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George Aiken

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George Aiken
GeorgeAiken-VTSEN-.jpg
United States Senator
from Vermont
In office
January 10, 1941 – January 3, 1975
Preceded byErnest W. Gibson Jr.
Succeeded byPatrick Leahy
64th Governor of Vermont
In office
January 7, 1937 – January 9, 1941
LieutenantWilliam H. Wills
Preceded byCharles Manley Smith
Succeeded byWilliam H. Wills
60th Lieutenant Governor of Vermont
In office
January 9, 1935 – January 6, 1937
GovernorCharles Manley Smith
Preceded byCharles Manley Smith
Succeeded byWilliam H. Wills
77th Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives
In office
January 4, 1933 – January 8, 1935
Preceded byEdward H. Deavitt
Succeeded byErnest E. Moore
Member of the
Vermont House of Representatives
from Putney
In office
January 7, 1931 – January 7, 1935
Preceded byRobert Goodyear Loomis
Succeeded byWilliam Hinds Darrow
Personal details
Born
George David Aiken

(1892-08-20)August 20, 1892
Dummerston, Vermont, U.S.
DiedNovember 19, 1984(1984-11-19) (aged 92)
Montpelier, Vermont, U.S.
Resting placeMount Pleasant Cemetery
Putney, Vermont, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)
Beatrice Howard
(m. 1914; died 1966)

Lola Pierotti
(m. 1967)
ProfessionFarmer
Horticulturist
Author

George David Aiken (August 20, 1892 – November 19, 1984) was an American politician and horticulturist. A member of the Republican Party, he was the 64th governor of Vermont (1937–1941) before serving in the United States Senate for 34 years, from 1941 to 1975. At the time of his retirement, he was the most senior member of the Senate, something which would be repeated by his immediate successor Patrick Leahy.

As governor, Aiken battled the New Deal over its programs for hydroelectric power and flood control in Vermont.[1] As a Northeastern Republican in the Senate, he was one of four Republican cosponsors of the Full Employment Act of 1946. Aiken sponsored the food allotment bill of 1945, which was a forerunner of the food stamp program. He promoted federal aid to education, and sought to establish a minimum wage of 65 cents in 1947. Aiken was an isolationist in 1941 but supported the Truman Doctrine in 1947 and the Marshall Plan in 1948.

In the 1960s and 1970s, he steered a middle course on the Vietnam War, opposing Lyndon Johnson's escalation and supporting Richard Nixon's slow withdrawal policies. Aiken was a strong supporter of the small farmer. As acting chairman of the Senate agriculture committee in 1947, he opposed high rigid price supports. He had to compromise, however, and the Hope-Aiken act of 1948 introduced a sliding scale of price supports. In 1950, Aiken was one of seven Republican senators who denounced in writing the tactics of Senator Joseph McCarthy, warning against those who sought "victory through the selfish political exploitation of fear, bigotry, ignorance and intolerance."[2]

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Republican Party (United States)

Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. Since Ronald Reagan's presidency in the 1980s, conservatism has been the dominant ideology of the GOP. It has been the main political rival of the Democratic Party since the mid-1850s. The Republican Party's historical predecessor is considered to be Northern members of the Whig Party, with Republican presidents Abraham Lincoln, Rutherford B. Hayes, Chester A. Arthur, and Benjamin Harrison all being Whigs before switching to the party, from which they were elected. The collapse of the Whigs, which had previously been one of the two major parties in the country, strengthened the party's electoral success.

Governor of Vermont

Governor of Vermont

The governor of Vermont is the head of government of Vermont. The officeholder is elected in even-numbered years by direct voting for a term of 2 years. Vermont and bordering New Hampshire are the only states to hold gubernatorial elections every 2 years, instead of every 4 as in the other 48 U.S. states.

United States Senate

United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the House of Representatives being the lower chamber. Together they compose the national bicameral legislature of the United States.

Dean of the United States Senate

Dean of the United States Senate

The dean of the United States Senate is an informal term for the senator with the longest continuous service, regardless of party affiliation. This is not an official position within the Senate, although customarily the longest-serving member of the majority party serves as president pro tempore.

Patrick Leahy

Patrick Leahy

Patrick Joseph Leahy is a American retired politician and attorney who served as a United States senator from Vermont from 1975 to 2023, and also served as the president pro tempore of the United States Senate from 2012 to 2015 and from 2021 to 2023. A member of the Democratic Party, he chaired the Senate Appropriations Committee, the Senate Judiciary Committee and the Senate Agriculture Commitee at various points during his 48-year tenure. Leahy is the third-longest-serving U.S. senator in history.

New Deal

New Deal

The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939. Major federal programs agencies included the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), the Civil Works Administration (CWA), the Farm Security Administration (FSA), the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (NIRA) and the Social Security Administration (SSA). They provided support for farmers, the unemployed, youth, and the elderly. The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply. New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Vermont

Vermont

Vermont is a state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. Vermont is bordered by the states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Admitted to the union in 1791 as the 14th state, it is the only state in New England not bordered by the Atlantic Ocean. According to the 2020 U.S. census, the state has a population of 643,503, ranking it the second least-populated in the U.S. after Wyoming. It is also the nation's sixth-smallest state in area. The state's capital Montpelier is the least-populous state capital in the U.S., while its most-populous city, Burlington, is the least-populous to be a state's largest.

Truman Doctrine

Truman Doctrine

The Truman Doctrine is an American foreign policy that pledges American "support for democracies against authoritarian threats." The doctrine originated with the primary goal of containing Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, and further developed on July 4, 1948, when he pledged to contain the communist uprisings in Greece and Turkey. More generally, the Truman Doctrine implied American support for other nations thought to be threatened by Marxism–Leninism. The Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy, and led, in 1949, to the formation of NATO, a military alliance that still exists. Historians often use Truman's speech to date the start of the Cold War.

Marshall Plan

Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan was an American initiative enacted in 1948 to provide foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $13 billion in economic recovery programs to Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing an earlier proposal for a Morgenthau Plan, it operated for four years beginning on April 3, 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-torn regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, improve European prosperity and prevent the spread of communism. The Marshall Plan proposed the reduction of interstate barriers and the economic integration of the European Continent while also encouraging an increase in productivity as well as the adoption of modern business procedures.

Vietnam War

Vietnam War

The Vietnam War was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The north was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist states, while the south was supported by the United States and other anti-communist allies. The war is widely considered to be a Cold War-era proxy war. It lasted almost 20 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973. The conflict also spilled over into neighboring states, exacerbating the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist states by 1975.

Richard Nixon

Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as a representative and senator from California and was the 36th vice president from 1953 to 1961 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. His five years in the White House saw reduction of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, détente with the Soviet Union and China, the first manned Moon landings, and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Nixon's second term ended early, when he became the only president to resign from office, as a result of the Watergate scandal.

Joseph McCarthy

Joseph McCarthy

Joseph Raymond McCarthy was an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in the United States in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread communist subversion. He is known for alleging that numerous communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers had infiltrated the United States federal government, universities, film industry, and elsewhere. Ultimately, he was censured for refusing to cooperate with, and abusing members of, the committee established to investigate whether or not he should be censured. The term "McCarthyism", coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist activities. Today, the term is used more broadly to mean demagogic, reckless, and unsubstantiated accusations, as well as public attacks on the character or patriotism of political opponents.

Early life

George David Aiken was born in Dummerston, Vermont, to Edward Webster and Myra (née Cook) Aiken.[3] In 1893, he and his parents moved to Putney, where his parents grew fruits and vegetables and his father served in local offices including school board member, select board member, and member of the Vermont House of Representatives.[4] Aiken received his early education in the public schools of Putney, and graduated from Brattleboro High School in 1909.[5] Aiken developed a strong interest in agriculture at an early age, and became a member of the Putney branch of the Grange in 1906.[6] In 1912, he borrowed $100 to plant a patch of raspberries; within five years, his plantings grew to five hundred acres and included a nursery.[3] From 1913 to 1917, Aiken grew small fruits in Putney with George M. Darrow as "Darrow & Aiken." In 1926, Aiken became engaged in the commercial cultivation of wildflowers.[7] He published Pioneering With Wildflowers in 1933 and Pioneering With Fruits and Berries in 1936.[7] He also served as president of the Vermont Horticultural Society (1917–1918) and of the Windham County Farm Bureau (1935–1936).[6]

In 1914, Aiken married Beatrice Howard, to whom he remained married until her death in 1966.[8][9] The couple had three daughters, Dorothy Howard, Marjorie Evelyn (who married Harry Cleverly), and Barbara Marion; and one son, Howard Russell.[7] In 1967 Aiken married his longtime administrative assistant, Lola Pierotti.[8] Lola Aiken remained active in Republican politics until her death in 2014 at age 102.[10][11]

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Dummerston, Vermont

Dummerston, Vermont

Dummerston is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,865 at the 2020 census. It is home to the longest covered bridge still in use in Vermont. Its borders include three main villages: Dummerston Center, West Dummerston, and East Dummerston.

Putney, Vermont

Putney, Vermont

Putney is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 2,617 at the 2020 census.

Board of selectmen

Board of selectmen

The board of selectmen or select board is commonly the executive arm of the government of New England towns in the United States. The board typically consists of three or five members, with or without staggered terms. Three is the most common number, historically.

Vermont House of Representatives

Vermont House of Representatives

The Vermont House of Representatives is the lower house of the Vermont General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Vermont. The House comprises 150 members, with each member representing around 4,100 citizens. Representatives are elected to a two-year term without term limits.

Brattleboro Union High School

Brattleboro Union High School

Brattleboro Union High School (BUHS) is a public school in Vermont that serves the towns of Brattleboro, Vernon, Guilford, Dummerston, and Putney. The Brattleboro Union High School is connected with the middle school, Brattleboro Area Middle School (BAMS).

Raspberry

Raspberry

The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus. The name also applies to these plants themselves. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems. World production of raspberries in 2020 was 895,771 tonnes, led by Russia with 20% of the total.

Plant nursery

Plant nursery

A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to a desired size. Mostly the plants concerned are for gardening, forestry, or conservation biology, rather than agriculture. They include retail nurseries, which sell to the general public; wholesale nurseries, which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and commercial gardeners; and private nurseries, which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Some will also work in plant breeding.

George M. Darrow

George M. Darrow

George McMillan Darrow (1889–1983) was an American horticulturist and the foremost authority on strawberries. He worked for the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS) for forty-six years as the pomologist in charge of research on deciduous fruit production, and authored a multitude of papers on planting and cultivating small fruits.

Wildflower

Wildflower

A wildflower is a flower that grows in the wild, meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted. The term implies that the plant probably is neither a hybrid nor a selected cultivar that is in any way different from the way it appears in the wild as a native plant, even if it is growing where it would not naturally. The term can refer to the flowering plant as a whole, even when not in bloom, and not just the flower.

Windham County, Vermont

Windham County, Vermont

Windham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. As of the 2020 census, the population was 45,905. The shire town is Newfane, and the largest municipality is the town of Brattleboro.

American Farm Bureau Federation

American Farm Bureau Federation

The American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF), also known as Farm Bureau Insurance and Farm Bureau Inc. but more commonly just the Farm Bureau (FB), is a United States-based insurance company and lobbying group that represents the American agriculture industry. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the Farm Bureau has affiliates in all 50 states and Puerto Rico. Each affiliate is a (regional) Farm Bureau, and the parent organization is also often called simply the Farm Bureau.

Harry Cleverly

Harry Cleverly

Harry Leighton Cleverly was a college ice hockey and baseball coach for the varsity programs at Boston University for twelve seasons. He was also the head coach of the freshman football squad for his alma mater.

Early political career

Aiken served as a school board member in Putney from 1920 to 1937.[12] A Republican, he unsuccessfully ran for the Vermont House of Representatives in 1922.[6] In 1930, he ran successfully. He was reelected in 1932, and served from 1931 to 1935.[12] As a state representative, he became known for his opposition to the private power companies over the issue of dam construction.[8] Aiken was elected as Speaker of the House in 1933, over the opposition of the Republican establishment.[7] As Speaker, he shepherded to passage the Poor Debtor Law, which protected people who could not pay their obligations during the Great Depression.[7]

In 1934, Aiken won election as Lieutenant Governor of Vermont.[12] During his 1935 to 1937 term, Democrats had achieved more representation in the Vermont Senate than they had previously, though with only seven senators as compared to 23 Republicans, they were still heavily in the minority.[13] Aiken used his position on the senate's Committee on Committees — the lieutenant governor, President pro tempore of the Vermont Senate, and a senator elected by the rest of the body — to ensure that Democrats were fairly represented on the senate's committees.[13] As a result of Aiken's initiative, Democrats were represented on almost every committee, and constituted a majority on two.[13] In addition, Aiken ensured that Elsie C. Smith, the state senate's only female member, was fairly considered with respect to committee assignments; in fact, Senator Smith was appointed to more committees than any of her peers.[13]

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Republican Party (United States)

Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. Since Ronald Reagan's presidency in the 1980s, conservatism has been the dominant ideology of the GOP. It has been the main political rival of the Democratic Party since the mid-1850s. The Republican Party's historical predecessor is considered to be Northern members of the Whig Party, with Republican presidents Abraham Lincoln, Rutherford B. Hayes, Chester A. Arthur, and Benjamin Harrison all being Whigs before switching to the party, from which they were elected. The collapse of the Whigs, which had previously been one of the two major parties in the country, strengthened the party's electoral success.

Vermont House of Representatives

Vermont House of Representatives

The Vermont House of Representatives is the lower house of the Vermont General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Vermont. The House comprises 150 members, with each member representing around 4,100 citizens. Representatives are elected to a two-year term without term limits.

Great Depression in the United States

Great Depression in the United States

In the United States, the Great Depression began with the Wall Street Crash of October 1929 and then spread worldwide. The nadir came in 1931–1933, and recovery came in 1940. The stock market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth as well as for personal advancement. Altogether, there was a general loss of confidence in the economic future.

List of lieutenant governors of Vermont

List of lieutenant governors of Vermont

The lieutenant governor of Vermont is elected for a two-year term and chosen separately from the governor. The Vermont Lieutenant Governor's main responsibilities include acting as governor when the governor is out of state or incapacitated, presiding over the Vermont Senate, casting tie-breaking votes in the Senate when required, and acceding to the governorship in case of a vacancy. As a member of the state senate's Committee on Committees, the lieutenant governor plays a role in determining committee assignments for individual senators, as well as selecting committee chairs, vice chairs, and clerks.

Vermont Senate

Vermont Senate

The Vermont Senate is the upper house of the Vermont General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Vermont. The senate consists of 30 members. Senate districting divides the 30 members into three single-member districts, six two-member districts, three three-member districts, and one six-member district. Each senator represents at least 20,300 citizens. Senators are elected to two-year terms and there is no limit to the number of terms that a senator may serve.

President pro tempore of the Vermont Senate

President pro tempore of the Vermont Senate

The President pro tempore of the Vermont Senate presides over the Senate of the U.S. state of Vermont in the absence of the Lieutenant Governor. The President pro tempore also sets the policy priorities and legislative agenda for the Senate.

Governor of Vermont

In 1936, Aiken won election as governor, serving from 1937 to 1941.[6] Aiken earned a reputation as a moderate to liberal Republican, supporting many aspects of the New Deal, but opposing its flood control and land policies.[8] In his second term the governor launched attacks on electric utility companies, and sponsored a bill that made the Public Service Commission independent of the utilities for technical advice. To continue the effort to form a consumer-oriented PSC, he named the former head of the Vermont Farm Bureau as its chairman.[14]

When only Vermont and Maine voted Republican in the 1936 presidential election, Aiken thought he was in a good position to exert national leadership in the GOP. He issued manifestos calling for a more liberal approach, and sought national support. He wrote an open letter to the Republican National Committee in 1937 criticizing the party, and claimed Abraham Lincoln "would be ashamed of his party's leadership today" during a 1938 Lincoln Day address.[6] During the 1940 presidential campaign, however, conservative Republicans favored Senator Robert Taft of Ohio, liberals were behind New York County District Attorney Thomas Dewey, and the media was enthusiastic for Wall Street tycoon Wendell Willkie, so Aiken's nascent campaign went nowhere.[15]

During his administration, Aiken reduced the state's debt, instituted a "pay-as-you-go" road-building program, and convinced the federal government to abandon its plan to control the Connecticut River Valley flood reduction projects.[6] He also broke the monopolies of many major industries, including banks, railroads, marble companies, and granite companies.[3] He also encouraged suffering farmers in rural Vermont to form co-ops to market their crops and get access to electricity.

He portrayed himself in populist terms as the defender of farmers and "common folk" against the Proctor family and other members of the conservative Republican establishment, and with Ernest W. Gibson and Ernest W. Gibson Jr. became recognized as a leader of Vermont's progressive Republicans, which came to be known as the party's Aiken-Gibson Wing. Aiken was also an opponent of the policies of Vermont's large utilities and railroads; when Aiken ran for the U.S. Senate in 1940, the pro-business wing of the party endorsed Ralph Flanders. Aiken defeated Flanders in the GOP Senate primary in 1940 and was easily elected that fall to complete the remainder of Gibson's term. He served until 1975, and was always reelected by large majorities.[16][17]

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Governor of Vermont

Governor of Vermont

The governor of Vermont is the head of government of Vermont. The officeholder is elected in even-numbered years by direct voting for a term of 2 years. Vermont and bordering New Hampshire are the only states to hold gubernatorial elections every 2 years, instead of every 4 as in the other 48 U.S. states.

New Deal

New Deal

The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939. Major federal programs agencies included the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), the Works Progress Administration (WPA), the Civil Works Administration (CWA), the Farm Security Administration (FSA), the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (NIRA) and the Social Security Administration (SSA). They provided support for farmers, the unemployed, youth, and the elderly. The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply. New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the Union through the American Civil War to defend the nation as a constitutional union and succeeded in abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.

1940 United States presidential election

1940 United States presidential election

The 1940 United States presidential election was the 39th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 5, 1940. Incumbent Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican businessman Wendell Willkie to be reelected for an unprecedented third term in office.

New York County District Attorney

New York County District Attorney

The New York County District Attorney, also known as the Manhattan District Attorney, is the elected district attorney for New York County (Manhattan), New York. The office is responsible for the prosecution of violations of New York state laws. The current district attorney is Alvin Bragg. He was elected in 2021 to succeed Cyrus Vance Jr.

PAYGO

PAYGO

PAYGO is the practice in the United States of financing expenditures with funds that are currently available rather than borrowed.

Connecticut River

Connecticut River

The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for 406 miles (653 km) through four states. It rises 300 yards south of the U.S. border with Quebec, Canada, and discharges at Long Island Sound. Its watershed encompasses 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2), covering parts of five U.S. states and one Canadian province, via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. It produces 70% of Long Island Sound's fresh water, discharging at 18,400 cubic feet (520 m3) per second.

Monopoly

Monopoly

A monopoly, as described by Irving Fisher, is a market with the "absence of competition", creating a situation where a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular thing. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly and duopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market. Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service, a lack of viable substitute goods, and the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit. The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge overly high prices, which is associated with a decrease in social surplus. Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly. A small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry.

Granite

Granite

Granite is a coarse-grained (phaneritic) intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cools and solidifies underground. It is common in the continental crust of Earth, where it is found in igneous intrusions. These range in size from dikes only a few centimeters across to batholiths exposed over hundreds of square kilometers.

Cooperative

Cooperative

A cooperative is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically-controlled enterprise". Cooperatives are democratically controlled by their members, with each member having one vote in electing the board of directors. Cooperatives may include:businesses owned and managed by the people who consume their goods and/or services businesses where producers pool their output for their common benefit organizations managed by the people who work there businesses where members pool their purchasing power multi-stakeholder or hybrid cooperatives that share ownership between different stakeholder groups. For example, care cooperatives where ownership is shared between both care-givers and receivers. Stakeholders might also include non-profits or investors. second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperatives platform cooperatives that use a cooperatively owned and governed website, mobile app or a protocol to facilitate the sale of goods and services.

Ernest Willard Gibson

Ernest Willard Gibson

Ernest Willard Gibson was an American politician and lawyer from Vermont. A Republican, he served in both the United States House of Representatives (1923-1933) and United States Senate (1933-1940).

Ernest W. Gibson Jr.

Ernest W. Gibson Jr.

Ernest William Gibson Jr. was an American attorney, politician, and judge. He served briefly as an appointed United States Senator, as the 67th governor of Vermont, and as a federal judge.

U.S. Senate

Senator Ernest Willard Gibson died on June 20, 1940; on June 24, 1940, Aiken appointed Ernest W. Gibson Jr. to fill the vacancy pending a special election for the four years remaining on the senior Gibson's term. The younger Gibson served as a caretaker Senator until January 3, 1941, but did not run in the election to fill the vacancy. He was succeeded by Aiken, who won the special election. Political observers assumed that the younger Gibson accepted the temporary appointment to facilitate Aiken's election; knowing that Aiken desired to become a senator, he accepted the appointment and agreed not to run in a primary against Aiken, which another appointee might have done. Ernest Gibson Jr. was willing to fill the vacancy temporarily and then defer to Aiken because Gibson hoped to serve as governor.[18] Aiken was elected on November 5, 1940, and took his seat in January, 1941. He was re-elected in 1944, 1950, 1956, 1962, and 1968. During his time in the Senate he served in a number of leadership roles including chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in Executive Departments in the 80th Congress and in the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry in the 83rd Congress.

He was a proponent of many spending programs such as Food Stamps and public works projects for rural America, such as rural electrification, flood control and crop insurance. He also had a great affection for the natural beauty of his home state, saying "some folks just naturally love the mountains, and like to live up among them where freedom of thought and action is logical and inherent."[19] His views were at odds with those of many Old Guard Republicans in the Senate.

The role of labor unions, or more exactly the federal role in balancing the rights of labor and management, was a central issue in the 1940s. Aiken stood midway between the pro-union Democrats and the pro-management Republicans. He favored settling labor disputes by negotiation, not in Congress and courts. He voted against the stringent Case labor bill promoted by conservative Republicans. They in turn blocked Aiken's appointment to the Labor and Public Welfare Committee and persuaded conservative leader Robert A. Taft to chair it. Aiken spoke out in favor of unions but voted for Taft's Taft Hartley Act of 1947, and for overriding President Truman's veto. He argued that it was a lesser evil than the Case bill.[20]

Aiken voted in favor of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957,[21] 1964,[22] and 1968,[23] as well as the 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution,[24] the Voting Rights Act of 1965,[25] and the confirmation of Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court,[26] while Aiken did not vote on the Civil Rights Act of 1960.[27] At first he supported civil rights but by the 1960s he took a more ambiguous position. He consistently favored civil rights legislation, from the Civil Rights Act of 1957 to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but usually with important qualifications and amendments. This ambiguity, which some called obstructionism, was criticized by militant civil rights groups and the NAACP.[28]

Aiken took an ambivalent position on the Vietnam war (1965–75), changing along with the Vermont mood. Neither a hawk nor a dove, he was sometimes called an "owl."[29] He reluctantly supported the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 1964, and was more enthusiastic in support of Nixon's program of letting South Vietnam do the fighting using American money.[30] Aiken is widely quoted as saying that the U.S. should declare victory and bring the troops home.[31] His actual statement was:

"The United States could well declare unilaterally ... that we have 'won' in the sense that our armed forces are in control of most of the field and no potential enemy is in a position to establish its authority over South Vietnam," and that such a declaration "would herald the resumption of political warfare as the dominant theme in Vietnam."

He added: "It may be a far-fetched proposal, but nothing else has worked."[32]

His base in Vermont was solid; he spent only $17.09 on his last reelection bid. A north–south avenue on the west side of the public lawn at the Vermont State House has been named for him. He left office in 1975, succeeded by the first Democrat to represent Vermont in the Senate, Patrick Leahy. Leahy went on to become the Dean of the Senate, the title Aiken possessed when he left the chamber. Aiken and Leahy held the same Senate seat for more than 80 years combined, making them the back-to-back pair of Senators to hold the same seat for the longest. Leahy retired at the end of the 117th Congress in January 2023, at that point the two will had held Vermont's Class 3 seat for a combined 81 years, 11 months, and 24 days.[33]

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Ernest Willard Gibson

Ernest Willard Gibson

Ernest Willard Gibson was an American politician and lawyer from Vermont. A Republican, he served in both the United States House of Representatives (1923-1933) and United States Senate (1933-1940).

Ernest W. Gibson Jr.

Ernest W. Gibson Jr.

Ernest William Gibson Jr. was an American attorney, politician, and judge. He served briefly as an appointed United States Senator, as the 67th governor of Vermont, and as a federal judge.

Rural electrification

Rural electrification

Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and remote areas. Rural communities are suffering from colossal market failures as the national grids fall short of their demand for electricity. As of 2017, over 1 billion people worldwide lack household electric power – 14% of the global population. Electrification typically begins in cities and towns and gradually extends to rural areas, however, this process often runs into obstacles in developing nations. Expanding the national grid is expensive and countries consistently lack the capital to grow their current infrastructure. Additionally, amortizing capital costs to reduce the unit cost of each hook-up is harder to do in lightly populated areas. If countries are able to overcome these obstacles and reach nationwide electrification, rural communities will be able to reap considerable amounts of economic and social development.

Flood control

Flood control

Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters. Flood relief methods are used to reduce the effects of flood waters or high water levels. Flooding can be caused by a mix of both natural processes, such as extreme weather upstream, and human changes to waterbodies and runoff. Though building hard infrastructure to prevent flooding, such as flood walls, can be effective at managing flooding, increased best practice within landscape engineering is to rely more on soft infrastructure and natural systems, such as marshes and flood plains, for handling the increase in water. For flooding on coasts, coastal management practices have to not only handle changes water flow, but also natural processes like tides.

Crop insurance

Crop insurance

Crop insurance is purchased by agricultural producers, and subsidized by the federal government, to protect against either the loss of their crops due to natural disasters, such as hail, drought, and floods, or the loss of revenue due to declines in the prices of agricultural commodities. The two general categories of crop insurance are called crop-yield insurance and crop-revenue insurance. On average, the federal government subsidizes 62 percent of the premium. In 2019, crop insurance policies covered almost 380 million acres. Major crops are insurable in most counties where they are grown, and approximately 90% of U.S. crop acreage is insured under the federal crop insurance program. Four crops—corn, cotton, soybeans, and wheat—typically account for more than 70% of total enrolled acres. For these major crops, a large share of plantings is covered by crop insurance.

Old Right (United States)

Old Right (United States)

The Old Right is an informal designation used for a branch of American conservatism that was most prominent from c. 1910 to the mid-1950s, but never became an organized movement. Most members were Republicans, although there was a conservative Democratic element based largely in the Southern United States. They are termed the "Old Right" to distinguish them from their New Right successors who came to prominence in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.

Robert A. Taft

Robert A. Taft

Robert Alphonso Taft Sr. was an American politician, lawyer, and scion of the Republican Party's Taft family. Taft represented Ohio in the United States Senate, briefly served as Senate Majority Leader, and was a leader of the conservative coalition of Republicans and conservative Democrats who prevented expansion of the New Deal. Often referred to as "Mr. Republican", he co-sponsored the Taft–Hartley Act of 1947, which banned closed shops, created the concept of right-to-work states, and regulated other labor practices.

Civil Rights Act of 1957

Civil Rights Act of 1957

The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The bill was passed by the 85th United States Congress and signed into law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on September 9, 1957.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin. It prohibits unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools and public accommodations, and employment discrimination. The act "remains one of the most significant legislative achievements in American history".

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Civil Rights Act of 1968

The Civil Rights Act of 1968 is a landmark law in the United States signed into law by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during the King assassination riots.

Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Twenty-fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Voting Rights Act of 1965

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the civil rights movement on August 6, 1965, and Congress later amended the Act five times to expand its protections. Designed to enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, the Act sought to secure the right to vote for racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, the Act is considered to be the most effective piece of federal civil rights legislation ever enacted in the country. It is also "one of the most far-reaching pieces of civil rights legislation in U.S. history."

Committee assignments

Committee Congresses Notes
Agriculture and Forestry 77th93rd Ranking Member (81 – 82; 84 – 91); chairman (83)[34]
Civil Service 77th – 79th
Education and Labor
Labor and Public Welfare
77th – 80th
81st83rd
Expenditures in Executive Departments 77th – 80th Ranking Member (79);[35] Chairman (80)[36]
Pensions 77th – 79th Ranking Member (79)[35]
Senatorial Campaign Expenditures, 1942 (Select) 77th – 78th [37]
Foreign Relations 83rd – 93rd Appointed January 15, 1954[38]
Atomic Energy (Joint) 86th – 93rd
Aeronautical and Space Sciences 89th Resigned from committee January 14, 1966[39]

Discover more about Committee assignments related topics

United States Senate Committee on Civil Service

United States Senate Committee on Civil Service

United States Senate Committee on Civil Service is a defunct committee of the United States Senate.

United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions

United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions

The United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) generally considers matters relating to these issues. Its jurisdiction also extends beyond these issues to include several more specific areas, as defined by Senate rules.

United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the U.S. Senate charged with leading foreign-policy legislation and debate in the Senate. It is generally responsible for overseeing and funding foreign aid programs; funding arms sales and training for national allies; and holding confirmation hearings for high-level positions in the Department of State. Its sister committee in the House of Representatives is the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

United States Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences

United States Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences

The Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences was a standing committee of the United States Senate from 1958 until 1977, when it was folded into the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. It was preceded by the Special Committee on Space and Astronautics, which operated from February 6, 1958, to March 11, 1959.

Retirement and death

Aiken did not run for reelection in 1974.[40] He resided in Putney until mid-1984, when his health began to fail and he moved to a nursing home in Montpelier.[41] He died in Montpelier on November 19, 1984,[42] and was buried at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Putney.[43]

Source: "George Aiken", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Aiken.

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References
  1. ^ Heinrichs, 2001)
  2. ^ Eleonora W. Schoenebaum, ed., Political Profiles: The Truman Years (1978) p 7
  3. ^ a b c Krebs, Albin (November 20, 1984). "George Aiken, Longtime Senator And G.O.P. Maverick, Dies at 92". The New York Times.
  4. ^ Bigelow, Walter J. (1920). Vermont, Its Government. Montpelier, VT: Historical Publishing Company. pp. 124–125.
  5. ^ About George Aiken Retrieved January 1, 2021
  6. ^ a b c d e f Current Biography. Vol. 24. H. W. Wilson Company. 1948.
  7. ^ a b c d e The History of Putney, Vermont, 1753-1953. Fortnightly Club of Putney. 1953.
  8. ^ a b c d "George D. Aiken". University of Vermont.
  9. ^ "Beatrice Aiken, Senator's Wife, Dies at 71". Burlington Free Press. Burlington, VT. Associated Press. May 11, 1966. p. 1.
  10. ^ Garrity, Roger (September 8, 2014). "Lola Aiken, wife of Sen. George Aiken, dies at 102". WCAX-TV. Burlington, VT.
  11. ^ "Lola Aiken Dies at 102". VT Digger. Montpelier, VT. September 8, 2014.
  12. ^ a b c "AIKEN, George David, (1892–1984)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  13. ^ a b c d "Braley Named Chairman of Judiciary". The Caledonian-Record. St. Johnsbury, VT. January 15, 1935. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.
  14. ^ Hand (2002) p 157
  15. ^ D. Gregory Sanford, “You Can't Get There From Here: The Presidential Boomlet for Governor George D. Aiken, 1937–1939," Vermont History 49 (1981): 197–208.
  16. ^ Heinrichs, (2001) p 273
  17. ^ Hand (2002) pp 158-9
  18. ^ Samuel B. Hand, The Star That Set: The Vermont Republican Party, 1854–1974, 2003, page 133
  19. ^ Kauffman, Bill (2004-09-13) Democracy in Vermont, The American Conservative
  20. ^ Paul M. Searls, "George Aiken and the Taft-Hartley Act: A Less Undesirable Alternative," Vermont History (1992) 60#3 pp 155–166.
  21. ^ "HR. 6127. CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957". GovTrack.us.
  22. ^ "HR. 7152. PASSAGE".
  23. ^ "TO PASS H.R. 2516, A BILL TO PROHIBIT DISCRIMINATION IN SALE OR RENTAL OF HOUSING, AND TO PROHIBIT RACIALLY MOTIVATED INTERFERENCE WITH A PERSON EXERCISING HIS CIVIL RIGHTS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES".
  24. ^ "S.J. RES. 29. APPROVAL OF RESOLUTION BANNING THE POLL TAX AS PREREQUISITE FOR VOTING IN FEDERAL ELECTIONS". GovTrack.us.
  25. ^ "TO PASS S. 1564, THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965".
  26. ^ "CONFIRMATION OF NOMINATION OF THURGOOD MARSHALL, THE FIRST NEGRO APPOINTED TO THE SUPREME COURT". GovTrack.us.
  27. ^ "HR. 8601. PASSAGE OF AMENDED BILL".
  28. ^ Bruce H. Kalk, "Yankee Party or Southern Strategy? George Aiken and the Republican Party, 1936-1972," Vermont History (1996) 64#4 pp236–250
  29. ^ Duffy (2002) p 35
  30. ^ Charles F. O'Brien, "Aiken and Vietnam: A Dialogue with Vermont Voters," Vermont History (1993) 61#1 pp 5-17.
  31. ^ Mark A. Stoler, "What Did He Really Say? The 'Aiken Formula'for Vietnam Revisited,'" Vermont History (1978) 46#1 pp 100-108.
  32. ^ Eder, Richard. "Aiken Suggests U.S. Say It Has Won the War." New York Times. October 20, 1966, pp. 1, 16
  33. ^ Leahy Retirement Puts End Date on US Senate Record by Dr. Eric Ostermeier on Smart Politics
  34. ^ The United States Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry: 1825–1998 (S. Doc. 105-24). 105th Congress. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1998. Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  35. ^ a b Official Congressional Directory. 79th Congress
  36. ^ "Chairmen of Senate Standing Committees 1789 – present" (PDF). Senate Historical Office. June 2008. p. 35. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
  37. ^ Canon, David T.; Garrison Nelson; Charles Stewart III (2002). Committees in the U.S. Congress: 1789–1946. Vol. 4, Select Committees. Washington, DC: CQ Press. ISBN 1-56802-175-5.
  38. ^ Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Millennium Edition, 1816–2000 (S. Doc. 105-28) (PDF). 105th Congress, 2d session. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 2000. p. 98.
  39. ^ Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate: 1958–1976. 94th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. December 30, 1976. p. 63. hdl:2027/mdp.39015077942277.
  40. ^ "Senate Dean George Aiken Won't Run for Re-Election". Florence Morning News. Florence, SC. Associated Press. February 15, 1974. p. 9.
  41. ^ Goddard, Kevin (November 19, 1984). "George Aiken: Born Aug. 20, 1892; Retired from U.S. Senate in 1974". United Press International Archives. Washington, DC.
  42. ^ Krebs, Albin (November 20, 1984). "George Aiken, Longtime Senator and G.O.P. Maverick, Dies at 92". New York Times. new York, NY.
  43. ^ "Former Sen. George Aiken Buried in Vermont Hometown". Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, FL. United Press International. November 23, 1984. p. 4B – via Newspapers.com.
Further reading
  • Bryan, Frank M. Yankee politics in rural Vermont (U. Press of New England, 1974)
  • Duffy, John J. et al. eds. The Vermont Encyclopedia (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Hand, Samuel B., and D. Gregory Sanford. "Carrying Water on Both Shoulders: George D. Aiken's 1936 Gubernatorial Campaign in Vermont," Vermont History (1975) 43: 292-306
  • Hand, Samuel B. The Star That Set: The Vermont Republican Party, 1854-1974 (2002); extensive coverage of Aiken based on his diaries
  • Hand, Samuel B. and Paul M. Searls. "Transition Politics: Vermont, 1940–1952," Vermont History (1994) 62#1 pp 1–25
  • Heinrichs, Jr. Waldo H. "Waldo H. Heinrichs, George D. Aiken, and the Lend Lease Debate of 1941," Vermont History (2001) 69#3 pp 267–83 online
  • Johns, Andrew L. "Doves Among Hawks: Republican Opposition to the Vietnam War, 1964–1968." Peace & Change (2006) 31#4 pp: 585–628.
  • Judd, Richard Munson. The New Deal in Vermont: Its impact and aftermath (Taylor & Francis, 1979)
  • Schoenebaum, Eleonora W. ed., Political Profiles: The Truman Years (1978) pp 6–8
  • Schoenebaum, Eleonora W. ed., Political Profiles: The Eisenhower Years (1977) pp 7–8
  • Stoler, Mark A. "What Did He Really Say? The 'Aiken Formula'for Vietnam Revisited.”." Vermont History 46 (1978): 100-108.
  • Stoler, Mark A. "Aiken, Mansfield, and the Tonkin Gulf Crisis: Notes from the Congressional Leadership Meeting at the White House, August 4, 1964." Vermont History 50: 80–94.

Primary sources

  • Aiken, George David. Speaking from Vermont (Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1938)
  • Aiken, George D. Senate Diary (Brattleboro, Vt 1976); ISBN 0828902755.
  • Gallagher, Connell. "The Senator George D. Aiken Papers: Sources for the Study of Canadian-American Relations, 1930-1974." Archivaria 1#21 (1985) pp 176–79 online.
External links
Party political offices
Preceded by Republican nominee for Governor of Vermont
1936, 1938
Succeeded by
Preceded by Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Vermont
(Class 3)

1940, 1944, 1950, 1956, 1962, 1968
Succeeded by
Preceded by
W. Robert Johnson
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Vermont
(Class 3)

1968
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives
1933–1935
Succeeded by
Preceded by Lieutenant Governor of Vermont
1935–1937
Succeeded by
Governor of Vermont
1937–1941
Preceded by Chairman of the Senate Executive Department Expenditures Committee
1947–1949
Succeeded by
Preceded by Chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee
1953–1955
Succeeded by
U.S. Senate
Preceded by U.S. senator (Class 3) from Vermont
1941–1975
Served alongside: Warren Austin, Ralph Flanders, Winston L. Prouty, Robert Stafford
Succeeded by
Honorary titles
Preceded by Most senior Republican United States senator
1963 - 1975
Succeeded by
Preceded by Dean of the United States Senate
July 27, 1972 – January 3, 1975
Succeeded by

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