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Guggenheim family

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Guggenheim family
Meyer Guggenheim
Daniel Guggenheim
Harry Frank Guggenheim
Current regionNew York, U.S.A.
Place of originLengnau, Switzerland
Foundedc.1800s
FounderSimon Meyer Guggenheim
Connected familiesLoeb family
Morton family
Straus family[1]
Estate(s)Falaise (Sands Point, New York);[2] Murry Guggenheim House (West Long Branch, New Jersey)

The Guggenheim family (/ˈɡʊɡənhm/ GUUG-ən-hyme) is an American-Jewish family known for making their fortune in the mining industry, in the early 20th century, especially in the United States and South America. After World War I, many family members withdrew from the businesses and became involved in philanthropy, especially in the arts, aviation, medicine, and culture.

History

Meyer Guggenheim, a Swiss citizen of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, arrived in the United States in 1847. His surname was derived from the Alsatian village of Gugenheim.[3] He married Barbara Meyer, whom he met in the United States. Over the next few decades, their several children and descendants became known for their global successes in mining and smelting businesses, under the name Guggenheim Exploration, including the American Smelting and Refining Company. In the early 20th century, the family developed one of the largest fortunes in the world.

Following World War I, they sold their global mining interests and later purchased nitrate mines in Chile. Subsequently, the family largely withdrew from direct involvement in running businesses.[4] Family members became known for their philanthropy in diverse areas such as modern art, aviation, and medicine. They donated funds to develop Guggenheim Museums, the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, and the Guggenheim Pavilion at Mount Sinai Medical Center, designed by I. M. Pei in New York City.[4]

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Meyer Guggenheim

Meyer Guggenheim

Meyer Guggenheim was the patriarch of what became known as the Guggenheim family in the United States, which became one of the world's wealthiest families during the 19th century, and remained so during the 20th.

Alsace

Alsace

Alsace is a cultural region and a territorial collectivity in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. In January 2023, it had a population of 1,921,014. Alsatian culture is characterized by a blend of Germanic and French influences.

Gougenheim

Gougenheim

Gougenheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Between 1 February 1973 and 1 January 1986 Rohr was merged with Gougenheim. The Guggenheim family is named after Gougenheim.

Mining

Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable geological materials from the Earth and other astronomical objects. Mining is required to obtain most materials that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Ore must be a rock or mineral that contains valuable constituent, can be extracted or mined and sold for profit. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.

Smelting

Smelting

Smelting is a process of applying heat to an ore, to extract a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy. It is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals. Smelting uses heat and a chemical- reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving the metal base behind. The reducing agent is commonly a fossil fuel source of carbon, such as coke—or, in earlier times, charcoal. The oxygen in the ore binds to carbon at high temperatures as the chemical potential energy of the bonds in carbon dioxide is lower than the bonds in the ore.

Nitrate

Nitrate

Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NO−3. Salts containing this ion are called nitrates. Nitrates are common components of fertilizers and explosives. Almost all inorganic nitrates are soluble in water. An example of an insoluble nitrate is bismuth oxynitrate.

List of Guggenheim Museums

List of Guggenheim Museums

The Guggenheim Museums are a group of museums in different parts of the world established by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation.

Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory

Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory

The Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT), was a research institute created in 1926, at first specializing in aeronautics research. In 1930, Hungarian scientist Theodore von Kármán accepted the directorship of the lab and emigrated to the United States. Under his leadership, work on rockets began there in 1936. GALCIT was the first—and from 1936 to 1940 the only—university-based rocket research center. Based on GALCIT's JATO project at the time, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was established under a contract with the United States Army in November 1943.

I. M. Pei

I. M. Pei

Ieoh Ming Pei was a Chinese-American architect. Raised in Shanghai, Pei drew inspiration at an early age from the garden villas at Suzhou, the traditional retreat of the scholar-gentry to which his family belonged. In 1935, he moved to the United States and enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania's architecture school, but he quickly transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was unhappy with the focus at both schools on Beaux-Arts architecture, and spent his free time researching emerging architects, especially Le Corbusier. After graduating, he joined the Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) and became a friend of the Bauhaus architects Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City real estate magnate William Zeckendorf, for whom he worked for seven years before establishing an independent design firm in 1955, I. M. Pei & Associates. In 1966 that became I. M. Pei & Partners, and in 1989 became Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Pei retired from full-time practice in 1990. In his retirement, he worked as an architectural consultant primarily from his sons' architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects.

Current interests

Guggenheim Partners today manages over $200 billion in assets.[5] Another family vehicle, Guggenheim Investment Advisors, oversees about $50 billion in assets.[6]

Family tree

View from Grand Canal onto Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, Venice, Italy
View from Grand Canal onto Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, Venice, Italy

Meyer Guggenheim (1828–1905) married Barbara Meyer, of German Jewish descent, in 1852. They met in the United States. They had eleven children together, including eight sons, five of whom were active in the family businesses: Isaac, Daniel, Maurice "Murry", Solomon Robert, and (John) Simon Guggenheim. Sons Benjamin, Robert and William pursued other careers. The daughters were Jeanette, Rose and Cora. Meyer's 11 children, their spouses, and notable descendants are shown below:

  • Meyer Guggenheim (1828–1905), m. Barbara Meyer (1834–1900) (m. 1852–her death)
    • Isaac Guggenheim (1854–1922), m. Carrie Sonneborn (1859–1933) (m. 1876–his death)[7]
      • Beulah V. Guggenheim (1877–1960), m. William I. Spiegelberg[8]
      • Edyth B. Guggenheim (1880–1960), m. Louis M. Josephthal, future admiral and founder of Josephthal & Co.[9]
        • Audrey Josephthal (1903–2003) m. Cornelius Ruxton Love, Jr. (died 1971)[9]
      • Helene Guggenheim (1886–1962)
        • m. Edmund L. Haas (m. 1905; div.)[11]
        • m. Corlette Glorney[8]
        • m. Lord Melvill Ward[7]
    • Daniel Guggenheim (1856–1930), became head of the family after his father's death; m. Florence Shloss (1863–1944) (m. 1884–his death)
    • Maurice "Murry" Guggenheim (1858–1939), m. Leonie Bernheim (1865–1959) (m. 1887–his death)[12]
      • Edmond A. Guggenheim (1888–1972), m. Marion Price (1888–1992)
      • Lucille Guggenheim (1894–1972), m. Frederic Adam Gimbel (1891–1996), div.
    • Solomon R. Guggenheim (1861–1949), founded the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and Foundation; m. Irene M. Rothschild (1868–1954), daughter of Victor Henry Rothschild (m. 1895–his death)
    • Jeanette Guggenheim (1863–1889), m. Albert M. Gerstle (1860–1896)
      • Nettie Gerstle (1889–?)
    • Benjamin Guggenheim (1865–1912), died in the Titanic disaster; m. Florette Seligman (1870–1937) (m. 1895–his death)[13]
      • Benita Rosalind Guggenheim (1895–1927)
      • Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim (1898–1979), founded the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice
        • m. Laurence Vail (div. 1928)
        • m. Max Ernst (1891–1976) (m. 1941; div. 1946)
      • Barbara Hazel Guggenheim (1903–1995),
        • m. Sigmund Marshall Kempner (m. 1921; div. 1922)[15]
        • m. Milton S. Waldman (m. 1923; div. 1930)[15]
          • Terrence Waldman (1924–1928)[15]
          • Benjamin Waldman (1927–1928)[15]
          • Terrence (four-and-a-half years old) and Benjamin (fourteen months) both fell to their deaths from the roof of the Surrey, a sixteen-story apartment hotel at 20 East Seventy-sixth Street, New York, on October 19, 1928.[16]
        • m. Denys King-Farlow (Hugh St. Denys Nettleton King-Farlow) (m. 1930; div.)[17]
          • John King-Farlow (1932–2002)[17]
          • Barbara Benita King-Farlow (1934–?)[17]
            • Ghislaine Agostini
            • Amelia Kaye
            • Adam Jacobs
        • m. Charles Everett McKinley, Jr. (d. 1942) (m. ?–his death)[17]
        • m. Archibald Butt Jr. (div.)
        • m. Larry Leonard (div.)
    • Robert Guggenheim (1867–1876)
    • (John) Simon Guggenheim (1867–1941), elected as a U.S. Senator from Colorado; m. Olga Hirsch (1877–1970) (m. 1898–his death)
      • John Simon Guggenheim (1905–1922)
      • George Denver Guggenheim (1907–1939)
    • William Guggenheim (1868–1941)
      • m. Grace Brown Herbert (m. 1900; div. 1901)
      • m. Aimee Lillian Steinberger (m. 1904–his death)[18][19]
        • William Guggenheim, Jr. (1907–1947), m. Elizabeth Newell (m. 1937–his death) [she later m. William J. Broadhurst]
          • William Guggenheim III (1939– )
            • m. Grace Embury (div.)[20]
              • Maire Guggenheim[20]
              • Jaenet Guggenheim[20]
            • m. Judith Arnold[20]
              • William Douglas Guggenheim (1970– )[20]
                • m. Traci Aikey (1978– )
                • Lilian Grace Guggenheim (2009– )
                • Katherine Joy Guggenheim (2010– )
                • Emily Faith Guggenheim (2013– )
              • Christopher Mark Guggenheim (1976– )[20]
              • Jonathan Paul Guggenheim (1978– )[20]
    • Rose Guggenheim (1871–1945), m. Albert Loeb, the nephew of Solomon Loeb[13]
      • Harold A. Loeb (1891–1974)
      • Edwin M. Loeb (1894–1966)
      • Willard E. Loeb (1896–1958)
    • Cora Guggenheim (1873–1956), m. Louis F. Rothschild (1869–1957), founder of L.F. Rothschild[13]
      • Louis F. Rothschild, Jr. (1900–1902)
      • Muriel Barbara Rothschild (1903–1999), m. William Donald Scott
      • Gwendolyn Fay Rothschild (1906–1983)

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Fifth Avenue

Fifth Avenue

Fifth Avenue is a major and prominent thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem. It is one of the most expensive shopping streets in the world.

Manhattan

Manhattan

Manhattan is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is also coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. Located near the southern tip of New York State, Manhattan is based in the Eastern Time Zone and constitutes both the geographical and demographic center of the Northeast megalopolis and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass. Over 58 million people live within 250 miles of Manhattan, which serves as New York City’s economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and the city’s historical birthplace. Residents of the outer boroughs of New York City often refer to Manhattan as "the city". Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world, and hosts the United Nations headquarters. Manhattan also serves as the headquarters of the global art market, with numerous art galleries and auction houses collectively hosting half of the world’s art auctions.

Peggy Guggenheim Collection

Peggy Guggenheim Collection

The Peggy Guggenheim Collection is an art museum on the Grand Canal in the Dorsoduro sestiere of Venice, Italy. It is one of the most visited attractions in Venice. The collection is housed in the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, an 18th-century palace, which was the home of the American heiress Peggy Guggenheim for three decades. She began displaying her private collection of modern artworks to the public seasonally in 1951. After her death in 1979, it passed to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, which opened the collection year-round from 1980.

Meyer Guggenheim

Meyer Guggenheim

Meyer Guggenheim was the patriarch of what became known as the Guggenheim family in the United States, which became one of the world's wealthiest families during the 19th century, and remained so during the 20th.

Iris Love

Iris Love

Iris Cornelia Love was an American classical archaeologist, best known for the rediscovery of the Temple of Aphrodite in Knidos.

Daniel Guggenheim

Daniel Guggenheim

Daniel Guggenheim was an American mining magnate and philanthropist, and a son of Meyer and Barbara Guggenheim. By 1910 he directed the world's most important group of mining interests. He was forced out in 1922 and retired to philanthropy to promote aviation. His achievements include a system for innovation, as well as leadership in amicable labor relations, and major roles in aviation and rocketry.

Diane Hamilton

Diane Hamilton

Diane Hamilton was the pseudonym of Diane Guggenheim, an American mining heiress, folksong patron and founder of Tradition Records.

Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Farrar, Straus and Giroux (FSG) is an American book publishing company, founded in 1946 by Roger Williams Straus Jr. and John C. Farrar. FSG is known for publishing literary books, and its authors have won numerous awards, including Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards, and Nobel Prizes. As of 2016 the publisher is a division of Macmillan, whose parent company is the German publishing conglomerate Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

Edmond Guggenheim

Edmond Guggenheim

Edmond Alfred Guggenheim was an American copper industry businessman and philanthropist. He was a member of the Guggenheim family.

Solomon R. Guggenheim

Solomon R. Guggenheim

Solomon Robert Guggenheim was an American businessman and art collector. He is best known for establishing the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City.

Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is a nonprofit organization founded in 1937 by philanthropist Solomon R. Guggenheim and his long-time art advisor, artist Hilla von Rebay. The foundation is a leading institution for the collection, preservation, and research of modern and contemporary art and operates several museums around the world. The first museum established by the foundation was The Museum of Non-Objective Painting, in New York City. This became The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1952, and the foundation moved the collection into its first permanent museum building, in New York City, in 1959. The foundation next opened the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, Italy, in 1980. Its international network of museums expanded in 1997 to include the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in Bilbao, Spain, and it expects to open a new museum, Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates after its construction is completed.

Arthur Stuart, 7th Earl Castle Stewart

Arthur Stuart, 7th Earl Castle Stewart

Arthur Stuart, 7th Earl Castle Stewart, MC, styled Viscount Stuart from 1915 to 1921, was an Anglo-Irish peer and Unionist politician.

Source: "Guggenheim family", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 13th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guggenheim_family.

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References
  1. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Straus-family
  2. ^ https://theclio.com/entry/130872
  3. ^ Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz.
  4. ^ a b Davis, passim
  5. ^ "The Guggenheim Connection: Fame, Riches and a Masquerade", The New York Times, September 18, 2011
  6. ^ "Guggenheim 'Excited' About Private Equity, Likes Macro Funds". Bloomberg. October 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  7. ^ a b "Isaac Guggenheim Dies in England; Overcome by Sudden Illness after Greeting a Friend in Southampton. Leader in Mining Industry Identified with Large Industrial Interests of His Family--Body to Be Brought Here". The New York Times. No. 11 October 1922. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  8. ^ a b Davis, p. 422
  9. ^ a b c "Audrey B. Love, 100, a Patron of the Arts". The New York Times. No. 27 November 2003. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  10. ^ Filler, Martin. "Love Among the Ruins", Departures, March 30, 2010
  11. ^ Davis, p. 145
  12. ^ Davis, p. 168
  13. ^ a b c Davis, p. 82
  14. ^ a b c Davis, p. 337
  15. ^ a b c d Davis, [https://books.google.com/books?id=Y0_8a63XTD4C&pg=PA326 p. 326
  16. ^ "2 Guggenheim heirs die in 13-story fall: baby boy and brother drop". The New York Times. No. 20 October 1928. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  17. ^ a b c d Davis, p. 328
  18. ^ "William Guggenheim and Miss Amy Lelia Steinberger, the daughter of Mrs. Herman Steinberger". The New York Times. No. 1904.
  19. ^ Davis, John (1994). The Guggenheims: An American Epic. SPI Books. p. 436. ISBN 9781561713516.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Davis, p. 439
Further reading
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