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Government simulation game

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A government simulation or political simulation is a game that attempts to simulate the government and politics of all or part of a nation. These games may include geopolitical situations (involving the formation and execution of foreign policy), the creation of domestic political policies, or the simulation of political campaigns.[1] They differ from the genre of classical wargames due to their discouragement or abstraction of military or action elements.

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Government

Government

A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state.

Politics

Politics

Politics is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations among individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social science that studies politics and government is referred to as political science.

Geopolitics

Geopolitics

Geopolitics is the study of the effects of Earth's geography on politics and international relations. While geopolitics usually refers to countries and relations between them, it may also focus on two other kinds of states: de facto independent states with limited international recognition and relations between sub-national geopolitical entities, such as the federated states that make up a federation, confederation, or a quasi-federal system.

Foreign policy

Foreign policy

A state's foreign policy or external policy is its objectives and activities in relation to its interactions with other states, unions, and other political entities, whether bilaterally or through multilateral platforms. The Encyclopedia Britannica notes that a government's foreign policy may be influenced by "domestic considerations, the policies or behaviour of other states, or plans to advance specific geopolitical designs."

Wargame

Wargame

A wargame is a strategy game in which two or more players command opposing armed forces in a realistic simulation of an armed conflict. Wargaming may be played for recreation, to train military officers in the art of strategic thinking, or to study the nature of potential conflicts. Many wargames recreate specific historic battles, and can cover either whole wars, or any campaigns, battles, or lower-level engagements within them. Many simulate land combat, but there are wargames for naval and air combat as well.

Background

Games based on geopolitics and elections existed long before the emergence of personal computers and their ability to quickly process large amounts of statistical data. One of the earliest such games was The Game of Politics, created by Oswald Lord in 1935[2] which remained in print until 1960. In 1954, the board game Diplomacy was created, which differs from other wargames in that it features a "negotiation" phase during which players reach agreements with other players, and then execute military moves simultaneously.[3] National politics has remained a vital area of board gaming, with products such as the 1986 board game Die Macher featuring elections in Germany,[4] and Wreck the Nation which satirizes the politics of the United States under the George W. Bush administration.[5]

After enjoying years as a play-by-mail game, Diplomacy was one of the first games to move to take advantage of email, and continued to be a popular email game into the 2000s.[6]

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Diplomacy (game)

Diplomacy (game)

Diplomacy is a strategic board game created by Allan B. Calhamer in 1954 and released commercially in the United States in 1959. Its main distinctions from most board wargames are its negotiation phases and the absence of dice and other game elements that produce random effects. Set in Europe in the years leading to the Great War, Diplomacy is played by two to seven players, each controlling the armed forces of a major European power. Each player aims to move their few starting units and defeat those of others to win possession of a majority of strategic cities and provinces marked as "supply centers" on the map; these supply centers allow players who control them to produce more units. Following each round of player negotiations, each player can issue attack and support orders, which are then executed during the movement phase. A player takes control of a province when the number of provinces that are given orders to support the attacking province exceeds the number of provinces given orders to support the defending province.

Die Macher

Die Macher

Die Macher is a strategy board game published by Hans im Glück in 1986 that simulates a German general election.

George W. Bush

George W. Bush

George Walker Bush is an American retired politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, Bush family, and son of the 41st president George H. W. Bush, he previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

Play-by-mail game

Play-by-mail game

A play-by-mail game is a game played through postal mail, email or other digital media. Correspondence chess and Go were among the first PBM games. Diplomacy has been played by mail since 1963, introducing a multi-player aspect to PBM games. Flying Buffalo Inc. pioneered the first commercially available PBM game in 1970. A small number of PBM companies followed in the 1970s, with an explosion of hundreds of startup PBM companies in the 1980s at the peak of PBM gaming popularity, many of them small hobby companies—more than 90 percent of which eventually folded. A number of independent PBM magazines also started in the 1980s, including The Nuts & Bolts of PBM, Gaming Universal, Paper Mayhem and Flagship. These magazines eventually went out of print, replaced in the 21st century by the online PBM journal Suspense and Decision.

Email

Email

Electronic mail is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices. Email was thus conceived as the electronic (digital) version of, or counterpart to, mail, at a time when "mail" meant only physical mail. Email later became a ubiquitous communication medium, to the point that in current use, an email address is often treated as a basic and necessary part of many processes in business, commerce, government, education, entertainment, and other spheres of daily life in most countries.

Computer gaming

A screenshot from the 1985 Atari ST version of Balance of Power
A screenshot from the 1985 Atari ST version of Balance of Power

As computers became more sophisticated, games in this genre moved beyond email to more complex simulations. For most users in Europe, the first well known politics game was Dictator [ru], released in 1983 by DK'Tronics and running on Sinclair's ZX Spectrum. One of the earliest titles in this genre was Balance of Power, designed by Chris Crawford and published in 1985. This game features conflict at the height of the Cold War, using political and policy decisions to shape outcomes rather than warfare.[7][8] In Balance of Power, any armed conflict between the player and the opponent superpower results in a nuclear war, which is considered a loss condition.

Other Cold War era games included Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator created by Virgin Interactive, Spectrum Holobyte's Crisis in the Kremlin and Hidden Agenda.

Conflict simulated a hypothetical situation in 1997 in which the player assumes the role of the Israeli Prime Minister and is obligated to employ various diplomatic and covert directives to defeat its rival nations. Surrounded by hostile nations, the player is restrained by a very limited military force and thereby encouraged to employ peaceful means to remain in power until he acquired more advanced weapons systems and power.[9]

In Crisis in the Kremlin, the user could play as the protege of any of the following Soviet politicians: Mikhail Gorbachev of the reformist faction; Yegor Ligachev, leader of the hard-line faction; and Boris Yeltsin, who was the prevalent figure of the nationalist faction. The player could use the simulation to test certain strategies to lead the failing Soviet Union into a new era of prosperity or force its dissolution and integration into the new world order. This game introduced the concept of budget management, citizen and faction satisfaction as well as multiple economic values and political spectrum.[10]

In Hidden Agenda the user takes the role of the president of Chimerica, a post-revolutionary Central American country, trying to juggle international relations and the needs of the country's citizens.

Early political simulation games were intended more for education than entertainment. In 1987, On the Campaign Trail was developed as a tool at Kent State University's political campaign management program, and engaged students in decision-making regarding the campaigns for United States Senate elections between 1970 and 1986.[11] Subsequently, a commercial market developed for packaged games involving elections and campaigns.

A screenshot from Stardock's 2004 game Political Machine
A screenshot from Stardock's 2004 game Political Machine

The 1992 game Power Politics (and, before it, 1981's President Elect)[12] focused on domestic United States political campaigns (but not the running of the country upon election). In 1996, this was adapted to the Doonesbury Election Game, designed by Randy Chase (who also did Power Politics) and published by Mindscape, in which players conducted a campaign with the assistance of a pool of advisors selected from characters in the Doonesbury comic strip.[13] A successor entitled Power Politics III was released in 2005.[14] In 2004, Stardock published Political Machine, in which the player steers a candidate through a 41-week election cycle for United States President, developing policies and tailoring talk show appearances and speech content. The game is heavily tied to modern polling methods, using real-time feedback for how campaign strategy impacts polling numbers.[15] In 2006, TheorySpark released President Forever 2008 + Primaries, an election simulation game that allows the player to realistically control an entire election campaign through both the Primaries and General Election. President Forever 2008 + Primaries itself a follow-up to the highly successful general election sim President Forever, released in 2004

Some games in the genre involve enacting policies and budget decisions to sway voters. One such game is Democracy, published in 2005 by Positech Games. In Democracy, players make decisions during each turn regarding which policies to support. As turns progress, the player views how their favourability rating changes amongst certain types of voters.[16] Candidates make promises before each election, and failure to follow through can result in lower support during the player's re-election campaign.[17] Other examples are the Geo-Political-Simulator series, produced by Eversim, boasting an array of choices for domestic policy and decisions based around current geopolitical issues,[18] and Tropico series.

There can also be found games that puts the player in the seat of a state leader, such as SuperPower, and its sequel, SuperPower 2 and SuperPower 3, whose goals are to produce economic stability and prosperity, but the game mainly revolves around foreign policies, with the abilities to interact with other countries in many ways. The game includes a great number of real-life treaties that influence countries.

Other video game series such as Crusader Kings aim to show the political situations of medieval governments. These are more centered on dynastic politics and court intrigue than simulation games set in modern eras. Total War: Medieval also aimed to simulate this side of dynastic politics. Both of these simulate individual personality traits and different skills of characters who exist within governments and their surrounding courtiers.

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Atari ST

Atari ST

The Atari ST is a line of personal computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family. The initial model, the Atari 520ST, had limited release in April–June 1985 and was widely available in July. It was the first personal computer with a bitmapped color GUI, using a version of Digital Research's GEM from February 1985. The Atari 1040ST, released in 1986 with 1 MB of RAM, was the first home computer with a cost-per-kilobyte of less than US$1.

Balance of Power (video game)

Balance of Power (video game)

Balance of Power is a strategy video game of geopolitics during the Cold War, created by Chris Crawford and published in 1985 on the Macintosh by Mindscape, followed by ports to a variety of platforms over the next two years.

Chris Crawford (game designer)

Chris Crawford (game designer)

Christopher Crawford is an American video game designer and writer. Hired by Alan Kay to work at Atari, Inc., he wrote the computer wargame Eastern Front (1941) for the Atari 8-bit family which was sold through the Atari Program Exchange and later Atari's official product line. After leaving Atari, he wrote a string of games beginning with Balance of Power for Macintosh. Writing about the process of developing games, he became known among other creators in the nascent home computer game industry for his passionate advocacy of game design as an art form. He self-published The Journal of Computer Game Design and founded the Computer Game Developers Conference.

Cold War

Cold War

The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported opposing sides in major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator

Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator

Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator is a turn-based government simulation game designed by David J. Eastman and published by Virgin Mastertronic in 1990 for DOS, Atari ST and Amiga. The game is available for free download at abandonware sites.

Crisis in the Kremlin

Crisis in the Kremlin

Crisis in the Kremlin is a 1991 strategy video game with managerial aspects in which the player acts as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 2017. The player assumes the role of the reformist Mikhail Gorbachev, the nationalist Boris Yeltsin, or the hardliner Yegor Ligachyov. Actual jokes recorded by the KGB can be found in the gameplay, depicting the concerns of the Soviet people in a humorous light. The game was developed and released at a time when the Soviet Union was collapsing and breaking apart with the game's events making reference to that. Indeed, the Soviet Union dissolved in the same year as the game's release. A remake and spiritual successor of the game was published in 2017 on the game platform Steam.

Hidden Agenda (1988 video game)

Hidden Agenda (1988 video game)

Hidden Agenda is a 1988 strategy video game intended to simulate the conditions of a post-revolutionary Central American country. The player takes the part of the newly elected president of the fictional country of Chimerica, which has recently been liberated from the rule of the corrupt dictator Farsante and his ruling clique. It is considered a forerunner of the Games for Change movement, alongside other early Macintosh games including Chris Crawford's Balance of Power.

Prime Minister of Israel

Prime Minister of Israel

The prime minister of Israel is the head of government and chief executive of the State of Israel.

Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev was a Soviet and Russian politician who served as the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to the country's dissolution in 1991. He served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 and additionally as head of state beginning in 1988, as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990 and the only President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991. Ideologically, Gorbachev initially adhered to Marxism–Leninism but moved towards social democracy by the early 1990s.

Reform

Reform

Reform means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill's Association movement which identified “Parliamentary Reform” as its primary aim. Reform is generally regarded as antithetical to revolution.

Boris Yeltsin

Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin was a Soviet and Russian politician who served as the first president of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. He was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1961 to 1990. He later stood as a political independent, during which time he was viewed as being ideologically aligned with liberalism and Russian nationalism.

Russian nationalism

Russian nationalism

Russian nationalism is a form of nationalism that promotes Russian cultural identity and unity. Russian nationalism first rose to prominence in the early 19th century, and from its origin in the Russian Empire, to its repression during early Bolshevik rule, and its revival in the Soviet Union, it was closely related to pan-Slavism.

Online games

Web-based games such as NationStates allow players to manage the day-to-day decisions of individual governments, and compete against rival nations.[19][20] Other, similar games like Politics and War include trade and war mechanics. Less formally structured games are also played out in internet forums, where players manage governments and nations according to a set of agreed rules. These such forum-based simulation games - often known as "Polsims" - simulate the politics of one specific nation throughout rounds set in differing time periods. Not all "Polsims" take place on a national level. Some Polsims take place internationally, whereas others take place on the state or local levels. Players on such games play as fictional politicians and participate in debates, media activity, and simulated elections. An example of a "Polsim" like this would be AustraliaSim.[21]

In other web based games players register, apply for an open position (either a country or person inside a country such as a politician or army general) and carry out game activities either through newspapers or other activities or (more commonly) through gamemasters.

Related games

City-building games, such as Lincity, require the player to manage the governing features of a city.
City-building games, such as Lincity, require the player to manage the governing features of a city.

Other construction and management simulations require government management. For example, city-building games such as the SimCity series of games developed and published by Maxis simulates the experience of being a mayor. SimCity features a real-time environment in which the player can create zones for city development, build roads, power and water utilities, and watch as their city develops based on their decisions. The game was originally published in 1989 and as of 2013 was in its fifth major release.[22]

Strategy games frequently make use of government management challenges. 4X games require the management of a government, be it tribal or interstellar. This includes tasks such as building infrastructure and conducting trade. Galactic Civilizations II requires players to manage their approval rating to keep their political party in power. Domestic policy is sometimes abstracted with more emphasis on international conflict. For example, the Civilization series gives players control over resources, and the building of an empire.

Other strategy games focus on government management to varying degrees. For instance, in the Hearts of Iron games (set in World War II) the civilian population is only a factor with partisans and manpower, whereas in Victoria a player must not only conquer, but implement the Second Industrial Revolution while warding off (or ushering in) political revolutions such as the upheavals of 1848 and communist revolt.

Government and politics have also been incorporated into adventure games. A Mind Forever Voyaging, published by Infocom in 1985, was an interactive fiction game in which the player controlled a sentient computer capable of experimenting with potential future scenarios based on varying public policy decisions. Newsweek said of the game, "It isn't '1984,' but in some ways it is even scarier."[23]

The 2008 game Spore features a "Civilization" stage where the player controls vehicles and interacts with other cities until they have control of all 12 cities.

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Lincity

Lincity

Lincity is a free and open-source software construction and management simulation game, which puts the player in control of managing a city's socio-economy, similar in concept to SimCity. The player can develop a city by buying appropriate buildings, services and infrastructure. Its name is both a Linux reference and a play on the title of the original city-building game, SimCity, and it was released under the GNU General Public License v2.

Construction and management simulation

Construction and management simulation

Construction and management simulation (CMS), sometimes also called management sim or building sim, is a subgenre of simulation game in which players build, expand or manage fictional communities or projects with limited resources. Strategy video games sometimes incorporate CMS aspects into their game economy, as players must manage resources while expanding their project. Pure CMS games differ from strategy games, however, in that "the player's goal is not to defeat an enemy, but to build something within the context of an ongoing process." Games in this category are sometimes also called "management games".

City-building game

City-building game

A city-building game, or town-building game, is a genre of simulation video game where players act as the overall planner and leader of a city or town, looking down on it from above, and being responsible for its growth and management strategy. Players choose building placement and city management features such as salaries and work priorities, and the city develops accordingly.

Maxis

Maxis

Maxis is an American video game developer and a division of Electronic Arts (EA). The studio was founded in 1987 by Will Wright and Jeff Braun, and acquired by EA in 1997. Maxis is best known for its simulation games, including The Sims, Spore and SimCity.

4X

4X

4X is a subgenre of strategy-based computer and board games, and include both turn-based and real-time strategy titles. The gameplay involves building an empire. Emphasis is placed upon economic and technological development, as well as a range of military and non-military routes to supremacy.

Galactic empire

Galactic empire

Galactic empires are a common trope used in science fantasy and science fiction, particularly in works known as 'space operas'. Many authors have either used a galaxy-spanning empire as background or written about the growth and/or decline of such an empire. The capital of a galactic empire is frequently a core world, such as a planet relatively close to a galaxy's supermassive black hole, which has advanced considerably in science and technology compared to current human civilization. Characterizations can vary wildly from malevolent forces attacking sympathetic victims to apathetic bureaucracies to more reasonable entities focused on social progress and anywhere in between.

Hearts of Iron

Hearts of Iron

Hearts of Iron is a grand strategy video game developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Strategy First. Based on the Europa Engine, it was originally released in 2002 for Microsoft Windows. A Mac OS version was released by Virtual Programming the following year. In 2004, Atari, SA published Hearts of Iron: Platinum, an updated version that sought to improve several aspects of the game.

Partisan (military)

Partisan (military)

A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.

Human resources

Human resources

Human resources (HR) is the set of people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, industry, or economy. A narrower concept is human capital, the knowledge and skills which the individuals command. Similar terms include manpower, labor, personnel, associates or simply: people.

Revolutions of 1848

Revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe starting in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history to date.

Communist revolution

Communist revolution

A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution often, but not necessarily, inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism. Depending on the type of government, socialism can be used as an intermediate stage to Communism. The idea that a proletarian revolution is needed is a cornerstone of Marxism; Marxists believe that the workers of the world must unite and free themselves from capitalist oppression to create a world run by and for the working class. Thus, in the Marxist view, proletarian revolutions need to happen in countries all over the world.

Adventure game

Adventure game

An adventure game is a video game genre in which the player assumes the role of a protagonist in an interactive story, driven by exploration and/or puzzle-solving. The genre's focus on story allows it to draw heavily from other narrative-based media, such as literature and film, encompassing a wide variety of genres. Most adventure games are designed for a single player, since the emphasis on story and character makes multiplayer design difficult. Colossal Cave Adventure is identified as the first such adventure game, first released in 1976, while other notable adventure game series include Zork, King's Quest, Monkey Island, Syberia, and Myst.

Training and education

Beyond entertainment, these games have practical applications in training and education of government personnel. Training simulations have been created for subjects such as managing law enforcement policies (such as racial profiling), the simulation of a military officer's career, and hospital responses to emergency situations.[24]

Examples

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Balance of Power (video game)

Balance of Power (video game)

Balance of Power is a strategy video game of geopolitics during the Cold War, created by Chris Crawford and published in 1985 on the Macintosh by Mindscape, followed by ports to a variety of platforms over the next two years.

Bandit Kings of Ancient China

Bandit Kings of Ancient China

Bandit Kings of Ancient China, also known as Suikoden: Tenmei no Chikai in Japan, is a turn-based strategy video game developed and published by Koei, and released in 1989 for MSX, MS-DOS, Amiga, and Macintosh and in 1990 for the Nintendo Entertainment System. In 1996, Koei issued a remake for the Japanese Sega Saturn and PlayStation featuring vastly improved graphics and new arrangements of the original songs.

Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator

Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator

Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator is a turn-based government simulation game designed by David J. Eastman and published by Virgin Mastertronic in 1990 for DOS, Atari ST and Amiga. The game is available for free download at abandonware sites.

Crisis in the Kremlin

Crisis in the Kremlin

Crisis in the Kremlin is a 1991 strategy video game with managerial aspects in which the player acts as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 2017. The player assumes the role of the reformist Mikhail Gorbachev, the nationalist Boris Yeltsin, or the hardliner Yegor Ligachyov. Actual jokes recorded by the KGB can be found in the gameplay, depicting the concerns of the Soviet people in a humorous light. The game was developed and released at a time when the Soviet Union was collapsing and breaking apart with the game's events making reference to that. Indeed, the Soviet Union dissolved in the same year as the game's release. A remake and spiritual successor of the game was published in 2017 on the game platform Steam.

Crusader Kings (video game)

Crusader Kings (video game)

Crusader Kings is a grand strategy game developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive in April 2004. An expansion called Deus Vult was released in October 2007. A sequel using the newer Clausewitz Engine, Crusader Kings II, was released in February 2012, and another sequel, Crusader Kings III, was released on September 1, 2020.

CyberJudas

CyberJudas

CyberJudas is a presidential simulation video game for MS-DOS-compatible computers, and is the sequel to Shadow President. CyberJudas contains many of the same cyberpunk/dark science fiction elements of the original game, but adds themes of espionage and treason.

Destiny of an Emperor

Destiny of an Emperor

Destiny of an Emperor, known in Japan as Tenchi wo Kurau , is a strategy role-playing game by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System based on the Tenchi wo Kurau manga by Hiroshi Motomiya. It was originally released in Japan in 1989, with an English language localization released for the North American market in 1990.

Democracy (video game)

Democracy (video game)

Democracy is a government simulation game that was first developed by Positech Games in 2005, with a sequel released in December 2007, a third game in 2013 and a fourth in 2022. The player plays as if they are the president or prime minister of a democratic government. The player must introduce and alter policies in seven areas – tax, economy, welfare, foreign policy, transport, law and order and public services. Each policy has an effect on the happiness of various voter groups, as well as affecting factors such as crime and air quality. The player has to deal with "situations", which are typically problems such as petrol protests or homelessness, and also has to make decisions on dilemmas that arise each turn.

ERepublik

ERepublik

eRepublik is a free-to-play, web browser-based massively multiplayer online game developed by Romanian studio eRepublik Labs which was launched outside of beta phase on 14 October 2008 and is accessible via the Internet. The game is set in a mirror world where players, referred to as citizens, join in local and national politics where they can help formulate national economic and social policies as well as initiating wars with their neighbours and/or tread the path of a private citizen working, fighting and voting for their state. It was developed by Alexis Bonte and George Lemnaru. eRepublik is programmed in PHP using Symfony framework and runs in most modern browsers. eRepublik has spawned a number of similar games due to the commercial success.

Floor 13 (video game)

Floor 13 (video game)

Floor 13 is a strategy video game published by Virgin Games in 1991. The game set in the United Kingdom, where the player is the director of a secret governmental agency involved in clandestine domestic operations; the headquarters is hidden on the thirteenth floor of a bank building in London Docklands, hence the title. A follow-up, Floor 13: Deep State, was released in November 2020.

Commander in Chief (video game)

Commander in Chief (video game)

Commander in Chief, also known as Geo-Political Simulator, is a government simulation game that allows a player to simulate being a nation's head of government. Players have a large amount of control over their nation, although this varies based on the form of government the player's nation has. The English version was released on July 25, 2008, and has also been released in French, German, Spanish and Russian. The French version has been named Mission-Président.

Hidden Agenda (1988 video game)

Hidden Agenda (1988 video game)

Hidden Agenda is a 1988 strategy video game intended to simulate the conditions of a post-revolutionary Central American country. The player takes the part of the newly elected president of the fictional country of Chimerica, which has recently been liberated from the rule of the corrupt dictator Farsante and his ruling clique. It is considered a forerunner of the Games for Change movement, alongside other early Macintosh games including Chris Crawford's Balance of Power.

Source: "Government simulation game", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_simulation_game.

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References
  1. ^ Tom Leupold (August 12, 2004). "Spot On: Games get political". GameSpot. Archived from the original on March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2007.
  2. ^ "Monopoly & Politics". Time. February 3, 1936.
  3. ^ Allan B. Calhamer, Europa Express #10, "The Roots of Diplomacy" Archived July 31, 2012, at archive.today
  4. ^ Erik Arneson, "Playing Politics" Archived November 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "BuzzFlash Reviews". Buzzflash.com. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
  6. ^ Jim Burgess, "Play-by-Mail Diplomacy vs Play-by-Email Diplomacy" Archived May 25, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Chris Crawford (2003), Chris Crawford on Game Design, ISBN 0-13-146099-4
  8. ^ Robert Mandel, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 31, No. 2 (June 1987), "An Evaluation of the 'Balance of Power' Simulation", pp. 333-345,
  9. ^ Zzap! Issue 70, February 1991, p.48, "Conflict: the Middle East Political Simulator"
  10. ^ Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, 447-448 (1994), "Software Reviews: Crisis in the Kremlin"
  11. ^ Nadine S. Koch, "Winning Is Not the Only Thing 'On the Campaign Trail': An Evaluation of a Micro-Computer Campaign Simulation" PS: Political Science & Politics, Vol. 24, No. 4 (December 1991), pp. 694-698.
  12. ^ "President Elect". Moby Games (retrieved January 25, 2009).
  13. ^ "IGN: The Doonesbury Election Game". Pc.ign.com. December 30, 1995. Archived from the original on February 25, 2004. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
  14. ^ "Power Politics III (PC)". GameSpy. Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved December 22, 2007.
  15. ^ Jason Silverman (August 19, 2004). "Campaign Game Mimics Real Life". Wired. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. Retrieved December 22, 2007.
  16. ^ Jess Nickelsen. "Democracy (PC)". NZGamer.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
  17. ^ "Positech Democracy". Retrieved December 6, 2007.
  18. ^ Jackson, Stephen (April 4, 2018). "Best Political Games To Play On PC in 2018". Gaming Respawn. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  19. ^ "NationStates - Walkthrough, Tips, Review". Jay is games. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  20. ^ "A Web Site of Virtual Nations". ABC News. January 7, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  21. ^ Wilson, Cameron. "People Are Role-Playing As Politicians On Reddit And It's Actually Surprisingly Wholesome". BuzzFeed. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  22. ^ Tal Blevins (January 14, 2003). "Sim City 4 Review". IGN. Archived from the original on January 17, 2003. Retrieved December 22, 2007.
  23. ^ "Ad-Blurbs for A Mind Forever Voyaging". MobyGames. Retrieved December 22, 2007.
  24. ^ Dave Carey (January 6, 2007). "Simulation games help prepare government, unite local businesses". The Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2011.

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