Get Our Extension

Gasterosteoidei

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Gasterosteoidei
Gasterosteus aculeatus.jpg
Three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Scorpaeniformes
Suborder: Gasterosteoidei
Pietsch,1978[1]
Type species
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Families

see text

Gasterosteoidei is a suborder of ray-finned fishes that includes the sticklebacks and relatives, the 5th edition of Fishes of the World classifies this suborder within the order Scorpaeniformes.

Discover more about Gasterosteoidei related topics

Systematics

Gasterosteoidei is treated as a suborder within the order Scorpaeniformes in the 5th edition of Fishes of the World,[2] but in other phylogenetic classifications it is treated as the infraorder Gasterosteales within the suborder Cottoidei or as a sister clade to the Zoarcales in the order Zoarciformes.[3] Indostomidae is included within Gasterosteoidei in Fishes of the World'[2] but according to Betancur et al its inclusion in the clade renders it paraphyletic and they classify that family within the monotypic suborder Indostomoidei within the Synbranchiformes.[3]

Historically, Gasterosteoidei was treated as a suborder within the order Gasterostiformes and often included the sea horses, pipefishes and their relatives as suborder Syngnathoidei, with the sticklebacks and relatives in the suborder Gasterosteoidei.[4] The Gasterosteiformes sensu lato were regarded as paraphyletic with the Scorpaeniformes. The more typical members of that group (e.g. scorpionfishes) are apparently closer to the "true" Gasterosteiformes, whereas the keel-bodied flying gurnards (Dactylopteridae) seem actually to belong to the Syngnathiformes clade. It seems that the closest living relatives of the narrowly delimited Gasterosteoidei are the Zoarcoidei, which have been placed in the massively paraphyletic "Perciformes". The Zoarcoidei, as well as the related Trichodontidae, would then appear to be derived offshoots of the scorpaeniform-gasterosteiform radiation which have apomorphically lost the bone "armour" found in their relatives.[5]

Discover more about Systematics related topics

Cottoidei

Cottoidei

Cottoidei is a suborder of ray-finned fishes which, according to the 5th edition of Fishes of the World, is placed within the order Scorpaeniformes, alongside the scorpionfishes, flatheads, eelpouts,sticklebacks and related fishes.

Zoarcoidei

Zoarcoidei

Zoarcoidei is a suborder of marine ray-finned fishes belonging to the order Scorpaeniformes. The suborder includes the wolffishes, gunnels and eelpouts. The suborder includes about 400 species. These fishes predominantly found in the boreal seas of the northern hemisphere but they have colonised the southern hemisphere.

Synbranchiformes

Synbranchiformes

Synbranchiformes, often called swamp eels, is an order of ray-finned fishes that are eel-like but have spiny rays, indicating that they belong to the superorder Acanthopterygii.

Pipefish

Pipefish

Pipefishes or pipe-fishes (Syngnathinae) are a subfamily of small fishes, which, together with the seahorses and seadragons, form the family Syngnathidae.

Scorpaeniformes

Scorpaeniformes

The Scorpaeniformes are a diverse order of ray-finned fish, including the lionfishes and sculpins, but have also been called the Scleroparei. It is one of the five largest orders of bony fishes by number of species, with over 1,320.

Dactylopteridae

Dactylopteridae

The flying gurnards are a family, Dactylopteridae, of marine fish notable for their greatly enlarged pectoral fins. As they cannot literally fly or glide in the air, an alternative name preferred by some authors is helmet gurnards. They have been regarded as the only family in the suborder Dactylopteroidei of the Scorpaeniformes but more recent molecular classifications put them in the order Syngnathiformes, in the superfamily Centriscoidea.

Syngnathiformes

Syngnathiformes

The Syngnathiformes are an order of ray-finned fishes that includes the trumpetfishes and seahorses.

Clade

Clade

A clade, also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants – on a phylogenetic tree. Rather than the English term, the equivalent Latin term cladus is often used in taxonomical literature.

Perciformes

Perciformes

Perciformes, also called the Percomorpha or Acanthopteri, is an order or superorder of ray-finned fish. If considered a single order, they are the most numerous order of vertebrates, containing about 41% of all bony fish. Perciformes means "perch-like". Perciformes is an Order within the Clade Percomorpha consisting of "perch-like" Percomorphans. This group comprises over 10,000 species found in almost all aquatic ecosystems.

Trichodontidae

Trichodontidae

The Trichodontidae, or sandfishes, are a small family of fishes from the order Trachiniformes that occur in the North Pacific. The family consists of two monotypic genera:Arctoscopus Jordan and Evermann, 1896 Arctoscopus japonicus (Steindachner, 1881) Trichodon Tilesius, 1813 Trichodon trichodon (Tilesius, 1813)

Evolutionary radiation

Evolutionary radiation

An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity that is caused by elevated rates of speciation, that may or may not be associated with an increase in morphological disparity. Radiations may affect one clade or many, and be rapid or gradual; where they are rapid, and driven by a single lineage's adaptation to their environment, they are termed adaptive radiations.

Families and genera

Gasterosteoidei contains the following families and genera:[2][6]

Discover more about Families and genera related topics

Hypoptychidae

Hypoptychidae

The Hypoptychidae, the sand-eels, are a small family of ray-finned fishes in the suborder Gasterosteoidei. The species in this family are found in the northern Pacific Ocean.

Franz Steindachner

Franz Steindachner

Franz Steindachner was an Austrian zoologist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist. He published over 200 papers on fishes and over 50 papers on reptiles and amphibians. Steindachner described hundreds of new species of fish and dozens of new amphibians and reptiles. At least seven species of reptile have been named after him.

Aulorhynchidae

Aulorhynchidae

Aulorhynchidae, the tube-snouts, is a small family of marine ray-finned fishes belonging to the suborder Gasterosteoidei in the order Scorpaeniformes. These fishes are found in the northern Pacific Ocean.

Aulichthys

Aulichthys

Aulichthys is a monospecific genus of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the family Aulorhynchidae. Its only species is Aulichthys japonicus, the tubenose, which is found in the shallow waters on the coasts of Japan, China and the Korean Peninsula This species lays its eggs inside of the peribranchial cavities of ascidians. This species grows to a length of 12.8 centimetres (5.0 in) SL.

J. Carson Brevoort

J. Carson Brevoort

James Carson Brevoort was an American collector of rare books and coins. He served as superintendent of the Astor Library for two years, also serving as trustee.

Aulorhynchus

Aulorhynchus

Aulorhynchus is a monospecific genus of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the family Aulorhynchidae. Its only species is the tube-snout which is found off the western coast of North America.

Charles Lucien Bonaparte

Charles Lucien Bonaparte

Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte, 2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano, was a French naturalist and ornithologist. Lucien and his wife had twelve children, including Cardinal Lucien Bonaparte.

Apeltes

Apeltes

Apeltes is a monospecific genus old ray-finned fish belonging to the family Gasterosteidae, the sticklebacks. The only species in the genus is Apeltes quadracus, the fourspine stickleback or bloody stickleback, which lives in freshwater, brackish and benthopelagic environments of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean between Newfoundland and South Carolina.

Gilbert Percy Whitley

Gilbert Percy Whitley

Gilbert Percy Whitley was a British-born Australian ichthyologist and malacologist who was Curator of Fishes at the Australian Museum in Sydney for about 40 years. He was born at Swaythling, Southampton, England, and was educated at King Edward VI School, Southampton and the Royal Naval College, Osborne.

Gasterosteus

Gasterosteus

Gasterosteus is a genus of ray-finned fishes belonging to the family Gasterosteidae, the sticklebacks. These fishes are found in freshwater, brackish water and marine habitats in the Holarctic region.

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin; his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus and, after his 1761 ennoblement, as Carolus a Linné.

Georges Cuvier

Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier, known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology". Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils.

Characteristics

Gasterosteoidei is characterised by the possession of a protractile upper jaw and a well developed upward pointing process on the premaxilla. The body is often armoured with dermal plates and paired dermal plates grow from membranes grwing out fronm the pelvic girdle. If there are plates on the flanks these are often a single row of ossified lateral and dermal plates. Unpaired plates paired pelvic plates arising from a membranous outgrowth of the pelvic girdle; lateral body plates, when present, are represented by a single series of lateral and dermal ossifications. The unpaired plates on the body which create the dorsal and ventral series grow from the expanded proximal middle radials of the pterygiphores of the dorsal and anal fins. Separate pectoral radials do not develop during the fish's development and the pectoral radial plate is fused into a single unit on the scapulo-coracoid. They have very small mouths. There are between 1 and 6 branchiostegal rays and there is no postcleithrum in the pelvic girdle which is never joined directly to the cleithra. There are other skeletal features that these fishes share too. The kidneys of gasterosteoids synthesis an adhesive chemical which is used by males to create nests of plant material, it is not known if this is true of all the taxa within the group.[2] These are all rather small fishes with the largest species being the sea stickleback (Spinachia spinachia) which has a maximum published standard length of 22 cm (8.7 in).[7]

Distribution and habitat

Gasterodteoidei are found in the northern hemisphere, mostly within the temperate and Arctic regions,[2] the exception is the Indostomidae which are found in freshwater habitats in mainland Southeast Asia.[8] The other groups can be found in fresh, brackish and salt water.[2]

Timeline of genera[9]

QuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneCretaceousHolocenePleistocenePlioceneMioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneLate CretaceousEarly CretaceousCentriscusHippocampus (genus)GasterosteusPungitiusNerophisAcanthognathusAeoliscusFistulariaHipposyngnathusAulorhynchusAulostomusProtaulopsisSolenostomusSyngnathusAeoliscoidesAulorhamphusAulostomoidesCalamostomaEoaulostomusFistularioidesJungersenichthysMacroaulostomusParaeoliscusParamphisileParasynarcualisProsolenostomusPseudosyngnathusRamphosusSolenorhynchusSynhypuralisUrosphenProtorhamphosusUrosphenopsisGasterorhamphosusQuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneCretaceousHolocenePleistocenePlioceneMioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneLate CretaceousEarly Cretaceous

Source: "Gasterosteoidei", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasterosteoidei.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ "Gasterosteoidei (disused)". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f J. S. Nelson; T. C. Grande; M. V. H. Wilson (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Wiley. pp. 467–495. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
  3. ^ a b Ricardo Betancur-R; Edward O. Wiley; Gloria Arratia; et al. (2017). "Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 17 (162). doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0958-3. PMC 5501477.
  4. ^ "Gasterosteoidei". Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Retrieved 24 November 2022.
  5. ^ Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; et al. (2008). "Interrelationships of the 11 gasterosteiform families (sticklebacks, pipefishes, and their relatives): A new perspective based on whole mitogenome sequences from 75 higher teleosts". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 46: 224–236. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.07.009.
  6. ^ Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3882.1.1. PMID 25543675.
  7. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2022). "Gasterosteidae" in FishBase. June 2022 version.
  8. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2022). Species of Indostomus in FishBase. June 2022 version.
  9. ^ Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.