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GLASS-z12

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GLASS-z12
NASA-GLASS-z13-Closeup-JWST-20220722.jpg
Close-up view of GLASS-z12 from the James Webb Space Telescope
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
ConstellationSculptor
Right ascension00h 13m 59.76s[1]
Declination−30° 19′ 29.1″[1]
Redshift12.4+0.1
−0.3
[1]
12.30–12.35[2]
Distance≈13.7 billion ly (4.2 billion pc)
   (light-travel distance)[3][4]
Apparent magnitude (V)27.0 AB (F200W)[1]
Characteristics
Mass1.0×109 M
Size~3000 ly (1 kpc)
Half-light radius (physical)500 pc
Other designations
GHZ2[2][5]
References: [1]

GLASS-z12 is a candidate Lyman-break galaxy discovered by the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) observing program using the James Webb Space Telescope in July 2022.[6] It is currently one of the earliest and most distant galaxies ever discovered, dating back to just 350 million years after the Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago.[4]

GLASS-z12 derives its name from the GLASS survey that discovered it and its estimated redshift of approximately z = 12.4+0.1
−0.3
.[1] GLASS-z12 has a light-travel distance (lookback time) of 13.7 billion years.[4] However, due to the expansion of the universe, its present proper distance is 33.3 billion light-years.[3] It was discovered alongside another galaxy, GLASS-z10, comparable to GN-z11, also one of the oldest galaxies discovered.[4]

GLASS-z12 was initially announced as GLASS-z13 because it was thought to have a higher redshift of z = 13.1;[5] this redshift value was later revised down to z = 12.4 in October 2022, resulting in the renaming of this galaxy.[1]

Color composite of JWST-NIRCam images showing GLASS-z12 as a red dot among other galaxies
Color composite of JWST-NIRCam images showing GLASS-z12 as a red dot among other galaxies

Discover more about GLASS-z12 related topics

Lyman-break galaxy

Lyman-break galaxy

Lyman-break galaxies are star-forming galaxies at high redshift that are selected using the differing appearance of the galaxy in several imaging filters due to the position of the Lyman limit. The technique has primarily been used to select galaxies at redshifts of z = 3–4 using ultraviolet and optical filters, but progress in ultraviolet astronomy and in infrared astronomy has allowed the use of this technique at lower and higher redshifts using ultraviolet and near-infrared filters.

James Webb Space Telescope

James Webb Space Telescope

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope which conducts infrared astronomy. As the largest optical telescope in space, its high resolution and sensitivity allow it to view objects too old, distant, or faint for the Hubble Space Telescope. This will enable investigations across many fields of astronomy and cosmology, such as observation of the first stars, the formation of the first galaxies, and detailed atmospheric characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets.

Big Bang

Big Bang

The Big Bang event is a physical theory that describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of high density and temperature. Various cosmological models of the Big Bang explain the evolution of the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale form. These models offer a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and large-scale structure. The overall uniformity of the Universe, known as the flatness problem, is explained through cosmic inflation: a sudden and very rapid expansion of space during the earliest moments. However, physics currently lacks a widely accepted theory of quantum gravity that can successfully model the earliest conditions of the Big Bang.

Age of the universe

Age of the universe

In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang. Today, astronomers have derived two different measurements of the age of the universe: a measurement based on direct observations of an early state of the universe, which indicate an age of 13.772±0.020 billion years as interpreted with the Lambda-CDM concordance model as of 2018; and a measurement based on the observations of the local, modern universe, which suggest a younger age. The uncertainty of the first kind of measurement has been narrowed down to 20 million years, based on a number of studies which all gave extremely similar figures for the age. These include studies of the microwave background radiation by the Planck spacecraft, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and other space probes. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation give the cooling time of the universe since the Big Bang, and measurements of the expansion rate of the universe can be used to calculate its approximate age by extrapolating backwards in time. The range of the estimate is also within the range of the estimate for the oldest observed star in the universe.

Redshift

Redshift

In physics, a redshift is an increase in the wavelength, and corresponding decrease in the frequency and photon energy, of electromagnetic radiation. The opposite change, a decrease in wavelength and simultaneous increase in frequency and energy, is known as a negative redshift, or blueshift. The terms derive from the colours red and blue which form the extremes of the visible light spectrum.

Expansion of the universe

Expansion of the universe

The expansion of the universe is the increase in distance between any two given gravitationally unbound parts of the observable universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. The universe does not expand "into" anything and does not require space to exist "outside" it. This expansion involves neither space nor objects in space "moving" in a traditional sense, but rather it is the metric that changes in scale. As the spatial part of the universe's spacetime metric increases in scale, objects become more distant from one another at ever-increasing speeds. To any observer in the universe, it appears that all of space is expanding, and that all but the nearest galaxies recede at speeds that are proportional to their distance from the observer. While objects within space cannot travel faster than light, this limitation does not apply to the effects of changes in the metric itself. Objects that recede beyond the cosmic event horizon will eventually become unobservable, as no new light from them will be capable of overcoming the universe's expansion, limiting the size of our observable universe.

GN-z11

GN-z11

GN-z11 is a high-redshift galaxy found in the constellation Ursa Major. It is one the farthest known galaxies from Earth ever discovered. The 2015 discovery was published in a 2016 paper headed by Pascal Oesch and Gabriel Brammer. Up until the discovery of HD1 in 2022, GN-z11 was the oldest and most distant known galaxy yet identified in the observable universe, having a spectroscopic redshift of z = 11.09, which corresponds to a proper distance of approximately 32 billion light-years.

Source: "GLASS-z12", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, December 2nd), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GLASS-z12.

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References
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Naidu, Rohan P.; et al. (July 2022). "Two Remarkably Luminous Galaxy Candidates at z ≈ 10 − 12 Revealed by JWST". arXiv:2207.09434 [astro-ph.GA].
  2. ^ a b Castellano, Marco; et al. (July 2022). "Early results from GLASS-JWST. III: Galaxy candidates at z∼9-15". arXiv:2207.09436 [astro-ph.GA].
  3. ^ a b Wright, Edward L. (2022). "Ned Wright's Javascript Cosmolgy Calculato". University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 24 November 2022. (Open or Flat)
  4. ^ a b c d Adkins, Jamie (17 November 2022). "NASA's Webb Draws Back Curtain on Universe's Early Galaxies". NASA. Retrieved 23 November 2022.
  5. ^ a b Koren, Marina (22 July 2022). "The Webb Space Telescope Is a Time Machine Observed". The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  6. ^ O'Callaghan, Jonathan (14 September 2022). "JWST's First Glimpses of Early Galaxies Could Break Cosmology - The James Webb Space Telescope's first images of the distant universe shocked astronomers. Is the discovery of unimaginably distant galaxies a mirage, or a revolution?". Scientific American. Retrieved 16 September 2022.

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