Chinese Civil War.[8] This was the first operational deployment of a Canadian warship since the end of the Second World War.[9] Crescent arrived at Shanghai on 26 February after pausing at Guam.[10] Crescent, the first Canadian warship to enter Chinese waters, sailed to Nanjing via the Yangtze River on 11 March.[11]

1949 'mutiny'

On 20 March 1949, Crescent was at Nanjing, China – at the time the last mainland holdout of Chiang Kai-shek's Chinese Nationalists, which was to be overrun by the Communist People's Liberation Army a month later – eighty-three of Crescent's junior ratings locked themselves in their messdecks, and refused to come out until getting the captain to hear their grievances. The captain acted with great sensitivity to defuse the crisis, entering the mess for an informal discussion with the disgruntled crew members and carefully avoided using the term "mutiny" which could have had severe legal consequences for the sailors involved.

This case was almost simultaneous with two other cases of mass disobedience in other Canadian naval ships at very distant other locations: the destroyer Athabaskan at Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico and the aircraft carrier Magnificent in the Caribbean Sea. In both of these other cases, the respective captains acted similarly to their colleague aboard Crescent.[12] On 23 March, the destroyer was relieved on station at Nanjing by HMS Consort and sailed for Hong Kong.[11] The ship remained in China until May when Crescent sailed for home.[13] In November 1949, Crescent was paid off into the reserve.[14] In 1950, the destroyer was designated the east coast training destroyer and her complement reduced.[15]

In May 1951, Crescent, La Hulloise and Swansea sailed to the United Kingdom on a training cruise.[16] In May 1952, with La Hulloise and Swansea, the destroyer made a training cruise to Gibraltar and the French Riviera. Crescent and La Hulloise returned to Europe in August and in December, the two ships visited Cuba while training in the Caribbean Sea.[17]

Refit and return to service

Crescent after her 1956 conversion to an anti-submarine frigate.
Crescent after her 1956 conversion to an anti-submarine frigate.

In 1953, Crescent underwent a conversion to destroyer escort.[18] She was modernised for anti-submarine warfare and to serve as a fast fleet escort, similar to the Type 15 frigate of the Royal Navy, the second Canadian warship to so. The superstructure was extended aft, and the bridge was modified. Half of her gun armament was replaced by sonar, a Mark 10 Limbo anti-submarine mortar and homing torpedoes.[3] The project was considered the largest operation undertaken by a Canadian dockyard to that point.[18] While under refit, Crescent was assigned to the Second Canadian Escort Squadron on 1 January 1955.[19] The ship was recommissioned on 31 October 1955, followed by three months of extensive sea trials.[20] In 1959, she was used as a test bed for the new variable depth sonar and was eventually permanently installed.[3][21]

Crescent served in an anti-submarine role until being paid off 1 April 1970 at Victoria. She was taken to Taiwan in 1971 to be broken up.[3][4]

Discover more about Operational history related topics

Keel

Keel

The keel is the bottom-most longitudinal structural element on a vessel. On some sailboats, it may have a hydrodynamic and counterbalancing purpose, as well. As the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event.

John Brown & Company

John Brown & Company

John Brown and Company of Clydebank was a Scottish marine engineering and shipbuilding firm. It built many notable and world-famous ships including RMS Lusitania, RMS Aquitania, HMS Hood, HMS Repulse, RMS Queen Mary, RMS Queen Elizabeth and the Queen Elizabeth 2.

Clydebank

Clydebank

Clydebank is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. Situated on the north bank of the River Clyde, it borders the village of Old Kilpatrick to the west, and the Yoker and Drumchapel areas of the adjacent City of Glasgow immediately to the east. Depending on the definition of the town's boundaries, the suburban areas of Duntocher, Faifley and Hardgate either surround Clydebank to the north, or are its northern outskirts, with the Kilpatrick Hills beyond.

Cruiser

Cruiser

A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, and can usually perform several roles.

HMCS Ontario (C53)

HMCS Ontario (C53)

HMCS Ontario was a Minotaur-class light cruiser built for the Royal Navy as HMS Minotaur (53), but transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy on completion and renamed Ontario.

Naval mine

Naval mine

A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, any vessel or a particular vessel type, akin to anti-infantry vs. anti-vehicle mines. Naval mines can be used offensively, to hamper enemy shipping movements or lock vessels into a harbour; or defensively, to protect friendly vessels and create "safe" zones. Mines allow the minelaying force commander to concentrate warships or defensive assets in mine-free areas giving the adversary three choices: undertake an expensive and time-consuming minesweeping effort, accept the casualties of challenging the minefield, or use the unmined waters where the greatest concentration of enemy firepower will be encountered.

HMCS Athabaskan (R79)

HMCS Athabaskan (R79)

HMCS Athabaskan was a Tribal-class destroyer that served with the Royal Canadian Navy in the immediate post-Second World War era. She was the second destroyer to bear the name "Athabaskan", after the many tribes throughout western Canada that speak Athabaskan family languages. Both this ship and the original HMCS Athabaskan were destroyers and thus this one became known as Athabaskan II.

Frigate

Frigate

A frigate is a type of warship. In different eras, the roles and capabilities of ships classified as frigates have varied somewhat.

Hawaii

Hawaii

Hawaii is a state in the Western United States, located in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from the U.S. mainland. It is the only U.S. state outside North America, the only state that is an archipelago, and the only state in the tropics.

Chinese Civil War

Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil War was fought between the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China and forces of the Chinese Communist Party, armed conflict continuing intermittently from 1 August 1927 until 7 December 1949, and ending with Communist control of mainland China.

Guam

Guam

Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia subregion of the western Pacific Ocean. It is the westernmost point and territory of the United States ; its capital Hagåtña (144°45'00"E) lies further west than Melbourne, Australia (144°57'47"E). In Oceania, Guam is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is Hagåtña, and the most populous village is Dededo.

Nanjing

Nanjing

Nanjing, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China. It is a sub-provincial city, a megacity, and the second largest city in Eastern China. The city has 11 districts, an administrative area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi), and a total recorded population of 9,314,685 as of 2020.

Ship's bell

The Christening Bells Project at Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Naval and Military Museum includes information from the ship's bell of Crescent, which was used for baptism of babies on board ship from 1946 to 1957. The bell is held by the Army Navy and Air Force Veterans, Sidney, British Columbia.[22]

Source: "HMCS Crescent", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Crescent.

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References
  1. ^ a b "HMCS Crescent". Clydebuilt Ships Database. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  2. ^ a b Arbuckle, p. 33
  3. ^ a b c d e Macpherson and Barrie, p. 242
  4. ^ a b c Colledge, p. 95
  5. ^ "A Lot of Mileage". The Crowsnest. Vol. 5, no. 6. Queen's Printer. April 1953. p. 13.
  6. ^ a b "Plenty of Seatime". The Crowsnest. Vol. 1, no. 1. Ottawa: King's Printer. November 1948. p. 2.
  7. ^ Zimmerman, p. 23
  8. ^ "Navy Denies Crescent in Action". Ottawa Citizen. 23 April 1949. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  9. ^ Tracy, p. 114
  10. ^ "HMCS Crescent". The Crowsnest. Vol. 1, no. 7. Ottawa: King's Printer. May 1949. p. 16.
  11. ^ a b "Cruise to the Far East". The Crowsnest. Vol. 1, no. 9. Ottawa: King's Printer. July 1949. pp. 4–6.
  12. ^ Gimblett, Richard. "Dissension in the Ranks – 'Mutinies' in the Royal Canadian Navy". CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum. Archived from the original on 2 March 2007.
  13. ^ "Coming and Going". The Crowsnest. Vol. 1, no. 8. Ottawa: King's Printer. June 1949. p. 2.
  14. ^ Zimmerman, p. 28
  15. ^ "Crescent Making Mark on East Coast". The Crowsnest. Vol. 3, no. 7. Ottawa: King's Printer. May 1951. p. 17.
  16. ^ "R.C.N. News Review". The Crowsnest. Vol. 3, no. 8. Ottawa: King's Printer. June 1951. p. 2.
  17. ^ "R.C.N. News Review". The Crowsnest. Vol. 5, no. 3. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. January 1953. pp. 2–4.
  18. ^ a b "Crescent will be converted soon". Ottawa Citizen. 28 January 1953. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  19. ^ "Two New Squadrons for Pacific Command". The Crowsnest. Vol. 7, no. 4. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. February 1955. pp. 2–3.
  20. ^ "Crescent Back as Destroyer Escort". The Crowsnest. Vol. 8, no. 2. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. December 1955. p. 3.
  21. ^ Boutiller, p. 325
  22. ^ "The Christening Bells Project". CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum. Archived from the original on 30 December 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
Sources
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