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Giacomo Casanova

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Giacomo Casanova
Casanova ritratto.jpg
Drawing by his brother Francesco
Born(1725-04-02)2 April 1725
Died4 June 1798(1798-06-04) (aged 73)
Dux, Bohemia, Holy Roman Empire (now Duchcov, Czech Republic)
Parents

Giacomo Girolamo Casanova (/ˌkæsəˈnvə, ˌkæzə-/,[1][2][3] Italian: [ˈdʒaːkomo dʒiˈrɔːlamo kazaˈnɔːva, kasa-]; 2 April 1725 – 4 June 1798) was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice.[4][5] His autobiography, Histoire de ma vie (Story of My Life), is regarded as one of the most authentic sources of information about the customs and norms of European social life during the 18th century.[6]

As was common at the time, Casanova, depending on circumstances, used more or less fictitious names, such as baron or count of Farussi (the maiden name of his mother) or Chevalier de Seingalt (French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃ɡɑl]).[7] He often signed his works as "Jacques Casanova de Seingalt" after he began writing in French following his second exile from Venice.[a]

He has become so famous for his often complicated and elaborate affairs with women that his name is now synonymous with "womanizer". Many of his exploits would be considered predatory by modern standards, however, including affairs with the emotionally vulnerable as well as the underage. He associated with European royalty, popes, and cardinals, along with the artistic figures Voltaire, Goethe, and Mozart. He spent his last years in the Dux Chateau (Bohemia) as a librarian in Count Waldstein's household, where he also wrote the story of his life.

Discover more about Giacomo Casanova related topics

Republic of Venice

Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima, was a sovereign state and maritime republic in parts of present-day Italy that existed for 1100 years from AD 697 until AD 1797. Centered on the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, it incorporated numerous overseas possessions in modern Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Greece, Albania and Cyprus. The republic grew into a trading power during the Middle Ages and strengthened this position during the Renaissance. Citizens spoke the still-surviving Venetian language, although publishing in (Florentine) Italian became the norm during the Renaissance.

Histoire de ma vie

Histoire de ma vie

Histoire de ma vie is both the memoir and autobiography of Giacomo Casanova, a famous 18th-century Italian adventurer. A previous, bowdlerized version was originally known in English as The Memoirs of Jacques Casanova until the original version was published between 1960 and 1962. The unexpurgated English translation was published in 1971.

Pope

Pope

The pope, also known as supreme pontiff, Roman pontiff or sovereign pontiff, is the bishop of Rome, head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and has also served as the head of state or sovereign of the Papal States and later the Vatican City State since the eighth century. From a Catholic viewpoint, the primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, who gave Peter the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the Church would be built. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013.

Voltaire

Voltaire

François-Marie Arouet was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher. Known by his nom de plume M. de Voltaire, he was famous for his wit, and his criticism of Christianity—especially the Roman Catholic Church—and of slavery. Voltaire was an advocate of freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and separation of church and state.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, and critic. His works include plays, poetry, literature, and aesthetic criticism, as well as treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. He is widely regarded as the greatest and most influential writer in the German language, his work having a profound and wide-ranging influence on Western literary, political, and philosophical thought from the late 18th century to the present day.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition resulted in more than 800 works of virtually every genre of his time. Many of these compositions are acknowledged as pinnacles of the symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral repertoire. Mozart is widely regarded as among the greatest composers in the history of Western music, with his music admired for its "melodic beauty, its formal elegance and its richness of harmony and texture".

Duchcov Chateau

Duchcov Chateau

Duchcov is the name of a grand house in the town of Duchcov, located about 8 km from Litvínov, in northern Bohemia, Czech Republic. The château houses a museum with a collection of historic furniture. Also on display is the painting and portrait gallery of the Waldsteins, including portraits of the most famous member of this family, Albrecht von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland, by Anthony van Dyck. One room is dedicated to Giacomo Casanova, who was employed here as a librarian from 1785 to 1798, and his memoirs Histoire de ma vie were written here in the years before his death in 1798.

Bohemia

Bohemia

Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech Republic. Bohemia can also refer to a wider area consisting of the historical Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by the Bohemian kings, including Moravia and Czech Silesia, in which case the smaller region is referred to as Bohemia proper as a means of distinction.

Librarian

Librarian

A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library providing access to information, and sometimes social or technical programming, or instruction on information literacy to users.

Biography

Youth

Venice in the 1730s
Venice in the 1730s

Giacomo Girolamo Casanova was born in Venice in 1725 to actress Zanetta Farussi, wife of actor and dancer Gaetano Casanova. Giacomo was the first of six children, being followed by Francesco Giuseppe (1727–1803), Giovanni Battista (1730–1795), Faustina Maddalena (1731–1736), Maria Maddalena Antonia Stella (1732–1800), and Gaetano Alvise (1734–1783).[8][9]

At the time of Casanova's birth, the city of Venice thrived as the pleasure capital of Europe, ruled by political and religious conservatives who tolerated social vices and encouraged tourism. It was a required stop on the Grand Tour, traveled by young men coming of age, especially men from the Kingdom of Great Britain. The famed Carnival, gambling houses, and beautiful courtesans were powerful drawcards. This was the milieu that bred Casanova and made him its most famous and representative citizen.[10]

San Samuele – Casanova's childhood neighborhood.
San Samuele – Casanova's childhood neighborhood.

His grandmother Marzia Baldissera cared for him while his mother toured about Europe in the theater. His father died when he was eight. As a child, Casanova suffered nosebleeds, and his grandmother sought help from a witch: "Leaving the gondola, we enter a hovel, where we find an old woman sitting on a pallet, with a black cat in her arms and five or six others around her."[11] Though the unguent applied was ineffective, Casanova was fascinated by the incantation.[12] Perhaps to remedy the nosebleeds (a physician blamed the density of Venice's air), Casanova, on his ninth birthday, was sent to a boarding house on the mainland in Padua. For Casanova, the neglect by his parents was a bitter memory. "So they got rid of me," he proclaimed.[13]

Conditions at the boarding house were appalling, so he appealed to be placed under the care of Abbé Gozzi, his primary instructor, who tutored him in academic subjects, as well as the violin. Casanova moved in with the priest and his family and lived there through most of his teenage years.[14] In the Gozzi household, Casanova first came into contact with the opposite sex, when Gozzi's younger sister Bettina fondled him at the age of 11. Bettina was "pretty, lighthearted, and a great reader of romances. ... The girl pleased me at once, though I had no idea why. It was she who little by little kindled in my heart the first sparks of a feeling which later became my ruling passion."[15] Although she subsequently married, Casanova maintained a lifelong attachment to Bettina and the Gozzi family.[16]

Early on, Casanova demonstrated a quick wit, an intense appetite for knowledge, and a perpetually inquisitive mind. He entered the University of Padua at 12 and graduated at 17, in 1742, with a degree in law ("for which I felt an unconquerable aversion").[17] His guardian's hope was that he would become an ecclesiastical lawyer.[14] Casanova had also studied moral philosophy, chemistry, and mathematics, and was keenly interested in medicine. ("I should have been allowed to do as I wished and become a physician, in which profession quackery is even more effective than it is in legal practice.")[17] He frequently prescribed his own treatments for himself and friends.[18] While attending the university, Casanova began to gamble and quickly got into debt, causing his recall to Venice by his grandmother, but the gambling habit became firmly established.

The Church of San Samuele, where Casanova was baptized, and Palazzo Malipiero c. 1716
The Church of San Samuele, where Casanova was baptized, and Palazzo Malipiero c. 1716

Back in Venice, Casanova started his clerical law career and was admitted as an abbé after being conferred minor orders by the Patriarch of Venice. He shuttled back and forth to Padua to continue his university studies. By now, he had become something of a dandy—tall and dark, his long hair powdered, scented, and elaborately curled.[b] He quickly ingratiated himself with a patron (something he was to do all his life), 76-year-old Venetian senator Alvise Gasparo Malipiero, the owner of Palazzo Malipiero, close to Casanova's home in Venice.[21] Malipiero moved in the best circles and taught young Casanova a great deal about good food and wine, and how to behave in society. However, Casanova was caught dallying with Malipiero's intended object of seduction, actress Teresa Imer, and the senator drove both of them from his house.[16] Casanova's growing curiosity about women led to his first complete sexual experience, with two sisters, Nanetta and Marton Savorgnan, then 14 and 16, who were distant relatives of the Grimanis. Casanova proclaimed that his life avocation was firmly established by this encounter.[22]

Early career in Italy and abroad

Scandals tainted Casanova's short church career. After his grandmother's death, Casanova entered a seminary for a short while, but soon his indebtedness landed him in prison for the first time. An attempt by his mother to secure him a position with Bishop Bernardo de Bernardis was rejected by Casanova after a very brief trial of conditions in the bishop's Calabrian see.[23] Instead, he found employment as a scribe with the powerful Cardinal Acquaviva in Rome. On meeting Pope Benedict XIV, Casanova boldly asked for a dispensation to read the "forbidden books" and from eating fish (which he claimed inflamed his eyes). He also composed love letters for another cardinal. When Casanova became the scapegoat for a scandal involving a local pair of star-crossed lovers, Cardinal Acquaviva dismissed Casanova, thanking him for his sacrifice, but effectively ending his church career.[24]

In search of a new profession, Casanova bought a commission to become a military officer for the Republic of Venice. His first step was to look the part:

Reflecting that there was now little likelihood of my achieving fortune in my ecclesiastical career, I decided to dress as a soldier ... I inquire for a good tailor ... he brings me everything I need to impersonate a follower of Mars. ... My uniform was white, with a blue vest, a shoulder knot of silver and gold... I bought a long sword, and with my handsome cane in hand, a trim hat with a black cockade, with my hair cut in side whiskers and a long false pigtail, I set forth to impress the whole city.

— Casanova (2006), p. 223.
Constantinople in the 18th century
Constantinople in the 18th century

He joined a Venetian regiment at Corfu, his stay being broken by a brief trip to Constantinople, ostensibly to deliver a letter from his former master the Cardinal.[25] Finding his advancement too slow and his duty boring, he managed to lose most of his pay playing faro. Casanova soon abandoned his military career and returned to Venice.

At the age of 21, he set out to become a professional gambler, but losing all the money remaining from the sale of his commission, he turned to his old benefactor Alvise Grimani for a job. Casanova thus began his third career, as a violinist in the San Samuele theater, "a menial journeyman of a sublime art in which, if he who excels is admired, the mediocrity is rightly despised. ... My profession was not a noble one, but I did not care. Calling everything prejudice, I soon acquired all the habits of my degraded fellow musicians."[26] He and some of his fellows, "often spent our nights roaming through different quarters of the city, thinking up the most scandalous practical jokes and putting them into execution ... we amused ourselves by untying the gondolas moored before private homes, which then drifted with the current". They also sent midwives and physicians on false calls.[27]

Good fortune came to the rescue when Casanova, unhappy with his lot as a musician, saved the life of a Venetian patrician of the Bragadin family, who had a stroke while riding with Casanova in a gondola after a wedding ball. They immediately stopped to have the senator bled. Then, at the senator's palace, a physician bled the senator again and applied an ointment of mercury—an all-purpose but toxic remedy at the time—to the senator's chest. This raised his temperature and induced a massive fever, and Bragadin appeared to be choking on his own swollen windpipe. A priest was called as death seemed to be approaching. However, despite protests from the attending physician, Casanova ordered the removal of the ointment and the washing of the senator's chest with cool water. The senator recovered from his illness with rest and a sensible diet.[28] Because of his youth and his facile recitation of medical knowledge, the senator and his two bachelor friends thought Casanova wise beyond his years, and concluded that he must be in possession of occult knowledge. As they were cabalists themselves, the senator invited Casanova into his household and became a lifelong patron.[29]

Casanova stated in his memoirs:

I took the most creditable, the noblest, and the only natural course. I decided to put myself in a position where I need no longer go without the necessities of life: and what those necessities were for me no one could judge better than me.... No one in Venice could understand how an intimacy could exist between myself and three men of their character, they all heaven and I all earth; they most severe in their morals, and I addicted to every kind of dissolute living.

— Casanova (2006), p. 247.

For the next three years under the senator's patronage, working nominally as a legal assistant, Casanova led the life of a nobleman, dressing magnificently and, as was natural to him, spending most of his time gambling and engaging in amorous pursuits.[30] His patron was exceedingly tolerant, but he warned Casanova that some day he would pay the price; "I made a joke of his dire Prophecies and went my way." However, not much later, Casanova was forced to leave Venice, due to further scandals. Casanova had dug up a freshly buried corpse to play a practical joke on an enemy and exact revenge, but the victim went into a paralysis, never to recover. In another scandal, a young girl who had duped him accused him of rape and went to the officials.[31] Casanova was later acquitted of this crime for lack of evidence, but by this time, he had already fled from Venice.

Portrait of Casanova by Alessandro Longhi
Portrait of Casanova by Alessandro Longhi

Escaping to Parma, Casanova entered into a three-month affair with a Frenchwoman he named "Henriette", perhaps the deepest love he ever experienced—a woman who combined beauty, intelligence, and culture. In his words, "They who believe that a woman is incapable of making a man equally happy all the twenty-four hours of the day have never known an Henriette. The joy which flooded my soul was far greater when I conversed with her during the day than when I held her in my arms at night. Having read a great deal and having natural taste, Henriette judged rightly of everything."[32] She also judged Casanova astutely. As noted Casanovist J. Rives Childs wrote:

Perhaps no woman so captivated Casanova as Henriette; few women obtained so deep an understanding of him. She penetrated his outward shell early in their relationship, resisting the temptation to unite her destiny with his. She came to discern his volatile nature, his lack of social background, and the precariousness of his finances. Before leaving, she slipped into his pocket five hundred louis, mark of her evaluation of him.

— Childs 1988, p. 46.

Grand tour

Crestfallen and despondent, Casanova returned to Venice, and after a good gambling streak, he recovered and set off on a grand tour, reaching Paris in 1750.[33] Along the way, from one town to another, he got into sexual escapades resembling operatic plots.[34] In Lyon, he entered the society of Freemasonry, which appealed to his interest in secret rites and which, for the most part, attracted men of intellect and influence who proved useful in his life, providing valuable contacts and uncensored knowledge. Casanova was also attracted to Rosicrucianism.[35] In Lyons, Casanova became companion and finally took the highest degree of Scottish Rite Master Mason.[36][37][38]

Regarding his initiation to the Scottish Rite Freemasonry in Lyon, the Memoirs said:

It was in Lyons that a respectable individual, whose acquaintance I made at the house of M. de Rochebaron, obtained for me the favour of being initiated in the sublime trifles of Freemasonry. I arrived in Paris a simple apprentice; a few months after my arrival I became companion and master; the last is certainly the highest degree in Freemasonry, for all the other degrees which I took afterwards are only pleasing inventions, which, although symbolical, add nothing to the dignity of master.

— Memoirs of Jacques [Giovanni Giacomo] Casanova De Seingalt 1725-1798. To Paris and Prison, Volume 2A--Paris.[36][39]

Casanova stayed in Paris for two years, learned the language, spent much time at the theater, and introduced himself to notables. Soon, however, his numerous liaisons were noted by the Paris police, as they were in nearly every city he visited.[40]

In 1752, his brother Francesco and he moved from Paris to Dresden, where his mother and sister Maria Maddalena were living. His new play, La Moluccheide, now lost, was performed at the Royal Theatre, where his mother often played in lead roles.[41][42] He then visited Prague and Vienna, where the tighter moral atmosphere of the latter city was not to his liking. He finally returned to Venice in 1753.[43] In Venice, Casanova resumed his escapades, picking up many enemies and gaining the greater attention of the Venetian inquisitors. His police record became a lengthening list of reported blasphemies, seductions, fights, and public controversy.[44] A state spy, Giovanni Manucci, was employed to draw out Casanova's knowledge of cabalism and Freemasonry and to examine his library for forbidden books. Senator Bragadin, in total seriousness this time (being a former inquisitor himself), advised his "son" to leave immediately or face the stiffest consequences.

Imprisonment and escape

On 26 July 1755, at age 30, Casanova was arrested for affront to religion and common decency:[45] "The Tribunal, having taken cognizance of the grave faults committed by G. Casanova primarily in public outrages against the holy religion, their Excellencies have caused him to be arrested and imprisoned under the Leads."[46] "The Leads" was a prison of seven cells on the top floor of the east wing of the Doge's palace, reserved for prisoners of higher status as well as certain types of offenders—such as political prisoners, defrocked or libertine priests or monks, and usurers—and named for the lead plates covering the palace roof. The following 12 September, without a trial and without being informed of the reasons for his arrest and of the sentence, he was sentenced to five years imprisonment.[45][47]

"It's him. Place him in custody!"
"It's him. Place him in custody!"

He was placed in solitary confinement with clothing, a pallet bed, table, and armchair in "the worst of all the cells",[48] where he suffered greatly from the darkness, summer heat, and "millions of fleas". He was soon housed with a series of cellmates, and after five months and a personal appeal from Count Bragadin, was given warm winter bedding and a monthly stipend for books and better food. During exercise walks he was granted in the prison garret, he found a piece of black marble and an iron bar which he smuggled back to his cell; he hid the bar inside his armchair. When he was temporarily without cellmates, he spent two weeks sharpening the bar into a spike on the stone. Then he began to gouge through the wooden floor underneath his bed, knowing that his cell was directly above the Inquisitor's chamber.[49] Just three days before his intended escape, during a festival when no officials would be in the chamber below, Casanova was moved to a larger, lighter cell with a view, despite his protests that he was perfectly happy where he was. In his new cell, "I sat in my armchair like a man in a stupor; motionless as a statue, I saw that I had wasted all the efforts I had made, and I could not repent of them. I felt that I had nothing to hope for, and the only relief left to me was not to think of the future."[50]

Overcoming his inertia, Casanova set upon another escape plan. He solicited the help of the prisoner in the adjacent cell, Father Balbi, a renegade priest. The spike, carried to the new cell inside the armchair, was passed to the priest in a folio Bible carried under a heaping plate of pasta by the hoodwinked jailer. The priest made a hole in his ceiling, climbed across and made a hole in the ceiling of Casanova's cell. To neutralize his new cellmate, who was a spy, Casanova played on his superstitions and terrorized him into silence.[51] When Balbi broke through to Casanova's cell, Casanova lifted himself through the ceiling, leaving behind a note that quoted the 117th Psalm (from the Latin Vulgate): "I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of the Lord".[52]

Illustration from Story of My Flight
Illustration from Story of My Flight

The spy remained behind, too frightened of the consequences if he were caught escaping with the others. Casanova and Balbi pried their way through the lead plates and onto the sloping roof of the Doge's Palace, with a heavy fog swirling. The drop to the nearby canal being too great, Casanova prised open the grate over a dormer window, and broke the window to gain entry. They found a long ladder on the roof, and with the additional use of a bedsheet "rope" that Casanova had prepared, lowered themselves into the room whose floor was 25 feet below. They rested until morning, changed clothes, then broke a small lock on an exit door and passed into a palace corridor, through galleries and chambers, and down stairs, where, by convincing the guard they had inadvertently been locked into the palace after an official function, they left through a final door.[53] It was 6:00 in the morning and they escaped by gondola. Eventually, Casanova reached Paris, where he arrived on the same day (5 January 1757) that Robert-François Damiens made an attempt on the life of Louis XV.[54] (Casanova would later witness and describe his execution.)

Thirty years later in 1787, Casanova wrote Story of My Flight, which was very popular and was reprinted in many languages, and he repeated the tale a little later in his memoirs.[55] Casanova's judgment of the exploit is characteristic:

Thus did God provide me with what I needed for an escape which was to be a wonder if not a miracle. I admit that I am proud of it; but my pride does not come from my having succeeded, for luck had a good deal to do with that; it comes from my having concluded that the thing could be done and having had the courage to undertake it.

— Casanova (2006), p. 502.

Return to Paris

He knew his stay in Paris might be a long one and he proceeded accordingly: "I saw that to accomplish anything I must bring all my physical and moral faculties in play, make the acquaintance of the great and the powerful, exercise strict self-control, and play the chameleon."[56] Casanova had matured, and this time in Paris, though still depending at times on quick thinking and decisive action, he was more calculating and deliberate. His first task was to find a new patron. He reconnected with his old friend de Bernis, now the Foreign Minister of France. Casanova was advised by his patron to find a means of raising funds for the state as a way to gain instant favor. Casanova promptly became one of the trustees of the first state lottery, and one of its best ticket salesmen. The enterprise earned him a large fortune quickly.[57] With money in hand, he traveled in high circles and undertook new seductions. He duped many socialites with his occultism, particularly the Marquise Jeanne d'Urfé, using his excellent memory which made him appear to have a sorcerer's power of numerology. In Casanova's view, "deceiving a fool is an exploit worthy of an intelligent man".[58]

Casanova claimed to be a Rosicrucian and an alchemist, aptitudes which made him popular with some of the most prominent figures of the era, among them Madame de Pompadour, Count of Saint-Germain, d'Alembert, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. So popular was alchemy among the nobles, particularly the search for the "philosopher's stone", that Casanova was highly sought after for his supposed knowledge, and he profited handsomely.[59] He met his match, however, in the Count of Saint-Germain: "This very singular man, born to be the most barefaced of all imposters, declared with impunity, with a casual air, that he was three hundred years old, that he possessed the universal medicine, that he made anything he liked from nature, that he created diamonds."[60]

De Bernis decided to send Casanova to Dunkirk on his first spying mission. Casanova was paid well for his quick work and this experience prompted one of his few remarks against the ancien régime and the class on which he was dependent. He remarked in hindsight, "All the French ministers are the same. They lavished money which came out of the other people's pockets to enrich their creatures, and they were absolute: The down-trodden people counted for nothing, and, through this, the indebtedness of the State and the confusion of finances were the inevitable results. A Revolution was necessary."[61]

As the Seven Years' War began, Casanova was again called to help increase the state treasury. He was entrusted with a mission of selling state bonds in Amsterdam, Holland being the financial center of Europe at the time.[62] He succeeded in selling the bonds at only an 8% discount, and the following year was rich enough to found a silk manufactory with his earnings. The French government even offered him a title and a pension if he would become a French citizen and work on behalf of the finance ministry, but he declined, perhaps because it would frustrate his Wanderlust.[63] Casanova had reached his peak of fortune, but could not sustain it. He ran the business poorly, borrowed heavily trying to save it, and spent much of his wealth on constant liaisons with his female workers who were his "harem".[64]

For his debts, Casanova was imprisoned again, this time at For-l'Évêque, but was liberated four days afterwards, upon the insistence of the Marquise d'Urfé. Unfortunately, though he was released, his patron de Bernis was dismissed by Louis XV at that time and Casanova's enemies closed in on him. He sold the rest of his belongings and secured another mission to Holland to distance himself from his troubles.[64]

On the run

This time, however, his mission failed and he fled to Cologne, then Stuttgart in the spring of 1760, where he lost the rest of his fortune. He was yet again arrested for his debts, but managed to escape to Switzerland. Weary of his wanton life, Casanova visited the monastery of Einsiedeln and considered the simple, scholarly life of a monk. He returned to his hotel to think on the decision, only to encounter a new object of desire, and reverting to his old instincts, all thoughts of a monk's life were quickly forgotten.[65] Moving on, he visited Albrecht von Haller and Voltaire, and arrived in Marseille, then Genoa, Florence, Rome, Naples, Modena, and Turin, moving from one sexual romp to another.[66]

In 1760, Casanova started styling himself the Chevalier de Seingalt, a name he was to use increasingly for the rest of his life. On occasion, he would also call himself Count de Farussi (using his mother's maiden name) and when Pope Clement XIII presented Casanova with the Papal Order of the Éperon d'or, he had an impressive cross and ribbon to display on his chest.[67]

Back in Paris, he set about one of his most outrageous schemes—convincing his old dupe the Marquise d'Urfé that he could turn her into a young man through occult means. The plan did not yield Casanova the big payoff he had hoped for, and the Marquise d'Urfé finally lost faith in him.[68]

Casanova traveled to England in 1763, hoping to sell his idea of a state lottery to English officials. He wrote of the English, "the people have a special character, common to the whole nation, which makes them think they are superior to everyone else. It is a belief shared by all nations, each thinking itself the best. And they are all right."[69] Through his connections, he worked his way up to an audience with King George III, using most of the valuables he had stolen from the Marquise d'Urfé. While working the political angles, he also spent much time in the bedroom, as was his habit. As a means to find females for his pleasure, not being able to speak English, he put an advertisement in the newspaper to let an apartment to the "right" person. He interviewed many young women, choosing one "Mistress Pauline" who suited him well. Soon, he established himself in her apartment and seduced her. These and other liaisons, however, left him weak with venereal disease and he left England impoverished and ill.[70]

He went on to the Austrian Netherlands, recovered, and then for the next three years, traveled all over Europe, covering about 4,500 miles by coach over rough roads, and going as far as Moscow and Saint Petersburg (the average daily coach trip being about 30 miles (48 km)). Again, his principal goal was to sell his lottery scheme to other governments and repeat the great success he had with the French government, but a meeting with Frederick the Great bore no fruit and in the surrounding German lands, the same result. Not lacking either connections or confidence, Casanova went to Russia and met with Catherine the Great, but she flatly turned down the lottery idea.[71]

In 1766, he was expelled from Warsaw following a pistol duel with Colonel Franciszek Ksawery Branicki over an Italian actress, a lady friend of theirs. Both duelists were wounded, Casanova on the left hand. The hand recovered on its own, after Casanova refused the recommendation of doctors that it be amputated.[72] From Warsaw, he traveled to Breslau in the Kingdom of Prussia, then to Dresden, where he contracted yet another venereal infection.[73][74][75] He returned to Paris for several months in 1767 and hit the gambling salons, only to be expelled from France by order of Louis XV himself, primarily for Casanova's scam involving the Marquise d'Urfé.[76] Now known across Europe for his reckless behavior, Casanova would have difficulty overcoming his notoriety and gaining any fortune, so he headed for Spain, where he was not as well known. He tried his usual approach, leaning on well-placed contacts (often Freemasons), wining and dining with nobles of influence, and finally arranging an audience with the local monarch, in this case Charles III. When no doors opened for him, however, he could only roam across Spain, with little to show for it. In Barcelona, he escaped assassination and landed in jail for 6 weeks. His Spanish adventure a failure, he returned to France briefly, then to Italy.[77]

Return to Venice

In Rome, Casanova had to prepare a way for his return to Venice. While waiting for supporters to gain him legal entry into Venice, Casanova began his modern Tuscan-Italian translation of the Iliad, his History of the Troubles in Poland, and a comic play. To ingratiate himself with the Venetian authorities, Casanova did some commercial spying for them. After months without a recall, however, he wrote a letter of appeal directly to the Inquisitors. At last, he received his long-sought permission and burst into tears upon reading "We, Inquisitors of State, for reasons known to us, give Giacomo Casanova a free safe-conduct ... empowering him to come, go, stop, and return, hold communication wheresoever he pleases without let or hindrance. So is our will." Casanova was permitted to return to Venice in September 1774 after 18 years of exile.[78]

At first, his return to Venice was a cordial one and he was a celebrity. Even the Inquisitors wanted to hear how he had escaped from their prison. Of his three bachelor patrons, however, only Dandolo was still alive and Casanova was invited back to live with him. He received a small stipend from Dandolo and hoped to live from his writings, but that was not enough. He reluctantly became a spy again for Venice, paid by piece work, reporting on religion, morals, and commerce, most of it based on gossip and rumor he picked up from social contacts.[79] He was disappointed. No financial opportunities of interest came about and few doors opened for him in society as in the past.

At age 49, the years of reckless living and the thousands of miles of travel had taken their toll. Casanova's smallpox scars, sunken cheeks, and hook nose became all the more noticeable. His easygoing manner was now more guarded. Prince Charles de Ligne, a friend (and uncle of his future employer), described him around 1784:

He would be a good-looking man if he were not ugly; he is tall and built like Hercules, but of an African tint; eyes full of life and fire, but touchy, wary, rancorous—and this gives him a ferocious air. It is easier to put him in a rage than to make him gay. He laughs little, but makes others laugh. ... He has a manner of saying things which reminds me of Harlequin or Figaro, and which makes them sound witty.

— Masters 1969, p. 257

Venice had changed for him. Casanova now had little money for gambling, few willing females worth pursuing, and few acquaintances to enliven his dull days. He heard of the death of his mother and, more paining, visited the deathbed of Bettina Gozzi, who had first introduced him to sex and who died in his arms. His Iliad was published in three volumes, but to limited subscribers and yielding little money. He got into a published dispute with Voltaire over religion. When he asked, "Suppose that you succeed in destroying superstition. With what will you replace it?" Voltaire shot back, "I like that. When I deliver humanity from a ferocious beast which devours it, can I be asked what I shall put in its place." From Casanova's point of view, if Voltaire had "been a proper philosopher, he would have kept silent on that subject ... the people need to live in ignorance for the general peace of the nation".[80]

In 1779, Casanova found Francesca, an uneducated seamstress, who became his live-in lover and housekeeper, and who loved him devotedly.[81] Later that year, the Inquisitors put him on the payroll and sent him to investigate commerce between the papal states and Venice. Other publishing and theater ventures failed, primarily from lack of capital. In a downward spiral, Casanova was expelled again from Venice in 1783, after writing a vicious satire poking fun at Venetian nobility. In it, he made his only public statement that Grimani was his true father.[82]

Forced to resume his travels again, Casanova arrived in Paris, and in November 1783 met Benjamin Franklin while attending a presentation on aeronautics and the future of balloon transport.[83] For a while, Casanova served as secretary and pamphleteer to Sebastian Foscarini, Venetian ambassador in Vienna. He also became acquainted with Lorenzo Da Ponte, Mozart's librettist, who noted about Casanova, "This singular man never liked to be in the wrong."[84] Notes by Casanova indicate that he may have made suggestions to Da Ponte concerning the libretto for Mozart's Don Giovanni.[85]

Final years in Bohemia

Dux Castle
Dux Castle

In 1785, after Foscarini died, Casanova began searching for another position. A few months later, he became the librarian to Count Joseph Karl von Waldstein, a chamberlain of the emperor, in the Castle of Dux, Bohemia (now the Czech Republic). The count—himself a Freemason, cabalist, and frequent traveler—had taken to Casanova when they had met a year earlier at Foscarini's residence. Although the job offered security and good pay, Casanova describes his last years as boring and frustrating, though it was the most productive time for writing.[86] His health had deteriorated dramatically, and he found life among peasants to be less than stimulating. He was only able to make occasional visits to Vienna and Dresden for relief. Although Casanova got on well with the count, his employer was a much younger man with his own eccentricities. The count often ignored him at meals and failed to introduce him to important visiting guests. Moreover, Casanova, the testy outsider, was thoroughly disliked by most of the other inhabitants of the Castle of Dux. Casanova's only friends seemed to be his fox terriers. In despair, Casanova considered suicide, but instead decided that he must live on to record his memoirs, which he did until his death.[87]

Prague in 1785
Prague in 1785

He visited Prague, the capital city and principal cultural center of Bohemia, on many occasions. In October 1787, he met Lorenzo da Ponte, the librettist of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Don Giovanni, in Prague at the time of the opera's first production and likely met the composer, as well, at the same time. There is reason to believe that he was also in Prague in 1791 for the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II as king of Bohemia, an event that included the first production of Mozart's opera La clemenza di Tito. Casanova is known to have drafted dialogue suitable for a Don Juan drama at the time of his visit to Prague in 1787, but none of his verses were ever incorporated into Mozart's Don Giovanni. His reaction to seeing licentious behavior similar to his own held up to moral scrutiny as it is in Mozart's opera is not recorded.[88]

In 1797, word arrived that the Republic of Venice had ceased to exist and that Napoleon Bonaparte had seized Casanova's home city. It was too late to return home. Casanova died on 4 June 1798 at the age of 73. His last words are said to have been "I have lived as a philosopher and I die as a Christian".[89] Casanova was buried at Dux (nowadays Duchcov in the Czech Republic), but the exact place of his grave was forgotten over the years, and remains unknown today.

Discover more about Biography related topics

Gaetano Casanova

Gaetano Casanova

Gaetano Casanova was an Italian actor and ballet dancer. His eldest son was the famous adventurer, Giacomo Casanova.

Francesco Giuseppe Casanova

Francesco Giuseppe Casanova

Francesco Giuseppe Casanova was an Italian painter who specialised in battle scenes. His older brother was Giacomo Casanova, the famous adventurer, and his younger brother was Giovanni Casanova; also a well-known painter.

Giovanni Battista Casanova

Giovanni Battista Casanova

Giovanni Battista Casanova was an Italian painter and printmaker of the Neoclassic period.

Grand Tour

Grand Tour

The Grand Tour was the principally 17th- to early 19th-century custom of a traditional trip through Europe, with Italy as a key destination, undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank when they had come of age.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain was a sovereign country in Western Europe from 1 May 1707 to the end of 31 December 1800. The state was created by the 1706 Treaty of Union and ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament at the Palace of Westminster, but distinct legal systems – English law and Scots law – remained in use.

Carnival of Venice

Carnival of Venice

The Carnival of Venice is an annual festival held in Venice, Italy. The carnival ends on Shrove Tuesday, which is the day before the start of Lent on Ash Wednesday. The festival is world famous for its elaborate masks.

Courtesan

Courtesan

Courtesan, in modern usage, is a euphemism for a "kept" mistress or prostitute, particularly one with wealthy, powerful, or influential clients. The term historically referred to a courtier, a person who attended the court of a monarch or other powerful person.

Padua

Padua

Padua is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. Padua is on the river Bacchiglione, west of Venice. It is the capital of the province of Padua. It is also the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000. The city is sometimes included, with Venice and Treviso, in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE) which has a population of around 2,600,000.

Abbé

Abbé

Abbé is the French word for an abbot. It is the title for lower-ranking Catholic clergy in France.

Patriarch of Venice

Patriarch of Venice

The Patriarch of Venice is the ordinary bishop of the Archdiocese of Venice. The bishop is one of the few patriarchs in the Latin Church of the Catholic Church. Presently, the only advantage of this purely formal title is the bishop's place of honor in papal processions. In the case of Venice, an additional privilege allows the patriarch, even if he is not a cardinal, the use of the colour red in non-liturgical vestments. In that case, the red biretta is topped by a tuft, as is the custom with other bishops who are not cardinals.

Palazzo Malipiero

Palazzo Malipiero

Palazzo Malipiero is a palace in Venice, Italy. It is on the Grand Canal in the central San Samuele square. It stands just across from the Palazzo Grassi Exhibition Center.

Calabria

Calabria

Calabria, is a region in Southern Italy. It is a peninsula bordered by Basilicata to the north, the Ionian Sea to the east, the Strait of Messina to the southwest, which separates it from Sicily, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. With almost 2 million residents across a total area of approximately 15,222 square kilometres (5,877 sq mi), it is the tenth most populous and the tenth largest Italian region by area. Catanzaro is the region's capital, while Reggio Calabria is the most populous city in the region.

Memoirs

Page from the autograph manuscript of Histoire de ma vie
Page from the autograph manuscript of Histoire de ma vie

The isolation and boredom of Casanova's last years enabled him to focus without distractions on his Histoire de ma vie, without which his fame would have been considerably diminished, if not blotted out entirely. He began to think about writing his memoirs around 1780 and began in earnest by 1789, as "the only remedy to keep from going mad or dying of grief". The first draft was completed by July 1792, and he spent the next six years revising it. He puts a happy face on his days of loneliness, writing in his work, "I can find no pleasanter pastime than to converse with myself about my own affairs and to provide a most worthy subject for laughter to my well-bred audience."[90] His memoirs were still being compiled at the time of his death, his account having reached only the summer of 1774.[91] A letter by him in 1792 states that he was reconsidering his decision to publish them, believing that his story was despicable and he would make enemies by writing the truth about his affairs, but he decided to proceed, using initials instead of actual names and toning down the strongest passages.[92] He wrote in French instead of Italian because "the French language is more widely known than mine".[93]

The memoirs open with:

I begin by declaring to my reader that, by everything good or bad that I have done throughout my life, I am sure that I have earned merit or incurred guilt, and that hence I must consider myself a free agent. ... Despite an excellent moral foundation, the inevitable fruit of the divine principles which were rooted in my heart, I was all my life the victim of my senses; I have delighted in going astray and I have constantly lived in error, with no other consolation than that of knowing I have erred. ... My follies are the follies of youth. You will see that I laugh at them, and if you are kind you will laugh at them with me.[94]

Casanova wrote about the purpose of his book:

I expect the friendship, the esteem, and the gratitude of my readers. Their gratitude, if reading my memoirs will have given instruction and pleasure. Their esteem if, doing me justice, they will have found that I have more virtues than faults; and their friendship as soon as they come to find me deserving of it by the frankness and good faith with which I submit myself to their judgment without in any way disguising what I am.[95]

He also advises his readers that they "will not find all my adventures. I have left out those which would have offended the people who played a part in them, for they would cut a sorry figure in them. Even so, there are those who will sometimes think me too indiscreet; I am sorry for it."[96] In the final chapter, the text abruptly breaks off with hints at adventures unrecorded: "Three years later I saw her in Padua, where I resumed my acquaintance with her daughter on far more tender terms."[97]

In their original publication, the memoirs were divided into twelve volumes, and the unabridged English translation by Willard R. Trask runs to more than 3,500 pages. Though his chronology is at times confusing and inaccurate, and many of his tales exaggerated, much of his narrative and many details are corroborated by contemporary writings. He has a good ear for dialogue and writes at length about all classes of society.[98] Casanova, for the most part, is candid about his faults, intentions, and motivations, and shares his successes and failures with good humor.[99] The confession is largely devoid of repentance or remorse. He celebrates the senses with his readers, especially regarding music, food, and women. "I have always liked highly seasoned food. ... As for women, I have always found that the one I was in love with smelled good, and the more copious her sweat the sweeter I found it."[100] He mentions over 120 adventures with women and girls, with several veiled references to male lovers as well.[101][102] He describes his duels and conflicts with scoundrels and officials, his entrapments and his escapes, his schemes and plots, his anguish and his sighs of pleasure. He demonstrates convincingly, "I can say vixi ('I have lived')."[90]

The manuscript of Casanova's memoirs was held by his relatives until it was sold to F. A. Brockhaus publishers, and first published in heavily abridged versions in German around 1822, then in French. During World War II, the manuscript survived the allied bombing of Leipzig. The memoirs were heavily pirated through the ages and have been translated into some twenty languages. But not until 1960 was the entire text published in its original language of French.[103] In 2010 the manuscript was acquired by the National Library of France, which has started digitizing it.[104]

Relationships

For Casanova, as well as his contemporary sybarites of the upper class, love and sex tended to be casual and not endowed with the seriousness characteristic of the Romanticism of the 19th century.[105] Flirtations, bedroom games, and short-term liaisons were common among nobles who married for social connections rather than love.

Portrait of Manon Balletti by Jean-Marc Nattier (1757)
Portrait of Manon Balletti by Jean-Marc Nattier (1757)

Although multi-faceted and complex, Casanova's personality, as he described it, was dominated by his sensual urges: "Cultivating whatever gave pleasure to my senses was always the chief business of my life; I never found any occupation more important. Feeling that I was born for the sex opposite of mine, I have always loved it and done all that I could to make myself loved by it."[100] He noted that he sometimes used "assurance caps" to prevent impregnating his mistresses.[106]

Casanova's ideal liaison had elements beyond sex, including complicated plots, heroes and villains, and gallant outcomes. In a pattern he often repeated, he would discover an attractive woman in trouble with a brutish or jealous lover (Act I); he would ameliorate her difficulty (Act II); she would show her gratitude; he would seduce her; a short exciting affair would ensue (Act III); feeling a loss of ardor or boredom setting in, he would plead his unworthiness and arrange for her marriage or pairing with a worthy man, then exit the scene (Act IV).[107] As William Bolitho points out in Twelve Against the Gods, the secret of Casanova's success with women "had nothing more esoteric in it than [offering] what every woman who respects herself must demand: all that he had, all that he was, with (to set off the lack of legality) the dazzling attraction of the lump sum over what is more regularly doled out in a lifetime of installments."[108] Casanova advises, "There is no honest woman with an uncorrupted heart whom a man is not sure of conquering by dint of gratitude. It is one of the surest and shortest means."[109] Alcohol and violence, for him, were not proper tools of seduction.[110] Instead, attentiveness and small favors should be employed to soften a woman's heart, but "a man who makes known his love by words is a fool". Verbal communication is essential—"without speech, the pleasure of love is diminished by at least two-thirds"—but words of love must be implied, not boldly proclaimed.[109]

Casanova claimed to value intelligence in a woman: "After all, a beautiful woman without a mind of her own leaves her lover with no resource after he had physically enjoyed her charms." His attitude towards educated women, however, was an unfavorable one: "In a woman learning is out of place; it compromises the essential qualities of her sex ... no scientific discoveries have been made by women ... (which) requires a vigor which the female sex cannot have. But in simple reasoning and in delicacy of feeling we must yield to women."[32]

Casanova's actions are considered by many in modern times to be predatory, despite his claims to contrary ("my guiding principle has been never to direct my attack against novices or those whose prejudices were likely to prove an obstacle"); he frequently targeted young, insecure or emotionally exposed women.[111]

Casanova writes that he stopped short of intercourse with a 13-year-old named Helene: "little Helene, whom I enjoyed, while leaving her intact." In 1765, when he was 40, he purchased a 12-year-old girl in St. Petersburg as a sexual slave. In the memoirs, he described the Russian girl as emphatically prepubescent: "Her breasts had still not finished budding. She was in her thirteenth year. She had nowhere the definitive mark of puberty." (III, 196–7; X, 116–17). In 1774, when he was almost 50, Casanova encountered in Trieste a former lover, the actress Irene, now accompanied by her nine-year-old daughter. "A few days later she came, with her daughter, who pleased me (qui me plut) and who did not reject my caresses. One fine day, she met with Baron Pittoni, who loved little girls as much as I did (aimant autant que moi les petites filles), and took a liking to Irene’s girl, and asked the mother to do him the same honor some time that she had done to me. I encouraged her to receive the offer, and the baron fell in love. This was lucky for Irene." (XII, 238).[112]

Discover more about Relationships related topics

Manon Balletti

Manon Balletti

Manon Balletti (1740–1776) was the daughter of Italian actors performing in France and lover of the famous adventurer Giacomo Casanova. She was ten years old when she first met him; she happened to be the daughter of Silvia Balletti, an actress of the Comédie Italienne company and younger sister of Casanova's closest friend.

Jean-Marc Nattier

Jean-Marc Nattier

Jean-Marc Nattier was a French painter. He was born in Paris, the second son of Marc Nattier (1642–1705), a portrait painter, and of Marie Courtois (1655–1703), a miniaturist. He is noted for his portraits of the ladies of King Louis XV's court in classical mythological attire.

Condom

Condom

A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are both male and female condoms. With proper use—and use at every act of intercourse—women whose partners use male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate. With typical use the rate of pregnancy is 18% per-year. Their use greatly decreases the risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, and HIV/AIDS. To a lesser extent, they also protect against genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), and syphilis.

William Bolitho Ryall

William Bolitho Ryall

William Bolitho Ryall (1891–1930) was a South African journalist, writer and biographer who was a valued friend of prominent writers such as Ernest Hemingway, Noël Coward, Walter Lippmann and Walter Duranty. He wrote under the name ‘William Bolitho’ but was known to his friends as ‘Bill Ryall’. He died on 2 June 1930 at the age of 39 just as his reputation was being established.

Gambling

Gambling was a common recreation in the social and political circles in which Casanova moved. In his memoirs, Casanova discusses many forms of 18th-century gambling—including lotteries, faro, basset, piquet, biribi, primero, quinze, and whist—and the passion for it among the nobility and the high clergy.[113] Cheats (known as "correctors of fortune") were somewhat more tolerated than today in public casinos and in private games for invited players, and seldom caused affront. Most gamblers were on guard against cheaters and their tricks. Scams of all sorts were common, and Casanova was amused by them.[114]

Casanova gambled throughout his adult life, winning and losing large sums. He was tutored by professionals, and he was "instructed in those wise maxims without which games of chance ruin those who participate in them". He was not above occasionally cheating and at times even teamed with professional gamblers for his own profit. Casanova claims that he was "relaxed and smiling when I lost, and I won without covetousness". However, when outrageously duped himself, he could act violently, sometimes calling for a duel.[115] Casanova admits that he was not disciplined enough to be a professional gambler: "I had neither prudence enough to leave off when fortune was adverse, nor sufficient control over myself when I had won."[116] Nor did he like being considered as a professional gambler: "Nothing could ever be adduced by professional gamblers that I was of their infernal clique."[116] Although Casanova at times used gambling tactically and shrewdly—for making quick money, for flirting, making connections, acting gallantly, or proving himself a gentleman among his social superiors—his practice also could be compulsive and reckless, especially during the euphoria of a new sexual affair. "Why did I gamble when I felt the losses so keenly? What made me gamble was avarice. I loved to spend, and my heart bled when I could not do it with money won at cards."[117]

Discover more about Gambling related topics

Gambling

Gambling

Gambling is the wagering of something of value on a random event with the intent of winning something else of value, where instances of strategy are discounted. Gambling thus requires three elements to be present: consideration, risk (chance), and a prize. The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are also common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season.

Lottery

Lottery

A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers at random for a prize. Some governments outlaw lotteries, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery. It is common to find some degree of regulation of lottery by governments. The most common regulation is prohibition of sale to minors, and vendors must be licensed to sell lottery tickets. Although lotteries were common in the United States and some other countries during the 19th century, by the beginning of the 20th century, most forms of gambling, including lotteries and sweepstakes, were illegal in the U.S. and most of Europe as well as many other countries. This remained so until well after World War II. In the 1960s, casinos and lotteries began to re-appear throughout the world as a means for governments to raise revenue without raising taxes.

Piquet

Piquet

Piquet is an early 16th-century plain-trick card game for two players that became France's national game. David Parlett calls it a "classic game of relatively great antiquity... still one of the most skill-rewarding card games for two" but one which is now only played by "aficionados and connoisseurs."

Biribi

Biribi

Biribi, biribissi, or cavagnole, was an Italian game of chance similar to roulette, played for low stakes, that was banned in 1837. It was played on a board on which the numbers 1 to 70 are marked.

Primero

Primero

Primero, is a 16th-century gambling card game of which the earliest reference dates back to 1526. Primero is closely related to the game of primo visto, if not the same. It is also believed to be one of the ancestors to the modern game of poker, to which it is strikingly similar.

Quinze

Quinze

Quinze, Quince, also known as Ace-low, is a 17th-century French banking game of Spanish origin that was much patronized in some parts of Europe. It is considered a forerunner of the French Vingt-et-un, a game very popular at the court of Louis XV, and also a two-player simplification of the modern game of Blackjack.

Whist

Whist

Whist is a classic English trick-taking card game which was widely played in the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the rules are simple, there is scope for strategic play.

Fame and influence

Casanova tests his condom for holes by inflating it
Casanova tests his condom for holes by inflating it

Casanova was recognized by his contemporaries as an extraordinary person and a man of far-ranging intellect and curiosity. Casanova has been recognized by posterity as one of the foremost chroniclers of his age. He was a true adventurer, traveling across Europe from end to end in search of fortune, seeking out the most prominent people of his time to help his cause. He was a servant of the establishment and equally decadent as his times, but also a participant in secret societies and a seeker of answers beyond the conventional. He was religious, a devout Catholic, and believed in prayer: "Despair kills; prayer dissipates it; and after praying man trusts and acts." Along with prayer he also believed in free will and reason, but clearly did not subscribe to the notion that pleasure-seeking would keep him from heaven.[118]

He was, by vocation and avocation, a lawyer, clergyman, military officer, violinist, con man, pimp, gourmand, dancer, businessman, diplomat, spy, politician, medic, mathematician, social philosopher, cabalist, playwright, and writer. He wrote over twenty works, including plays and essays, and many letters. His novel Icosameron is an early work of science fiction.[101]

Born of actors, he had a passion for the theater and for an improvised, theatrical life, but with all his talents he frequently succumbed to the quest for pleasure and sex, often avoiding sustained work and established plans, and got himself into trouble when prudent action would have served him better. His true occupation was living largely on his quick wits, steely nerves, luck, social charm, and the money given to him in gratitude and by trickery.[119]

Prince Charles de Ligne, who understood Casanova well, and who knew most of the prominent individuals of the age, thought Casanova the most interesting man he had ever met: "there is nothing in the world of which he is not capable." Rounding out the portrait, the Prince also stated:

The only things about which he knows nothing are those which he believes himself to be expert: the rules of the dance, the French language, good taste, the way of the world, savoir vivre. It is only his comedies which are not funny, only his philosophical works which lack philosophy—all the rest are filled with it; there is always something weighty, new, piquant, profound. He is a well of knowledge, but he quotes Homer and Horace ad nauseam. His wit and his sallies are like Attic salt. He is sensitive and generous, but displease him in the slightest and he is unpleasant, vindictive, and detestable. He believes in nothing except what is most incredible, being superstitious about everything. He loves and lusts after everything. ... He is proud because he is nothing. ... Never tell him you have heard the story he is going to tell you. ... Never omit to greet him in passing, for the merest trifle will make him your enemy.[120]

"Casanova", like "Don Juan", is a long established term in the English language. According to Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., the noun Casanova means "Lover; esp: a man who is a promiscuous and unscrupulous lover". The first usage of the term in written English was around 1852. References in culture to Casanova are numerous—in books, films, theater, and music.

Discover more about Fame and influence related topics

Condom

Condom

A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are both male and female condoms. With proper use—and use at every act of intercourse—women whose partners use male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate. With typical use the rate of pregnancy is 18% per-year. Their use greatly decreases the risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, and HIV/AIDS. To a lesser extent, they also protect against genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), and syphilis.

Homer

Homer

Homer was a Greek poet who was the legendary author to whom the authorship of the Iliad and the Odyssey is attributed. He is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential authors of all time. In Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, Virgil refers to him as "Poet sovereign", king of all poets; in the preface to his translation of the Iliad, Alexander Pope acknowledges that Homer has always been considered the "greatest of poets".

Horace

Horace

Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words."

Don Juan

Don Juan

Don Juan, also known as Don Giovanni (Italian), is a legendary, fictional Spanish libertine who devotes his life to seducing women. Famous versions of the story include a 17th-century play, El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra by Tirso de Molina, a 1787 opera, Don Giovanni, with music by Mozart and a libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, and a satirical, epic poem, Don Juan, by Lord Byron.

In popular culture

Film

Music

  • "The Grand Canal" (1983), an extended ensemble piece within the Broadway musical Nine (music and lyrics by Maury Yeston), which presents the romantic entanglements of its central character in terms of Casanova's legendary sexual exploits
  • Casanova Fantasy Variations for Three Celli (1985), a piece for cello trio by Walter Burle-Marx
  • "Casanova" (1986), a song by the Russian rock group Nautilus Pompilius. Music by Vyacheslav Butusov, text by Ilya Kormil'tsev.
  • "Casanova" (1987) song by R&B group LeVert. The song reached number 1 on the R&B chart as well as reaching number 5 on the pop chart.
  • Casanova (1996), an album by the UK chamber pop band The Divine Comedy, inspired by Casanova
  • "Casanova 70" (1997), a single by French electronic duo Air
  • Casanova (2000), a piece for cello and winds by Johan de Meij
  • "Casanova in Hell" (2006), a song by the UK group Pet Shop Boys, from their album Fundamental

Performance works

Television

Written works

  • Casanovas Heimfahrt (Casanova's Homecoming) (1918) by Arthur Schnitzler
  • The Venetian Glass Nephew (1925) by Elinor Wylie, in which Casanova appears as a major character under the transparent pseudonym "Chevalier de Chastelneuf"
  • Széljegyzetek Casanovához (Marginalia on Casanova) (1939) by Miklós Szentkuthy
  • Vendégjáték Bolzanóban (Conversations in Bolzano or Casanova in Bolzano) (1940), a novel by Sándor Márai
  • Le Bonheur ou le Pouvoir (1980), by Pierre Kast
  • The Fortunes of Casanova and Other Stories (1994), by Rafael Sabatini, includes nine stories (originally published 1914–1921) based on incidents in Casanova's memoirs[125]
  • Casanova (1998), a novel by Andrew Miller
  • Casanova, Dernier Amour (2000), by Pascal Lainé
  • Casanova in Bohemia (2002), a novel about Casanova's last years at Dux, Bohemia, by Andrei Codrescu[126]
  • Een Schitterend Gebrek (English title In Lucia's Eyes), a 2003 Dutch novel by Arthur Japin, in which Casanova's youthful amour Lucia is viewed as the love of his life
  • "A Disciple of Plato", a short story by English writer Robert Aickman, first printed in the 2015 posthumous collection The Strangers and Other Writings, in which the main character—throughout described as "the philosopher"—is revealed in the last lines to be Casanova.

Discover more about In popular culture related topics

Casanova (1918 film)

Casanova (1918 film)

Casanova is a 1918 Hungarian film directed by Alfréd Deésy and starring Deesy in the title role. For years, this film was listed in reference books as a Bela Lugosi film, since originally Star Films advertised that Lugosi was set to play Casanova. He was replaced, however, at the last minute by the director Alfred Deesy, who decided to play the role himself. If indeed Lugosi shot any scenes for this film, they did not wind up in the finished product. The film nevertheless still turns up occasionally in Lugosi's filmography, perhaps bacause Lugosi had played Casanova previously on the Hungarian stage.

Giacomo Casanova: Childhood and Adolescence

Giacomo Casanova: Childhood and Adolescence

Giacomo Casanova: Childhood and Adolescence, internationally released as Casanova: His Youthful Years, is a 1969 Italian comedy film directed by Luigi Comencini. It tells the youth of Giacomo Casanova, who, after an unhappy childhood and early ecclesiastical activity in Venice, became an abbot and abandoned his vocation for the love of a countess. Despite the plot, more than a portrait of Casanova, the film is more of a vivid fresco of the Venetian society of the time.

Luigi Comencini

Luigi Comencini

Luigi Comencini was an Italian film director. Together with Dino Risi, Ettore Scola and Mario Monicelli, he was considered among the masters of the commedia all'italiana genre.

Leonard Whiting

Leonard Whiting

Leonard Whiting is a British retired actor and singer widely known for his role as Romeo in the 1968 Zeffirelli film version of Romeo and Juliet, a role which earned him the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actor.

Fellini's Casanova

Fellini's Casanova

Fellini's Casanova is a 1976 Italian historical film directed by Federico Fellini from a screenplay by himself and Bernardino Zapponi, adapted from the autobiography of 18th-century Venetian adventurer and writer Giacomo Casanova, portrayed by Donald Sutherland. The film depicts Casanova's life as a journey into sexual abandonment, and his relationship with the “love of his life” Henriette. The narrative presents Casanova's adventures in a detached, methodical fashion, as the respect for which he yearns is constantly undermined by his more basic urges.

Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini was an Italian film director and screenwriter known for his distinctive style, which blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness. He is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time. His films have ranked highly in critical polls such as that of Cahiers du Cinéma and Sight & Sound, which lists his 1963 film 8+1⁄2 as the 10th-greatest film.

Donald Sutherland

Donald Sutherland

Donald McNichol Sutherland is a Canadian actor whose film career spans over six decades. He has been nominated for nine Golden Globe Awards, winning two for his performances in the television films Citizen X (1995) and Path to War (2002); the former also earned him a Primetime Emmy Award. An inductee of the Hollywood Walk of Fame and Canadian Walk of Fame, he also received a Canadian Academy Award for the drama film Threshold (1981). Multiple film critics and media outlets have cited him as one of the best actors never to have received an Academy Award nomination. In 2017, he received an Academy Honorary Award for his contributions to cinema. In 2021, he won the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Movie/Miniseries for his work in the HBO miniseries The Undoing (2020).

Marcello Mastroianni

Marcello Mastroianni

Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni was an Italian film actor, regarded as one of his country's most iconic male performers of the 20th century. He played leading roles for many of Italy's top directors in a career spanning 147 films between 1939 and 1997, and garnered many international honors including 2 BAFTA Awards, 2 Best Actor awards at the Venice and Cannes film festivals, 2 Golden Globes, and 3 Academy Award nominations.

Casanova (1987 film)

Casanova (1987 film)

Casanova is a 1987 American made-for-television biographical romantic comedy film directed by Simon Langton. It depicts real life events of Giacomo Casanova.

Alain Delon

Alain Delon

Alain Fabien Maurice Marcel Delon is a French actor and filmmaker. He was one of Europe's most prominent actors and screen sex symbols in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. In 1985, he won the César Award for Best Actor for his performance in Notre histoire (1984). In 1991, he received France's Legion of Honour. At the 45th Berlin International Film Festival, he won the Honorary Golden Bear. At the 2019 Cannes Film Festival, he received the Honorary Palme d'Or.

Casanova (2005 film)

Casanova (2005 film)

Casanova is a 2005 American romance film directed by Lasse Hallström starring Heath Ledger and loosely based on the life of Giacomo Casanova. The film premiered September 3, 2005, at the Venice Film Festival. It received mixed reviews and flopped at the box office.

Heath Ledger

Heath Ledger

Heath Andrew Ledger was an Australian actor and music video director. After playing roles in several Australian television and film productions during the 1990s, Ledger moved to the United States in 1998 to develop his film career further. His work consisted of twenty films, including 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), The Patriot (2000), A Knight's Tale (2001), Monster's Ball (2001), Lords of Dogtown (2005), Brokeback Mountain (2005), Candy (2006), I'm Not There (2007), The Dark Knight (2008), and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus (2009), the latter two being posthumous releases. He also produced and directed music videos and aspired to be a film director.

Works

Casanova in 1788
Casanova in 1788
  • 1752 – Zoroastro: Tragedia tradotta dal Francese, da rappresentarsi nel Regio Elettoral Teatro di Dresda, dalla compagnia de' comici italiani in attuale servizio di Sua Maestà nel carnevale dell'anno MDCCLII. Dresden.
  • 1753 – La Moluccheide, o Sia i gemelli rivali. Dresden.
  • 1769 – Confutazione della Storia del Governo Veneto d'Amelot de la Houssaie. Lugano.
  • 1772 – Lana caprina: Epistola di un licantropo. Bologna.
  • 1774 – Istoria delle turbolenze della Polonia. Gorizia.
  • 1775–78 – Dell'Iliade di Omero tradotta in ottava rima. Venice.
  • 1779 – Scrutinio del libro Eloges de M. de Voltaire par différents auteurs. Venice.
  • 1780 – Opuscoli miscellanei (containing Duello a Varsavia and Lettere della nobil donna Silvia Belegno alla nobil donzella Laura Gussoni). Venice.
  • 1780–81 – Le messager de Thalie. Venice.
  • 1782 – Di aneddoti viniziani militari ed amorosi del secolo decimoquarto sotto i dogadi di Giovanni Gradenigo e di Giovanni Dolfin. Venice.
  • 1783 – Né amori né donne, ovvero La stalla ripulita. Venice.
  • 1786 – Soliloque d'un penseur. Prague.
  • 1787 – Icosaméron, ou Histoire d'Édouard et d'Élisabeth qui passèrent quatre-vingts un ans chez les Mégamicres, habitants aborigènes du Protocosme dans l'intérieur de nôtre globe. Prague.
  • 1788 – Histoire de ma fuite des prisons de la République de Venise qu'on appelle les Plombs. Leipzig.
  • 1790 – Solution du probléme deliaque. Dresden.
  • 1790 – Corollaire à la duplication de l'hexaèdre. Dresden.
  • 1790 – Démonstration géometrique de la duplication du cube. Dresden.
  • 1797 – A Léonard Snetlage, docteur en droit de l'Université de Goettingue, Jacques Casanova, docteur en droit de l'Universitè de Padou. Dresden.
  • 1822–29 – First edition of the Histoire de ma vie, in an adapted German translation in 12 volumes, as Aus den Memoiren des Venetianers Jacob Casanova de Seingalt, oder sein Leben, wie er es zu Dux in Böhmen niederschrieb. The first full edition of the original French manuscript was not published until 1960, by Brockhaus (Wiesbaden) and Plon (Paris).

Discover more about Works related topics

Dresden

Dresden

Dresden is the capital city of the German state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the 12th most populous city of Germany, the fourth largest by area, and the third most populous city in the area of former East Germany, after Berlin and Leipzig. Dresden's urban area comprises the towns of Freital, Pirna, Radebeul, Meissen, Coswig, Radeberg and Heidenau and has around 790,000 inhabitants. The Dresden metropolitan area has approximately 1.34 million inhabitants.

Lugano

Lugano

Lugano is a city and municipality in Switzerland, part of the Lugano District in the canton of Ticino. It is the largest city of both Ticino and the Italian-speaking southern Switzerland. Lugano has a population of 62,315, and an urban agglomeration of over 150,000. It is the ninth largest Swiss city.

Bologna

Bologna

Bologna is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy with about 400,000 inhabitants and 150 different nationalities. Its metropolitan area is home to more than 1,000,000 people. It is known as the Fat City for its rich cuisine, and the Red City for its Spanish-style red tiled rooftops and, more recently, its leftist politics. It is also called the Learned City because it is home to the oldest university in the world.

Gorizia

Gorizia

Gorizia is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, bordering Slovenia. It was the capital of the former Province of Gorizia and is a local center of tourism, industry, and commerce. Since 1947, a twin town of Nova Gorica has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italy–Slovenia border. The region was subject to territorial dispute between Italy and Yugoslavia after World War II: after the new boundaries were established in 1947 and the old town was left to Italy, Nova Gorica was built on the Yugoslav side. The two towns constitute a conurbation, which also includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns have been joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board.

Venice

Venice

Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is built on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges. The islands are in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay lying between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2020, around 258,685 people resided in greater Venice or the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical island city of Venice and the rest on the mainland (terraferma). Together with the cities of Padua and Treviso, Venice is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), which is considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million.

Giovanni Gradenigo

Giovanni Gradenigo

Giovanni Gradenigo was the fifty-sixth Doge of Venice, appointed on 21 April 1355. During his reign, Venice signed a peace treaty with Genoa.

Giovanni Dolfin

Giovanni Dolfin

Giovanni Dolfin, also known as Giovanni Delfino or Delfin was the fifty-seventh Doge of Venice, appointed on August 13, 1356. Despite his value as general, during his reign Venice lost Dalmatia. He was blind from one eye after a wound received in battle.

Prague

Prague

Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, and the historical capital of Bohemia. On the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 million people. The city has a temperate oceanic climate, with relatively warm summers and chilly winters.

Leipzig

Leipzig

Leipzig is the most populous city in the German state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 places the city as Germany's eighth most populous, as well as the second most populous city in the area of the former East Germany after (East) Berlin. Together with Halle (Saale), the city forms the polycentric Leipzig-Halle Conurbation. Between the two cities lies Leipzig/Halle Airport.

Histoire de ma vie

Histoire de ma vie

Histoire de ma vie is both the memoir and autobiography of Giacomo Casanova, a famous 18th-century Italian adventurer. A previous, bowdlerized version was originally known in English as The Memoirs of Jacques Casanova until the original version was published between 1960 and 1962. The unexpurgated English translation was published in 1971.

Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus

Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus

Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus was a German encyclopedia publisher and editor, famed for publishing the Conversations-Lexikon, which is now published as the Brockhaus encyclopedia.

Paris

Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km², making it the 30th most densely populated city in the world in 2020. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of the world's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, gastronomy, and science. For its leading role in the arts and sciences, as well as its very early system of street lighting, in the 19th century it became known as "the City of Light". Like London, prior to the Second World War, it was also sometimes called the capital of the world.

Source: "Giacomo Casanova", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giacomo_Casanova.

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Notes
  1. ^ He always signed his Italian works as simply "Giacomo Casanova" since nobiliary particles were never used in Venice and everybody knew he was Venetian.
  2. ^ Casanova described his own height as "Ayant la taille de cinq pieds et neuf pouces" ("Having the height of five feet nine inches").[19] By pieds, Casanova refers to the French king's foot, which was in modern terms 12.8 inches (33 cm). The pouce or historic French inch was slightly larger in modern inches: 1.067 in (2.71 cm). Thus, Casanova's height can be calculated as having been around 1.868 m (6.13 ft). He was about 16 cm (6.3 in) taller than the average European man of that time.[20]
References

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Casanova". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  2. ^ "Casanova". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  3. ^ "Casanova, Giovanni Jacopo" (US) and "Casanova, Giovanni Jacopo". Oxford Dictionaries UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on March 1, 2020.
  4. ^ "Giacomo Casanova | Italian adventurer". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  5. ^ "CASANOVA, Giacomo in "Dizionario Biografico"".
  6. ^ Zweig, Paul (1974). The Adventurer. New York: Basic Books. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-465-00088-3.
  7. ^ Casanova, Histoire de ma vie, Gérard Lahouati and Marie-Françoise Luna, ed., Gallimard, Paris (2013), Introduction, p. xxxvii.
  8. ^ Masters 1969, p. .
  9. ^ Childs 1988, p. 3.
  10. ^ Casanova (2006). History of My Life. New York: Everyman's Library. page x. ISBN 0-307-26557-9
  11. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 29.
  12. ^ Childs 1988, p. 5.
  13. ^ Masters 1969, p. 13.
  14. ^ a b Masters 1969, p. 15.
  15. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 40.
  16. ^ a b Childs 1988, p. 7.
  17. ^ a b Casanova (2006), p. 64.
  18. ^ Childs 1988, p. 6.
  19. ^ Histoire de ma fuite des prisons de la République de Venise qu'on appelle Les Plombs, Éditions Bossard, Paris, 1922, p. 58.
  20. ^ Jörg Baten, Mikołaj Szołtysek (January 2012) MPIDR Working Paper WP 2012-002: The Human Capital of Central-Eastern and Eastern Europe in European Perspective. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
  21. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 15–16.
  22. ^ Masters 1969, p. 19.
  23. ^ Masters 1969, p. 32.
  24. ^ Masters 1969, p. 34.
  25. ^ Childs 1988, p. 8.
  26. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 236.
  27. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 237.
  28. ^ Casanova (2006), pp. 242–243.
  29. ^ Masters 1969, p. 54.
  30. ^ Childs 1988, p. 41.
  31. ^ Masters 1969, p. 63.
  32. ^ a b Casanova (2006), p. 299.
  33. ^ Masters 1969, p. 77.
  34. ^ Masters 1969, p. 78.
  35. ^ Masters 1969, p. 80.
  36. ^ a b "Memoirs of Giovanni Jacopo Casanova". Archived from the original on December 29, 2008. Retrieved Sep 21, 2018.
  37. ^ "History and famous personalities of the Scottish Rite Freemasonry" (in Italian). Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  38. ^ I. Gilbert (PM, PDDGM). "Giovanni Giacomo Casanova: libertine, gambler, spy, statesman, freemason" (PDF). chicagolodge.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2017. Retrieved Sep 20, 2018.
  39. ^ Jacques Casanova de Seingalt (Oct 30, 2006). To Paris And Prison: Paris. The Memoirs Of Jacques Casanova De Seingalt 1725-1798. Gutenberg Project. Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved Sep 20, 2018.
  40. ^ Masters 1969, p. 83.
  41. ^ Masters 1969, p. 86.
  42. ^ Casanova (2013), p. lxiv.
  43. ^ Masters 1969, p. 91.
  44. ^ Masters 1969, p. 100.
  45. ^ a b Casanova, Histoire de ma vie, Gérard Lahouati and Marie-Françoise Luna, ed., p. lxv.
  46. ^ Childs 1988, p. 72.
  47. ^ Masters 1969, p. 102.
  48. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 493.
  49. ^ Masters 1969, p. 104.
  50. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 519.
  51. ^ Masters 1969, p. 106.
  52. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 552.
  53. ^ Kelly 2011, p. 186.
  54. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 111–122.
  55. ^ Childs 1988, p. 75.
  56. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 571.
  57. ^ Masters 1969, p. 126.
  58. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 16.
  59. ^ Childs 1988, p. 83.
  60. ^ Childs 1988, p. 85.
  61. ^ Childs 1988, p. 81.
  62. ^ Masters 1969, p. 132.
  63. ^ Childs 1988, p. 89.
  64. ^ a b Masters 1969, p. 141.
  65. ^ Masters 1969, p. 151.
  66. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 157–158.
  67. ^ Masters 1969, p. 158.
  68. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 191–192.
  69. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 843.
  70. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 203, 220.
  71. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 221–224.
  72. ^ Masters 1969, p. 230.
  73. ^ "Wyborcza.pl". wroclaw.wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 2017-03-31.
  74. ^ "Wolna miłość we Wrocławiu cz. II". skarbykultury.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-03-31.
  75. ^ "Mamma mia, Włosi we Wrocławiu - Muzyka W Mieście". mwm.nfm.wroclaw.pl. Archived from the original on 2017-03-31. Retrieved 2017-03-31.
  76. ^ Masters 1969, p. 232.
  77. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 242–243.
  78. ^ Masters 1969, p. 255.
  79. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 257–258.
  80. ^ Childs 1988, p. 273.
  81. ^ Masters 1969, p. 260.
  82. ^ Masters 1969, p. 263.
  83. ^ Childs 1988, p. 281.
  84. ^ Childs 1988, p. 283.
  85. ^ Childs 1988, p. 284.
  86. ^ Masters 1969, p. 272.
  87. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 272, 276.
  88. ^ Casanova's connections with Da Ponte and Mozart are explored in Daniel E. Freeman, Mozart in Prague (2021) ISBN 978-1-950743-50-6.
  89. ^ Masters 1969, p. 284.
  90. ^ a b Casanova (2006), p. 17.
  91. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 1127.
  92. ^ Childs 1988, p. 289.
  93. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 1178.
  94. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 15-16.
  95. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 22.
  96. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 23.
  97. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 1171.
  98. ^ Casanova (2006), page xxi.
  99. ^ Casanova (2006), page xxii.
  100. ^ a b Casanova (2006), p. 20.
  101. ^ a b Casanova (2006), page xix.
  102. ^ Masters 1969, p. 288.
  103. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 293–295.
  104. ^ Casanova's memoirs acquired by BnF, National Library of France, 16 March 2010, archived from the original on 2010-11-26
  105. ^ Childs 1988, p. 12.
  106. ^ DINGWALL EJ (1953). "Nova et Vetera". British Medical Journal. 1 (4800). p. 40. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4800.40. PMC 2015111. PMID 12997834.
  107. ^ Masters 1969, p. 61.
  108. ^ Bolitho 1929, p. 60.
  109. ^ a b Childs 1988, p. 13.
  110. ^ Childs 1988, p. 14.
  111. ^ Masters 1969, p. 289.
  112. ^ Wolff, L. (Spring 2005). "Depraved inclinations': Libertines and children in Casanova's Venice". Eighteenth-Century Studies (Volume 38, Number 3 ed.). 38 (3): 417–440. doi:10.1353/ecs.2005.0032. S2CID 162228012.
  113. ^ Childs 1988, p. 263.
  114. ^ Childs 1988, p. 266.
  115. ^ Childs 1988, p. 268.
  116. ^ a b Childs 1988, p. 264.
  117. ^ Casanova (1967), Vol. IV, Chapter VII, p. 109.
  118. ^ Casanova (2006), p. 15.
  119. ^ Masters 1969, p. 287.
  120. ^ Masters 1969, pp. 290–291.
  121. ^ "Casanova: A Musical Comedy by Philip Godfrey". Casanovamusical.co. Retrieved 2020-11-13.
  122. ^ "New Casanova for Northern Ballet". Dancing Times. May 24, 2016.
  123. ^ "Three brand new ballet productions set to be performed in Leeds in 2017". www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk.
  124. ^ "花組「CASANOVA」 明日海が生き生きと=評・小玉祥子". Mainichi Shimbun. April 11, 2019.
  125. ^ Sabatini 1994.
  126. ^ Codrescu 2002.

Sources

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