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Fur clothing

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Hood with Asiatic raccoon trimming
Hood with Asiatic raccoon trimming
Coypu jacket, reversible
Coypu jacket, reversible
A French-Canadian man, wearing a fur coat and hat, around 1910
A French-Canadian man, wearing a fur coat and hat, around 1910

Fur clothing is clothing made from the preserved skins of mammals. Fur is one of the oldest forms of clothing, and is thought to have been widely used by people for at least 120,000 years.[1] The term 'fur' is often used to refer to a specific item of clothing such as a coat, wrap, or shawl made from the fur of animals.

Humans wear fur garments to protect them from cold climates and wind chill, but documented evidence of fur as a marker of social status as far back as 2,000-years ago with ancient Egyptian emperors and high priests wearing the skins of leopards. [2]

Historically in European and Middle Eastern cultures fur garments often had the fur facing inwards with cloth on the exterior of the jacket, but in the 19th century a trend for wearing seal fur coats with the fur facing outwards became the trend.[3] World wide both styles are popular, fur linings offering more thermal benefits while exterior furs serving more of a fashionable purpose.

History

Wholesale dealer (Leipzig, c. 1900)
Wholesale dealer (Leipzig, c. 1900)
Fur sewing machine Success from Allbook & Hashfield, Nottingham, England
Fur sewing machine Success from Allbook & Hashfield, Nottingham, England

Fur is generally thought to have been among the first materials used for clothing. The period when fur was first used as clothing is debated. It is known that several species of hominoids including Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis used fur clothing. Clothing was made from the hides of animals such as bison, muskox, bear, ground sloth, woolly rhinoceros, mammoth or Irish elk.

Fur clothing predates written history and has been recovered from various archaeological sites worldwide[4].

Crown proclamations known as "sumptuary legislation" were issued in England[5] limiting the wearing of certain furs to higher social statuses, thereby establishing a cachet based on exclusivity. Furs such as marten, leopard, snow leopard and cheetah (all three of them known as 'panther' at the time), red squirrel and ermine were reserved for the aristocracy, while fox, hare and beaver clothed the middle, and goat, wolf and sheepskin the lower. Fur was primarily used for visible linings, with species varied by season within social classes. Populations of fur-bearing animals decreased in West Europe and began to be imported from the Middle East and Russia.[6]

As new kinds of fur, such as jaguar and chinchilla, entered Europe, other uses were found for fur other than clothing. Beaver was most desired and used to make hats which became popular headpieces, especially during wartime. Swedish soldiers wore broad-brimmed hats made exclusively from beaver felt. Due to the limitations of beaver fur, hat-makers relied heavily on North America for imports as beaver was only available in the Scandinavian peninsula.[6]

Other than the military, fur has been used for accessories such as hats, hoods, scarves, and muffs. Design elements including the visuals of the animal were considered acceptable with heads, tails and paws still being kept on the accessories. During the nineteenth century, Seal and karakul were made into indoor jackets.

The twentieth century saw fur being fashionable in West Europe with full fur coats. With lifestyle changes as a result of developments like indoor heating, the international textile trade affected how fur was distributed around the world. Europeans focused on using local resources giving fur association with femininity with the increasing use of mink.

The most popular kinds of fur in the 1960s (known as luxury fur) were blond mink, white rabbit, yellow leopard, jaguar or cheetah, black panther, silver striped fox and red fox. Cheaper alternatives were pelts of wolf, Persian lamb or muskrat. It was common for ladies to wear a matching hat. In the 1950s, a must-have type of fur was the mutation fur (naturally nuanced colours) and fur trimmings on a coat that were beaver, lamb fur, Astrakhan and mink.[7]

In 1970, Germany was the world's largest fur market. In 1975, the International Fur Trade Federation banned endangered species furs like silk monkey, silky sifaka, ringtailed lemur, golden bamboo lemur, sportive lemur, dwarf lemur, ocelot, margay, cougar, snow leopard, black panther, leopard, jaguar, tiger, cheetah, quoll, numbat, chinchilla, black bear, Sun bear, Moon bear, and polar bear. The use of animal skins was brought to light during the 1980s by animal rights organizations while the demand for fur decreased. Anti-fur organizations raised awareness of animal welfare issues within the fashion industry. Fur farming was banned in Britain in 1999. During the twenty-first century, foxes and mink have been bred in captivity with Denmark, Holland and Finland being leaders in mink production.[6]

Fur is still worn in cooler climates around the world due to its warmth and durability. From the days of early European settlement, up until the development of modern clothing alternatives, fur clothing was popular in Canada during the cold winters. The invention of inexpensive synthetic textiles for insulating clothing led to fur clothing falling out of fashion.

Fur is still used by indigenous people and industrialized societies, due to its availability and superior insulation properties. The Inuit peoples of the Arctic relied on fur for most of their clothing, and it also forms a part of traditional clothing in Russia, Ukraine, the former Yugoslavia, Scandinavia, and Japan.

A number of consumers and designers—notably British fashion designer and outspoken animal rights activist Stella McCartney—reject fur due to moral beliefs against cruelty to animals.[8]

Animal furs used in garments and trim may be dyed bright colors or with patterns, often to mimic exotic animal pelts: alternatively, they may be left their original pattern and color. Fur may be shorn down to imitate the feel of velvet, creating a fabric called shearling.

The introduction of alternatives in the early 20th century brought tension to the clothing industry as the faux fur manufacturers started producing faux fur and capitalising on profits. By the 1950s synthetic fur garments had become popular and affordable. Newspapers were writing articles on major chemical companies trying to outdo each other in the quest to create the most realistic fake fur.[9]

The popularity of natural fur has declined in recent years. While Vogue Paris published a homage to fur in August 2017, Gucci later endorsed the idea of not using animal fur. Other high-end brands to follow this lead are Stella McCartney, Givenchy, Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, Michael Kors, Philosophy di Lorenzo Serafini. Burberry announced its intentions to stop sending models with fur on runways but did not stop selling it in stores. Some companies have attempted to devise sustainable methods of producing leather and fur. Designer Ingar Helgason is developing Bio fur which would grows synthetic pelts the way that Modern Meadow has been able to produce grown leather and Diamond foundry-created lab-grown diamonds. BOF fur debate hosted by Zilberkweit director of the British Fur Association argued that natural fur was more sustainable. Others said that chemical processes needed to treat animals’ fur in order to be worn are just as detrimental to the environment.[10][11]

Fashion houses such as Hermès, Dior and Fendi still use natural fur. Alex Mcintosh, who leads the Fashion Futures post-graduate program at London College of Fashion, says “change on this level would only be driven on a genuine lack of demand and not just social media outcry”.[11]

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History of hide materials

History of hide materials

Humanity has used animal hides since the Paleolithic, for clothing as well as mobile shelters such as tipis and wigwams, and household items. Since ancient times, hides have also been used as a writing medium, in the form of parchment.

Bison

Bison

Bison are large bovines in the genus Bison within the tribe Bovini. Two extant and numerous extinct species are recognised.

Muskox

Muskox

The muskox, also spelled musk ox and musk-ox, plural muskoxen or musk oxen, is a hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae. Native to the Arctic, it is noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males during the seasonal rut, from which its name derives. This musky odor has the effect of attracting females during mating season. Its Inuktitut name "umingmak" translates to "the bearded one".

Bear

Bear

Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Common characteristics of modern bears include large bodies with stocky legs, long snouts, small rounded ears, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, and short tails.

Ground sloth

Ground sloth

Ground sloths are a diverse group of extinct sloths in the mammalian superorder Xenarthra. The term is used to refer to all extinct sloths because of the large size of the earliest forms discovered, compared to existing tree sloths. The Caribbean ground sloths, the most recent survivors, lived in the Antilles, possibly until 1550 BCE. However, radiocarbon dating suggests an age of between 2819 and 2660 BCE for the last occurrence of Megalocnus in Cuba. Ground sloths had been extinct on the mainland of North and South America for 10,000 years or more. They survived 5,000–6,000 years longer in the Caribbean than on the American mainland, which correlates with the later colonization of this area by humans.

Mammoth

Mammoth

A mammoth is any species of the extinct elephantid genus Mammuthus, one of the many genera that make up the order of trunked mammals called proboscideans. The various species of mammoth were commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch into the Holocene at about 4,000 years ago, and various species existed in Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America. They were members of the family Elephantidae, which also contains the two genera of modern elephants and their ancestors. Mammoths are more closely related to living Asian elephants than African elephants.

Irish elk

Irish elk

The Irish elk, also called the giant deer or Irish deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived. Its range extended across Eurasia during the Pleistocene, from Ireland to Lake Baikal in Siberia. The most recent remains of the species have been carbon dated to about 7,700 years ago in western Russia.

Cachet

Cachet

In philately, a cachet is a printed or stamped design or inscription, other than a cancellation or pre-printed postage, on an envelope, postcard, or postal card to commemorate a postal or philatelic event. There are both official and private cachets. They commemorate everything from the first flight on a particular route, to the Super Bowl. Cachets are also frequently made, either by private companies or a government, for first day of issue stamp events or "second-day" stamp events. They are often present on event covers.

Marten

Marten

A marten is a weasel-like mammal in the genus Martes within the subfamily Guloninae, in the family Mustelidae. They have bushy tails and large paws with partially retractile claws. The fur varies from yellowish to dark brown, depending on the species; it is valued by animal trappers for the fur trade. Martens are slender, agile animals, adapted to living in the taiga, which inhabit coniferous and northern deciduous forests across the Northern Hemisphere.

Leopard

Leopard

The leopard is one of the five extant species in the genus Panthera, a member of the cat family, Felidae. It occurs in a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa, in some parts of Western and Central Asia, Southern Russia, and on the Indian subcontinent to Southeast and East Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because leopard populations are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and are declining in large parts of the global range. The leopard is considered locally extinct in Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Jordan, Morocco, Togo, the United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Kuwait, Syria, Libya, Tunisia and most likely in North Korea, Gambia, Laos, Lesotho, Tajikistan, Vietnam and Israel. Contemporary records suggest that the leopard occurs in only 25% of its historical global range.

Cheetah

Cheetah

The cheetah is a large cat native to Africa and central Iran. It is the fastest land animal, estimated to be capable of running at 80 to 128 km/h with the fastest reliably recorded speeds being 93 and 98 km/h, and as such has evolved specialized adaptations for speed, including a light build, long thin legs and a long tail. It typically reaches 67–94 cm (26–37 in) at the shoulder, and the head-and-body length is between 1.1 and 1.5 m. Adults weigh between 21 and 72 kg. Its head is small and rounded, with a short snout and black tear-like facial streaks. The coat is typically tawny to creamy white or pale buff and is mostly covered with evenly spaced, solid black spots. Four subspecies are recognised.

Red squirrel

Red squirrel

The red squirrel is a species of tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus common throughout Europe and Asia. The red squirrel is an arboreal, primarily herbivorous rodent.

Fur Sources

Common animal sources for fur clothing and fur trimmed accessories include fox, mink, rabbit (specifically the rex rabbit), finnraccoon (industry term for tanuki), lynx, bobcat, polecat (called 'fitch'), muskrat, beaver, stoat (ermine), marten, otter, sable, civet, seals, karakul sheep, muskox, caribou, llama, alpaca, skunk, coyote, wolf, chinchilla, opossum, and common brushtail possum.[12] Some of these are more highly prized than others, and there are many grades and colors. In the past animals such as leopards, tigers, and Colobus monkeys were commonly used but CITES laws and the environmental regulation has made these furs illegal. Additionally, in some regions the furs of domestic dogs and cats are used for warmth.

Different furs have different properties; coyote fur is resilient and works as a great wind barrier but is very rough to touch, while fox fur is silky but delicate.

The import and sale of seal products was banned in the US in 1972 over conservation concerns about Canadian seals. The import and sale is still banned even though the Marine Animal Response Society estimates the harp seal population is thriving at approximately 8 million,[13] and the bans harmful impact on Indigenous communities that had relied on seal hunting as a source of international income. The import, export and sales of domesticated cat and dog fur were also banned in the US under the Dog and Cat Protection Act of 2000.[14]

Most of the fur sold by high fashion retailers globally is from farmed animals such as mink, foxes, and rabbits. Some cruel methods of killing have made people more aware as animal rights activists work harder to protect the animals. The 2001 recommendations of the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (SCAHAW) state correspondingly: ‘In comparison with other farm animals, species farmed for their fur have been subjected to relatively little active selection except with respect to fur characteristics.[15][16]

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List of types of fur

List of types of fur

This list of types of fur describes the characteristics of types of fur used in fur clothing. Each type of fur serves its own purpose and has its own unique characteristics in garment manufacturing.

Fox

Fox

Foxes are small to medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. They have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a long bushy tail.

Mink

Mink

Mink are dark-colored, semiaquatic, carnivorous mammals of the genera Neogale and Mustela and part of the family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, otters, and ferrets. There are two extant species referred to as "mink": the American mink and the European mink. The extinct sea mink was related to the American mink but was much larger.

Common raccoon dog

Common raccoon dog

The common raccoon dog, also called the Chinese or Asian raccoon dog, is a small, heavy-set, fox-like canid native to East Asia. Named for its raccoon-like face markings, it is most closely related to foxes. Common raccoon dogs feed on many animals and plant matter, and are unusual among canids for climbing trees and for hibernating in cold winters. They are widespread in their native range, and are invasive in Europe where they were introduced for the fur trade. The similar Japanese raccoon dog, native to Japan, is the only other living member of the genus Nyctereutes. Other names for the common raccoon dog include mangut, neoguri or simply raccoon dog.

Lynx

Lynx

A lynx is any of the four species within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx. The name lynx originated in Middle English via Latin from the Greek word λύγξ, derived from the Indo-European root leuk- in reference to the luminescence of its reflective eyes.

Bobcat

Bobcat

The bobcat, also known as the red lynx, is a medium-sized cat native to North America. It ranges from southern Canada through most of the contiguous United States to Oaxaca in Mexico. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2002, due to its wide distribution and large population. Although it has been hunted extensively both for sport and fur, populations have proven stable, though declining in some areas.

Muskrat

Muskrat

The muskrat is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America. The muskrat is found in wetlands over a wide range of climates and habitats. It has important effects on the ecology of wetlands, and is a resource of food and fur for humans.

Beaver

Beaver

Beavers are large, semiaquatic rodents in the genus Castor native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. There are two extant species: the North American beaver and the Eurasian beaver. Beavers are the second-largest living rodents after the capybaras. They have stout bodies with large heads, long chisel-like incisors, brown or gray fur, hand-like front feet, webbed back feet and flat, scaly tails. The two species differ in the shape of the skull and tail and fur color. Beavers can be found in a number of freshwater habitats, such as rivers, streams, lakes and ponds. They are herbivorous, consuming tree bark, aquatic plants, grasses and sedges.

Marten

Marten

A marten is a weasel-like mammal in the genus Martes within the subfamily Guloninae, in the family Mustelidae. They have bushy tails and large paws with partially retractile claws. The fur varies from yellowish to dark brown, depending on the species; it is valued by animal trappers for the fur trade. Martens are slender, agile animals, adapted to living in the taiga, which inhabit coniferous and northern deciduous forests across the Northern Hemisphere.

Civet

Civet

A civet is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different species, mostly from the family Viverridae. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which a musky scent used in perfumery, also referred to as "civet", was obtained.

Karakul sheep

Karakul sheep

Karakul or Qaraqul is a breed of domestic sheep which originated in Central Asia. Some archaeological evidence points to Karakul sheep being raised there continuously since 1400 BC.

Muskox

Muskox

The muskox, also spelled musk ox and musk-ox, plural muskoxen or musk oxen, is a hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae. Native to the Arctic, it is noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males during the seasonal rut, from which its name derives. This musky odor has the effect of attracting females during mating season. Its Inuktitut name "umingmak" translates to "the bearded one".

Processing of fur

Sandals with dyed fox fur
Sandals with dyed fox fur
Traditional Sami fur footwear
Traditional Sami fur footwear

Processing the Pelt

The manufacturing of fur clothing involves obtaining animal pelts where the hair is left on. Depending on the type of fur and its purpose, some of the chemicals involved in fur processing may include table salts, alum salts, acids, soda ash, sawdust, cornstarch, lanolin, degreasers and, less commonly, bleaches, dyes and toners (for dyed fur).

The first step in the process is the skinning phase. Animals must be frozen in order make this phase safe, otherwise the temperature change from the warm body of the animal to the cold environment around it would cause all the hair to fall off the pelt. It's also best for the carcass to be frozen before skinning so that the carcass won't bleed while being skinned. After the carcass is skinned it's then fleshed, dried, salted, pickled, tanned (either by chemical or by natural method), and then softened. The length of time taken to skin, tan, and process the fur is a contributing factor of the high price.

Workers exposed to fur dust created during fur processing have been shown to have reduced pulmonary function in direct proportion to their length of exposure.[17] The process of fur manufacturing includes waterways-pumping waste and toxic chemicals into the surrounding environment. Dyed furs also do not last as long as natural furs. On the other hand, fur is naturally biodegradable, whereas faux fur is not.[18] Using natural tanning methods such as bark tanning can eliminate the harmful effects of the modern leather and fur tanning industries. Bark tanning involves boiling leaves or bark of trees to extract the tannins that are then used to preserve the hide.

The use of wool involves shearing the animal's fleece from the living animal, so that the wool can be regrown but sheepskin shearling is made by retaining the fleece to the leather and shearing it.[19]

Garment Manufacturing

Fitch fur coat worked in the "let-out" method
Fitch fur coat worked in the "let-out" method

The foremost reason for the exorbitant price of a fur coat is the amount of time it takes to craft the garment. The first step is the pelt matcher who takes the furs available and matches them based off of size and color to create one cohesive garment. Next a craftsperson will repair any damage shown on any of the pelts such as bald spots of torn leather.

Next the pelt is worked in a variety of ways to accentuate the markings of the animals, increase the thermal properties of the pelt, save on cost, or to create new patterns or styles. The let-out method is the most popular method used in the past, this involves cutting the pelt into countless thin strips and sewing them back together in a staggered fashion to make the pelt thinner and longer. The skin-to-skin method, now often called 'full pelt' is the easiest method where whole pelts are sewn side-by-side to fit the pattern. This method is incredibly warm, but looks the least like fabric. The airgallon method involves making small slits in the leather side of the fur making it longer and more lightweight for those who need to save on price. SAGA Furs and Kopenhagen Furs have both been investing in new methods such as knitting with fur (first invented by Indigenous people knitting arctic hare fur into blankets), fur lace, and fur intarsia.

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Footwear

Footwear

Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which typically serves the purpose of protection against adversities of the environment such as wear from ground textures and temperature. Footwear in the manner of shoes therefore primarily serves the purpose to ease locomotion and prevent injuries. Footwear can also be used for fashion and adornment as well as to indicate the status or rank of the person within a social structure. Socks and other hosiery are typically worn additionally between the feet and other footwear for further comfort and relief. Cultures have different customs regarding footwear. These include not using any in some situations, usually bearing a symbolic meaning. This can however also be imposed on specific individuals to place them at a practical disadvantage against shod people, if they are excluded from having footwear available or are prohibited from using any. This usually takes place in situations of captivity, such as imprisonment or slavery, where the groups are among other things distinctly divided by whether or whether not footwear is being worn.

Tannin

Tannin

Tannins are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.

Wool

Wool

Wool is the textile fibre obtained from sheep and other mammals, especially goats, rabbits, and camelids. The term may also refer to inorganic materials, such as mineral wool and glass wool, that have properties similar to animal wool.

Sheepskin

Sheepskin

Sheepskin is the hide of a sheep, sometimes also called lambskin. Unlike common leather, sheepskin is tanned with the fleece intact, as in a pelt.

Shearling

Shearling

Shearling is a skin from a recently shorn sheep or lamb that has been tanned and dressed with the wool left on. It has a suede surface on one side and a clipped fur surface on the other. Usually the suede side is worn outward. Real shearling breathes and is more flexible, much heavier in weight and the fur is much denser than synthetic. Synthetic shearling fur is typically called sherpa. Synthetic or fake shearling has a bit of a sheen to its outer side while real shearling outer hide is dull and a bit tacky to the touch. Genuine shearling is also smoother to the touch than synthetic shearling.

Arctic hare

Arctic hare

The Arctic hare is a species of hare highly adapted to living in the Arctic tundra and other icy biomes. The Arctic hare survives with shortened ears and limbs, a small nose, fat that makes up close to 20% of its body, and a thick coat of fur. It usually digs holes in the ground or under the snow to keep warm and to sleep. Arctic hares look like rabbits but have shorter ears, are taller when standing, and, unlike rabbits, can thrive in extreme cold. They can travel together with many other hares, sometimes huddling with dozens or more, but are usually found alone, sometimes taking more than one partner. The Arctic hare can run up to 60 kilometres per hour (40 mph).

Anti-fur campaigns

Anti-fur campaigns gained popularity in the 1980s and 1990s, with the participation of numerous celebrities.[20] Fur clothing has become the focus of boycotts due to the opinion that it is cruel and unnecessary. PETA and other animal rights organizations, celebrities, and animal rights ethicists, have called attention to fur farming.

Animal rights advocates object to the trapping and killing of wildlife, and to the confinement and killing of animals on fur farms due to concerns about the animal' suffering and death. They may also condemn "alternatives" made from synthetic (oil-based) clothing as they promote fur for the sake of fashion. Protests also include objections to the use of leather in clothing, shoes and accessories.

Some animal rights activists have disrupted fur fashion shows with protests,[21] while other anti-fur protesters may use fashion shows featuring faux furs or other alternatives to fur clothing as a platform to highlight animal suffering from the use of real leathers and furs.[22] These groups sponsor "Compassionate Fashion Day" on the third Saturday of August to promote their anti-fur message. Some American groups participate in "Fur Free Friday", an event held annually on the Friday after Thanksgiving (Black Friday) that uses displays, protests, and other methods to highlight their beliefs regarding furs.[23]

In Canada, opposition to the annual seal hunt is viewed as an anti-fur issue, although the Humane Society of the United States claims that its opposition is to "the largest slaughter of marine mammals on Earth."[24] IFAW, an anti-sealing group, claims that Canada has an "abysmal record of enforcement" of anti-cruelty laws surrounding the hunt.[25] A Canadian government survey[26] indicated that two-thirds of Canadians supported the hunting of seals if the regulations under Canadian law.

PETA representative Johanna Fuoss credits social media and email marketing campaigns for helping to mobilize an unprecedented number of animal rights activists. “In the year before Michael Kors stopped using fur, he had received more than 150,000 emails,” Fuoss tells Highsnobiety. “This puts a certain pressure on designers who can see that the zeitgeist is moving away from fur. ”New technologies and platforms have made it easier than ever for those advocating change to get results. While in the past, activists had to invade runways with signs and paint, or physically mail privately viewed letters, today's activist can raise a commotion without leaving the house.[27][10][28]

The rise of social media has provided the general public with a direct line of communication with companies and a platform for opinions and protests, making it harder for brands to ignore targeted activism. “Brands are under huge pressure to respond to social media and avoid any controversy.” Says Mark Oaten, chief executive of the IFF.[29] The anti-fur messaging is being amplified by social media and a millennial customer base that is paying closer attention to the values represented by the products they buy.

The feeling of outrage against animal suffering is particularly intense when cats and dogs are involved since these are the most popular pets in Western countries. Therefore, consumers demand to be assured about the production of furs to avoid the risk of inadvertently buying products made with fur from these animals. To counteract the growing concern of consumers, European Union officially banned the import and export from all Member States of dog and cat furs, and all products containing fur from these species, with Regulation 1523/2007,[30] applying since 31 December 2008. A combined method for species identification in furs, based on a combined morphological and molecular approach, has been proposed to discriminate dog and cat furs from allowed fur-bearing species, as this is a necessary step to comply with the ban.[31][32]

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Animal rights

Animal rights

Animal rights is the philosophy according to which many or all sentient animals have moral worth that is independent of their utility for humans, and that their most basic interests—such as avoiding suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings. Broadly speaking, and particularly in popular discourse, the term "animal rights" is often used synonymously with "animal protection" or "animal liberation". More narrowly, "animal rights" refers to the idea that many animals have fundamental rights to be treated with respect as individuals—rights to life, liberty, and freedom from torture that may not be overridden by considerations of aggregate welfare.

Fur farming

Fur farming

Fur farming is the practice of breeding or raising certain types of animals for their fur.

Black Friday (shopping)

Black Friday (shopping)

Black Friday is a colloquial term for the Friday after Thanksgiving in the United States. It traditionally marks the start of the Christmas shopping season in the United States. Many stores offer highly promoted sales at discounted prices and often open early, sometimes as early as midnight or even on Thanksgiving. Some stores' sales continue to Monday or for a week.

Humane Society of the United States

Humane Society of the United States

The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) is an American nonprofit organization that focuses on animal welfare and opposes animal-related cruelties of national scope. It uses strategies that are beyond the abilities of local organizations. It works on issues including pets, wildlife, farm animals, horses and other equines, and animals used in research, testing and education. As of 2001, the group's major campaigns targeted factory farming, animal blood sports, the fur trade, puppy mills, and wildlife abuse.

Fur trade

A fur trading in Tallinn, Estonia in 2019
A fur trading in Tallinn, Estonia in 2019

The fur trade is the worldwide buying and selling of fur for clothing and other purposes. The fur trade was one of the driving forces of exploration of North America and the Russian Far East.[33]

The fur trade has long-lasting effects, specifically on the Natives in North America and the populations of fur bearing animals worldwide. When fur farming was first developed in North America it was in response to the dwindling numbers of wild furbearing animals caused by unregulated hunting and trapping. [34]

Currently the most common animals in the global fur trade are farmed animals; mink are the most traded fur worldwide[35], followed by arctic fox (termed 'bluefox' by the industry), red fox, finnraccoon and rabbit. [36]

Following the public awareness of animal welfare abuses in the fur industry, the European Union initiated the WelFur system[37]. WelFur is the agreed upon certification program in the E.U. that prioritizes animal welfare in European fur farms, these farms are then given a QR code through the Furmark system[38] to share with the clothing company which theoretically allows consumers to trace their fur coat back to which farm the animals came from. This system only applies to fur farms in the E.U. that supply fox, mink, and raccoon, and does not apply to farms in China or Russia.

Wild furs are still sold in the fur trade as well such as sable, wild fox, coyote, beaver, lynx, and martens. The Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS), negotiated between the Russian Federation, the E.U., the U.S. and Canada, is an agreement signed in 1998 to "to establish international standards of humane trapping" worldwide [39].

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Fur trade

Fur trade

The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued. Historically the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, and the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands.

Tallinn

Tallinn

Tallinn is the most populous and capital city of Estonia. Situated on a bay in north Estonia, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, Tallinn has a population of 437,811 and administratively lies in the Harju maakond (county). Tallinn is the main financial, industrial, and cultural centre of Estonia. It is located 187 km (116 mi) northwest of the country's second largest city Tartu, however only 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki, Finland, also 320 km (200 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, 300 km (190 mi) north of Riga, Latvia, and 380 km (240 mi) east of Stockholm, Sweden. From the 13th century until the first half of the 20th century, Tallinn was known in most of the world by variants of its other historical name Reval.

Estonia

Estonia

Estonia, formally the Republic of Estonia, is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. The territory of Estonia consists of the mainland, the larger islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, and over 2,200 other islands and islets on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,339 square kilometres (17,505 sq mi). The capital city Tallinn and Tartu are the two largest urban areas of the country. The Estonian language is the autochthonous and the official language of Estonia; it is the first language of the majority of its population, as well as the world's second most spoken Finnic language.

European Union

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity combining the characteristics of both a federation and a confederation.

QR code

QR code

A QR code is a type of matrix barcode invented in 1994 by the Japanese automotive company Denso Wave. A barcode is a machine-readable optical label that can contain information about the item to which it is attached. In practice, QR codes often contain data for a locator, identifier, or tracker that points to a website or application. QR codes use four standardized encoding modes to store data efficiently; extensions may also be used.

Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards

Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards

The Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS) establishes the required standards for approval and certification of animal trapping devices.

Contemporary Fashion Industries

Today real fur in fashion is contentious, with Copenhagen[40](2022) and London (2018) fashion week[41] banning real fur in its runway shows. Notable fashion houses such as Gucci and Chanel banning the use of fur in its garments.[42] In 2020 the luxury outdoor brand Canada Goose announced it would discontinue the use of new coyote fur on parka trims[43] following protests. Some brands still utilizing fur in their designs are Dior, Fendi, Louis Vuitton, Max Mara, Hermes.[44]

The sale of new real fur garments has recently been banned by governing bodies worldwide. In 2021 Israel is the first government to ban the sale of real fur garments except for those who wear real fur as part of their religious faith[45]. The state of California banned the sale of all new fur garments except those made of sheep, cow, and rabbit fur in 2019[46], following the states ban on trapping[47].

Source: "Fur clothing", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fur_clothing.

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See also
References
  1. ^ Magazine, Smithsonian; Handwerk, Brian. "Evidence of Fur and Leather Clothing, Among World's Oldest, Found in Moroccan Cave". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2022-11-16.
  2. ^ Bishara, Hakim (2020-03-09). "Unique Painted Leopard Sarcophagus Unearthed in Egypt". Hyperallergic. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  3. ^ Wilcox, R. Turner (2010-01-01). The Mode in Furs: A Historical Survey with 680 Illustrations (in Japanese). Courier Corporation. ISBN 978-0-486-47872-2.
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  5. ^ "Protecting native industry in medieval and early modern England". exhibits.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  6. ^ a b c Skov, Lise (2010). Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 8: West Europe. Oxford. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-1-8478-8397-1 – via Bloomsbury Fashion Central.
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  8. ^ "Fur-Free Designers and Retailers" Archived 2009-11-26 at the Wayback Machine July 31, 2009.
  9. ^ "Burberry Stops Destroying Product and Bans Real Fur". The Business of Fashion. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  10. ^ a b "Op-Ed | Fashion's Fur-Free Future". The Business of Fashion. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  11. ^ a b Maisey, Sarah (2018-01-06). "With more fashion brands declaring themselves fur free, what's next for the fur industry?". The National. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  12. ^ "New Zealand turns a pest into luxury business". Taipeitimes.com. 2011-12-28. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  13. ^ "Harp Seal", Marine Animal Response Society.
  14. ^ Rules and Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act Archived 2008-07-24 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "The environmental costs and health risks of fur". Fur Free Alliance. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  16. ^ "Fur bans". Fur Free Alliance. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  17. ^ Chen, Jie; Lou, Jiezhi; Liu, Zhenlin (January 2003). "Pulmonary Function in Fur-Processing Workers: A Dose-Response Relationship". Archives of Environmental Health. 58 (1): 37–41. doi:10.3200/AEOH.58.1.37-41. PMID 12747517. S2CID 30463019. INIST:14777753.
  18. ^ "Is the fur trade sustainable?". the Guardian. 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  19. ^ Australian Wool Corporation, Australian Wool Classing, Raw Wool Services, 1990.
  20. ^ "FICA sales stats". 18 March 2006. Archived from the original on 18 March 2006.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  21. ^ Cartner-Morley, Jess (16 February 2018). "Anti-fur protests set to fly as activists target London fashion week". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  22. ^ Kelly, Alyssa (2 March 2020). "Stella McCartney Stages Anti-Fur Protest with Animal Models at Paris Fashion Week Show". People. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  23. ^ "2021 Fur-Free Friday Protest". Last Chance for Animals. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  24. ^ "Seal Hunt: The Humane Society of the United States". 16 June 2010. Archived from the original on 16 June 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  25. ^ "Why commercial sealing is cruel". IFAW - International Fund for Animal Welfare.
  26. ^ "Fisheries and Aquaculture Management - Seals and Sealing in Canada". 12 May 2008. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  27. ^ Balmat, N. (2018, April 01). From vegan leather to bio fur: Growing materials from cells. Retrieved from https://futur404.com/growing-materials-cells/
  28. ^ "How Social Media Is Pushing Fur Out of Fashion". Highsnobiety. 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  29. ^ "Why Fashion's Anti-Fur Movement Is Winning". The Business of Fashion. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  30. ^ European Parliament. 2007. Regulation (EC) No 1523/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007 banning the placing on the market and the import to, or export from, the Community of cat and dog fur, and products containing such fur
  31. ^ Mariacher, Alessia; Garofalo, Luisa; Fanelli, Rita; Lorenzini, Rita; Fico, Rosario (2019-11-11). "A combined morphological and molecular approach for hair identification to comply with the European ban on dog and cat fur trade". PeerJ. 7: e7955. doi:10.7717/peerj.7955. ISSN 2167-8359.
  32. ^ Garofalo, Luisa; Mariacher, Alessia; Fanelli, Rita; Fico, Rosario; Lorenzini, Rita (2018-06-05). "Hindering the illegal trade in dog and cat furs through a DNA-based protocol for species identification". PeerJ. 6: e4902. doi:10.7717/peerj.4902. ISSN 2167-8359.
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  34. ^ Harding, A. R. (1909). Fur farming: a book of information about fur bearing animals, enclosures, habits, care, etc. Columbus, O.: A.R. Harding.
  35. ^ Miller, Anneke Ball, Noah Lewis, Mark Adam. "The rise and fall of the real fur industry in the US". Business Insider. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  36. ^ "Fur Production and Fur Laws | Animal Legal & Historical Center". www.animallaw.info. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  37. ^ "Welfare Standards for fur farmed animals (WelFur)". European Economic and Social Committee. 2018-11-15. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  38. ^ "What is Furmark | Furmark Individual Certification Programme". www.furmark.com. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  39. ^ https://ec.europa.eu/environment/biodiversity/animal_welfare/hts/pdf/Text_of_AIHTS_between_EU_Canada_Russia.pdf
  40. ^ Hakansson (2022-08-16). "Copenhagen Fashion Week Bans Fur After PETA Protest". Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  41. ^ "London Fashion Week to go fur-free for the first time". BBC News. 2018-09-07. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  42. ^ "Neiman Marcus and Bergdorf Goodman Join Growing List of Fashion Brands That Are Anti-Fur". Peoplemag. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  43. ^ "Canada Goose to end the use of all fur on coats". BBC News. 2021-06-24. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  44. ^ "These Luxury Brands Are Still Harming Animals For Profit". Good On You. 2022-08-03. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  45. ^ Hernandez, Joe (2021-06-14). "Israel Has Become The 1st Country To Ban The Sale Of Most Fur Clothing". NPR. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  46. ^ Kaur, Harmeet (2019-10-13). "California becomes the first state to ban fur products". CNN. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  47. ^ "California's Trapping Ban: A closer look at the ramifications". Furbearer Conservation. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
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