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HMCS Corner Brook

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HMCS Corner Brook.jpg
HMCS Corner Brook entering St John's Harbour on the east end of Newfoundland
History
United Kingdom
NameUrsula
BuilderCammell Laird, Birkenhead
Laid down10 January 1989
Launched22 February 1991
Commissioned8 May 1992
Decommissioned16 October 1994
FateTransferred to Canada
Canada
NameCorner Brook
Acquired1998
CommissionedMarch 2003
MottoWe rule the sea[1]
StatusShip in active service
General characteristics
Class and type Upholder/Victoria-class submarine
Displacement
  • 2,185 long tons (2,220 t) surfaced
  • 2,400 long tons (2,439 t) submerged
Length70.26 m (230 ft 6 in)
Beam7.6 m (24 ft 11 in)
Draught5.5 m (18 ft 1 in)
Propulsion
Speed
  • 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) surfaced
  • 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph)+ submerged
Range10,000 nautical miles (18,500 km) at 12 knots (22 km/h)
Test depth200 m (660 ft)
Complement53 officers and crew
Armament

HMCS Corner Brook (SSK 878) is a long-range hunter-killer submarine (SSK) of the Royal Canadian Navy. She is the former Royal Navy Upholder-class submarine HMS Ursula (S42), purchased from the British at the end of the Cold War. She is the third boat of the Victoria class and is named after the city of Corner Brook, Newfoundland. The submarine was launched in 1989 and entered service with the Royal Navy in 1992. The Royal Navy laid Ursula up in 1994. In 1998, Canada acquired the submarine from the United Kingdom. The vessel entered service with the Canadian Armed Forces in 2003. Renamed Corner Brook, the submarine took part in several military exercises both internationally, such as NATO exercises and domestic, such as Operation Nanook. In June 2011, the submarine ran aground in Nootka Sound, damaging the vessel's bow. The submarine was sent for refit in 2014 to complete the repairs.

Discover more about HMCS Corner Brook related topics

Submarine

Submarine

A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. The term is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Submarines are referred to as boats rather than ships irrespective of their size.

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2021, the RCN operates 12 frigates, four attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels, eight patrol class training vessels, two offshore patrol vessels, and several auxiliary vessels. The RCN consists of 8,570 Regular Force and 4,111 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 3,800 civilians. Vice-Admiral Angus Topshee is the current commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and chief of the Naval Staff.

Royal Navy

Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is consequently known as the Senior Service.

Upholder/Victoria-class submarine

Upholder/Victoria-class submarine

The Upholder/Victoria-class submarines, also known as the Type 2400, are the class of the diesel-electric submarines built in the United Kingdom in the 1980s to supplement the nuclear submarines in the Submarine Service of the British Royal Navy.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic region. The province comprises the island of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador, having a total size of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2021, the population of Newfoundland and Labrador was estimated to be 521,758. The island of Newfoundland is home to around 94 per cent of the province's population, with more than half residing in the Avalon Peninsula. Labrador borders the province of Quebec, and the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon lies about 20 km west of the Burin Peninsula.

Ceremonial ship launching

Ceremonial ship launching

Ceremonial ship launching involves the performance of ceremonies associated with the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a nautical tradition in many cultures, dating back thousands of years, to accompany the physical process with ceremonies which have been observed as public celebration and a solemn blessing, usually but not always, in association with the launch itself.

Canadian Armed Forces

Canadian Armed Forces

The Canadian Armed Forces are the unified military forces of Canada, including sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force.

Military exercise

Military exercise

A military exercise, training exercise, or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations. Military exercises are conducted to explore the effects of warfare or test tactics and strategies without actual combat. They also ensure the combat readiness of garrisoned or deployable forces prior to deployment from a home base.

NATO

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American. Established in the aftermath of World War II, the organization implemented the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949. NATO is a collective security system: its independent member states agree to defend each other against attacks by third parties. During the Cold War, NATO operated as a check on the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union. The alliance remained in place after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and has been involved in military operations in the Balkans, the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa. The organization's motto is animus in consulendo liber.

Operation Nanook

Operation Nanook

Operation Nanook is an annual sovereignty operation and manoeuvre warfare exercise conducted by the Canadian Armed Forces in the Arctic. Sovereignty patrols in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and northern Canada are conducted by the Canadian Rangers, Canadian Coast Guard in tandem with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The exercise portion is intended to train the different elements of the Canadian Armed Forces to operate in the Arctic environment.

Ship grounding

Ship grounding

Ship grounding or ship stranding is the impact of a ship on seabed or waterway side. It may be intentional, as in beaching to land crew or cargo, and careening, for maintenance or repair, or unintentional, as in a marine accident. In accidental cases, it is commonly referred to as "running aground".

Nootka Sound

Nootka Sound

Nootka Sound is a sound of the Pacific Ocean on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in the Pacific Northwest, historically known as King George's Sound. It separates Vancouver Island and Nootka Island, part of the Canadian province of British Columbia. It played a historically important role in the maritime fur trade.

Design

As built the Upholder/Victoria class was designed as a replacement for the Oberon class for use as hunter-killer and training subs. The submarines, which have a single-skinned, teardrop-shaped hull, displace 2,220 long tons (2,260 t) surfaced and 2,455 long tons (2,494 t) submerged.[2][3] They are 230 feet 7 inches (70.3 m) long overall with a beam of 25 feet 0 inches (7.6 m) and a draught of 17 feet 8 inches (5.4 m).[2]

The submarines are powered by a one shaft diesel-electric system. They are equipped with two Paxman Valenta 1600 RPS SZ diesel engines each driving a 1.4-megawatt (1,900 hp) GEC electric alternator with two 120-cell chloride batteries.[2][4] The batteries have a 90-hour endurance at 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph).[4] The ship is propelled by a 4.028-megawatt (5,402 hp) GEC dual armature electric motor turning a seven-blade fixed pitch propeller.[4] They have a 200-long-ton (200 t) diesel capacity. This gives the subs a maximum speed of 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) on the surface and 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) submerged. They have a range of 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) and 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at snorting depth.[2][5] They have a range of 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph).[2] The class has a reported dive depth of over 650 feet (200 m).[3]

The Upholder/Victoria class are armed with six 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes. In British service, the submarines were equipped with 14 Tigerfish Mk 24 Mod 2 torpedoes and four UGM-84 Sub-Harpoon missiles.[2] They could also be adapted for use as a minelayer.[5] The submarines have Type 1007 radar and Type 2040, Type 2019, Type 2007 and Type 2046 sonar installed.[2] The hull is fitted with elastomeric acoustic tiles to reduce acoustic signature.[3] In British service the vessels had a complement of seven officers and 40 ratings.[2]

Refits and Canadian alterations

During the refit for Canadian service, the Sub-Harpoon and mine capabilities were removed and the submarines were equipped with the Lockheed Martin Librascope Submarine fire-control system (SFCS) to meet the operational requirements of the Canadian Navy. Components from the fire control system of the Oberon-class submarines were installed.[6] This gave the submarines the ability to fire the Gould Mk 48 Mod 4 torpedo.[3] In 2014, the Government of Canada purchased 12 upgrade kits that will allow the submarines to fire the Mk 48 Mod 7AT torpedoes.[7]

These radar and sonar systems were later upgraded with the installation of the BAE Type 2007 array and the Type 2046 towed array.[2][3] The Canadian Towed Array Sonar (CANTASS) has been integrated into the towed sonar suite.[3] The Upholder-class submarines were equipped with the CK035 electro-optical search periscope and the CH085 optronic attack periscope, originally supplied by Pilkington Optronics.[3][4] After the Canadian refit, the submarines were equipped with Canadian communication equipment and electronic support measures (ESM). This included two SSE decoy launchers and the AR 900 ESM.[3]

Discover more about Design related topics

Oberon-class submarine

Oberon-class submarine

The Oberon class was a ship class of 27 British-designed submarines operated by five different nations. They were designed as a direct follow-on from the Porpoise class: physical dimensions were the same, but stronger materials were used in hull construction, and updated equipment was fitted.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Length overall

Length overall

Length overall is the maximum length of a vessel's hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship. It is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is also used for calculating the cost of a marina berth.

Beam (nautical)

Beam (nautical)

The beam of a ship is its width at its widest point. The maximum beam (BMAX) is the distance between planes passing through the outer extremities of the ship, beam of the hull (BH) only includes permanently fixed parts of the hull, and beam at waterline (BWL) is the maximum width where the hull intersects the surface of the water.

Draft (hull)

Draft (hull)

The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). The draught of the vessel is the maximum depth of any part of the vessel, including appendages such as rudders, propellers and drop keels if deployed. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The related term air draft is the maximum height of any part of the vessel above the water.

Paxman Valenta

Paxman Valenta

The Paxman Valenta was an engine made by Paxman, Colchester for the High Speed Train, and is still in use in various marine applications, such as the Upholder/Victoria-class submarines, additionally 4 Paxman Valenta engines provide the electrical power to propel and operate the Royal Navy’s Type 23 Frigates.

Diesel engine

Diesel engine

The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression; thus, the diesel engine is called a compression-ignition engine. This contrasts with engines using spark plug-ignition of the air-fuel mixture, such as a petrol engine or a gas engine.

Horsepower

Horsepower

Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done, usually in reference to the output of engines or motors. There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is about 745.7 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel, also called diesel oil, is any liquid fuel specifically designed for use in a diesel engine, a type of internal combustion engine in which fuel ignition takes place without a spark as a result of compression of the inlet air and then injection of fuel. Therefore, diesel fuel needs good compression ignition characteristics.

Nautical mile

Nautical mile

A nautical mile is a unit of length used in air, marine, and space navigation, and for the definition of territorial waters. Historically, it was defined as the meridian arc length corresponding to one minute of latitude. Today the international nautical mile is defined as exactly 1,852 metres. The derived unit of speed is the knot, one nautical mile per hour.

Harpoon (missile)

Harpoon (missile)

The Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The AGM-84E Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) and later AGM-84H/K SLAM-ER are cruise missile variants.

Construction and career

The submarine was laid down as HMS Ursula at Cammell Laird's Birkenhead yard on 10 January 1989. She was launched on 28 February 1991 and commissioned into the Royal Navy on 8 May 1992. Ursula was decommissioned on 16 October 1994.[8]

Looking to discontinue the operation of diesel-electric boats, the British government offered to sell Ursula and her sister submarines to Canada in 1993.[9] The offer was accepted in 1998.[9] The four boats were leased to the Canadians for US$427 million (plus US$98 million for upgrades and alteration to Canadian standards), with the lease to run for eight years; the submarines would then be sold for £1.[8]

Problems were discovered with the piping welds on all four submarines, which delayed the reactivation of ex-Ursula and her three sisters. The former Ursula was handed over to the Canadian Forces on 21 February 2003, and commissioned as HMCS Corner Brook on 26 June 2003.[8]

Royal Canadian Navy

After commissioning, Corner Brook was deployed on the east coast of Canada, based out of Halifax, Nova Scotia.[10] During a refit in 2006, elevated levels of lead were detected aboard the submarine; they were believed to come from the lead-brick ballast blocks used aboard Corner Brook.[11] Between October 2006 and January 2008, Corner Brook was active for only 81 days.[12] The submarine participated in NATO exercise 'Noble Mariner' during May 2007.[13] During the exercise, which occurred in the Baltic region, Corner Brook successfully closed with the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious without being detected.[13] The submarine returned to Canada, and in August, she participated in Operation Nanook, a sovereignty exercise held in and around Iqaluit and the Baffin Island coastal and Hudson Strait areas.[10][13] That year, Corner Brook participated in the NATO exercise "Noble Warrior", marking the first time in 15 years that a Canadian submarine had been present in European waters.[10]

In February 2008, Corner Brook departed from Halifax during a snowstorm for a three-month deployment to the Caribbean Sea. As part of the deployment, the submarine operated with the United States Joint Interagency Task Force South, which attempts to counter drug trafficking, people smuggling and piracy in the region. Corner Brook returned to Halifax in May.[14]

In January 2009, Corner Brook was the 'target' for submarine detection exercises performed by HMCS Halifax and HMCS Montréal.[15] This was followed by a four-week, multi-ship training exercise in the North Atlantic during February and March,[16] then participation in the UNITAS multinational exercise off Florida during late April and early May.[17] During August, the submarine was involved in Operation Nanook 2009 conducting covert surveillance patrols in the vicinity of Baffin Island.[10]

Early in 2011, Corner Brook took part in Operation Caribbe, before transiting to the west coast as part of her redeployment to Esquimalt, British Columbia.[10] On 4 June 2011 the submarine ran aground in Nootka Sound during manoeuvres off Vancouver Island. The submarine collided with the sea floor in 45 metres (148 ft) of water while travelling at a speed of 5.9 knots (11 km/h). The collision opened a 2-metre (6 ft 7 in) hole in the submarine's bow.[18][19] Two submariners were slightly injured.[19] After the grounding incident civilian and military submariners began pre-maintenance work on the submarine, in the expectation of an extended maintenance program. At the time, the process, length and cost of the work was unknown due to existing contracts.[20] A board of inquiry formed after the collision found that the cause of the collision had been human error.[21] In February 2012, post-collision photos of the dry-docked submarine were published, showing extensive damage to the bow; the media also cited unofficial sources, saying the pressure hull may be damaged beyond repair.[22]

As of July 2014, Corner Brook began her Extended Docking Work Period (EDWP)[10] that was expected to take until 2017 to complete.[23] On 1 April 2019 the submarine, still in drydock at CFB Esquimalt, caught fire. The fire was extinguished but the cause was unknown.[24] The vessel was intended to return to service in mid-2020. However, in a March 2020 pressure test of the submarine's ballast tanks, the test team attempted to empty the tanks more quickly using pressured air, leading to over pressurization and a rupture. A full repair was deemed uneconomical and was repaired enough for the submarine to return to service in mid-2021 at the earliest, though the submarine would need to be monitored. The submarine is expected to remain in service for another nine years following the refit.[25]

Discover more about Construction and career related topics

Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

Cammell Laird

Cammell Laird

Cammell Laird is a British shipbuilding company. It was formed from the merger of Laird Brothers of Birkenhead and Johnson Cammell & Co of Sheffield at the turn of the twentieth century. The company also built railway rolling stock until 1929, when that side of the business was separated and became part of the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage & Wagon Company.

Birkenhead

Birkenhead

Birkenhead is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, Merseyside, England; historically, it was part of Cheshire until 1974. The town is on the Wirral Peninsula, along the south bank of the River Mersey, opposite Liverpool. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 88,818.

Ceremonial ship launching

Ceremonial ship launching

Ceremonial ship launching involves the performance of ceremonies associated with the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a nautical tradition in many cultures, dating back thousands of years, to accompany the physical process with ceremonies which have been observed as public celebration and a solemn blessing, usually but not always, in association with the launch itself.

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax is the capital and largest municipality of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, and the largest municipality in Atlantic Canada. Halifax is one of Canada's fastest growing municipalities, and as of 2022, it is estimated that the CMA population of Halifax was 480,582,with 348,634 people in its urban area. The regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, and Halifax County.

Baltic region

Baltic region

The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries, and the Baltic Sea countries/states refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea, mainly in Northern Europe. The term "Baltic states" refers specifically to one such grouping.

HMS Illustrious (R06)

HMS Illustrious (R06)

HMS Illustrious was a light aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy and the second of three Invincible-class ships constructed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. She was the fifth warship and second aircraft carrier to bear the name Illustrious, and was affectionately known to her crew as "Lusty". In 1982, the conflict in the Falklands necessitated that Illustrious be completed and rushed south to join her sister ship HMS Invincible and the veteran carrier HMS Hermes. To this end, she was brought forward by three months for completion at Swan Hunter Shipyard, then commissioned on 20 June 1982 at sea en route to Portsmouth Dockyard to take on board extra stores and crew. She arrived in the Falklands to relieve Invincible on 28 August 1982 in a steam past. Returning to the United Kingdom, she was not formally commissioned into the fleet until 20 March 1983. After her South Atlantic deployment, she was deployed on Operation Southern Watch in Iraq, then Operation Deny Flight in Bosnia during the 1990s and Operation Palliser in Sierra Leone in 2000. An extensive re-fit during 2002 prevented her from involvement in the 2003 Iraq War, but she was repaired in time to assist British citizens trapped by the 2006 Lebanon War.

Iqaluit

Iqaluit

Iqaluit is the capital of the Canadian territory of Nunavut, its largest community, and its only city. It was known as Frobisher Bay from 1942 to 1987, after the large bay on the coast on which the city is situated. In 1987, its traditional Inuktitut name was restored.

Baffin Island

Baffin Island

Baffin Island, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. Its area is 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi), slightly larger than Spain; its population was 13,039 as of the 2021 Canadian census; and it is located at 68°N 70°W. It also contains the city of Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut.

Hudson Strait

Hudson Strait

The Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean and the Labrador Sea to Hudson Bay in Canada. This strait lies between Baffin Island and Nunavik, with its eastern entrance marked by Cape Chidley in Newfoundland and Labrador and Resolution Island off Baffin Island. The strait is about 750 km long with an average width of 125 km, varying from 70 km at the eastern entrance to 240 km at Deception Bay.

Caribbean Sea

Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and southwest, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the northern coast of South America. The Gulf of Mexico lies to the northwest.

Joint Interagency Task Force South

Joint Interagency Task Force South

Joint Interagency Task Force South is a United States multiservice, multiagency task force based at Naval Air Station Key West, Key West, Florida.

Source: "HMCS Corner Brook", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMCS_Corner_Brook.

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References
  1. ^ Office of the Secretary to the Governor General (12 November 2020). "HMCS Corner Brook [Military Institution]". reg.gg.ca. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gardiner and Chumbley, p. 532
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Saunders, p. 88
  4. ^ a b c d Perkins, p. 196
  5. ^ a b Cocker, p. 123
  6. ^ Perkins, p. 166
  7. ^ Pugliese, David (26 September 2014). "Canadian government to spend $41 million for torpedo upgrade kits for submarines". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Wertheim, pp. 77–78
  9. ^ a b Ferguson, p. 152
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Her Majesty's Canadian Ship (HMCS) Corner Brook (SSK 878)". Royal Canadian Navy. Government of Canada. 30 July 2014. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  11. ^ "Ares". aviationweek.com.
  12. ^ MacKenzie, Christina. "Canada's subs stay warm and dry". aviationweek.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
  13. ^ a b c Blakeley, Darlene. "Trail breakers in the North". Canadian Navy. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  14. ^ "Submarine excels in both warm and cold waters" (PDF). Crows Nest. Maritime Command. Summer 2008. pp. 6–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  15. ^ Walsh, Jason (6 February 2008). "Corner Brook's workups test detection skills". The Maple Leaf. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  16. ^ "Navy ships leave Halifax for training mission". CBC News. The Canadian Press. 17 February 2009. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ Ware, Beverley (10 April 2012). "Sub in refit to get wet for first time in 5 years". Halifax Chronicle Herald. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  19. ^ a b Gordon, Rob (16 July 2013). "Navy submarine damage severe, internal report says". CBC News. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  20. ^ McCracken, Erin (26 July 2011). "Investigation continues into sub crash". Goldstream News Gazette. BC Local News. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  21. ^ "B.C. Sub Accident: Board Of Inquiry Blames Human Error". Huffington Post. The Canadian Press. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  22. ^ "HMCS Corner Brook collision damage extensive". CBC News. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  23. ^ Pugliese, David (25 September 2014). "Canadian navy gets more money to keep subs at sea". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  24. ^ Little, Simon (1 April 2019). "Fire breaks out aboard hunter-killer submarine drydocked at CFB Esquimalt". Global News. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  25. ^ Berthiaume, Lee (5 April 2021). "Navy submarine suffered long-term damage to ballast tank from errant test: report". CTV News. The Canadian Press. Retrieved 5 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Sources

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