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Ford P68

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Ford P68/P69
Ford F3L - Flickr - andrewbasterfield.jpg
CategorySports prototype
ConstructorAlan Mann Racing
Designer(s)Len Bailey
Technical specifications
ChassisAluminium monocoque, with steel bulkheads
Suspension (front)Double wishbone
Suspension (rear)Single top link with reversed lower wishbone and twin trailing arms
EngineFord-Cosworth DFV 2993cc 90° V8, naturally aspirated, mid mounted
TransmissionHewland DG300 5-speed manual
FuelBurmah
TyresGoodyear
Competition history
Notable entrantsAlan Mann Racing
Notable driversNew Zealand Bruce McLaren
United Kingdom Mike Spence
United Kingdom Chris Irwin
Austria Jochen Rindt
Mexico Pedro Rodríguez
Australia Frank Gardner
United Kingdom Richard Attwood
New Zealand Denny Hulme
Debut1968 BOAC 500
Brands Hatch
RacesWinsPolesF/Laps
8011
Constructors' Championships0
Drivers' Championships0

The Ford P68, also commonly known as the Ford 3L GT or F3L, is a sports prototype racing car model introduced in March 1968. It was designed by Len Bailey, a Ford research engineer, funded by Ford Europe and built by Alan Mann Racing at Weybridge, Surrey, UK. The first competition appearance of a Ford 3L prototype was at the BOAC 500 race at Brands Hatch in Kent. Despite apparent pace, the car was criticized for instability at high speeds and, due to mechanical and electrical failures, did not finish any of the races for which it was entered.

For the 1969 season the P68 was used as the basis for an aborted, fully open Spyder, dubbed the Ford P69. The P69 sported large, free-standing aerofoil wings, which were vital to the car's stability at high-speeds. However, these were banned by the European sanctioning body early in the season, thus the P68 was not eligible to race in the respective class any longer .

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Sports car racing

Sports car racing

Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilises sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be purpose-built prototypes or grand tourers based on road-going models. Broadly speaking, sports car racing is one of the main types of circuit auto racing, alongside open-wheel single-seater racing, touring car racing and stock car racing. Sports car races are often, though not always, endurance races that are run over relatively large distances, and there is usually a larger emphasis placed on the reliability and efficiency of the car as opposed to outright speed of the driver. The FIA World Endurance Championship is an example of a sports car racing series.

Len Bailey

Len Bailey

Leonard Bailey was a British automobile designer.

Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, United States. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand, and luxury cars under its Lincoln luxury brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in China's Jiangling Motors. It also has joint ventures in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Russia. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family; they have minority ownership but the majority of the voting power.

Alan Mann Racing

Alan Mann Racing

Alan Mann Racing was a British motor racing team organised by Alan Mann, who was a part-time racing driver and team manager. The team ran a substantial part of the Ford works racing effort in Europe from 1964 to 1969, when it ceased operations. It was based in Byfleet, Surrey, near the Brooklands race circuit.

Weybridge

Weybridge

Weybridge is a town in the Borough of Elmbridge in Surrey, England, around 17 mi (27 km) southwest of central London. The settlement is recorded as Waigebrugge and Weibrugge in the 7th century and the name derives from a crossing point of the River Wey, which flows into the River Thames to the north of the town centre. The earliest evidence of human activity is from the Bronze Age. During the Anglo-Saxon and medieval periods, Weybridge was held by Chertsey Abbey.

Surrey

Surrey

Surrey is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in South East England, bordering Greater London to the south west. Surrey has a large rural area, and several significant urban areas which form part of the Greater London Built-up Area. With a population of approximately 1.2 million people, Surrey is the 12th-most populous county in England. The most populated town in Surrey is Woking, followed by Guildford.

Brands Hatch

Brands Hatch

Brands Hatch is a motor racing circuit in West Kingsdown, Kent, England, United Kingdom. Originally used as a grasstrack motorcycle circuit on farmland, it hosted 12 runnings of the British Grand Prix between 1964 and 1986 and currently hosts many British and International racing events. The venue is owned and operated by Jonathan Palmer's MotorSport Vision organisation.

Kent

Kent

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west, and Essex to the north across the estuary of the River Thames; it faces the French department of Pas-de-Calais across the Strait of Dover. The county town is Maidstone. It is the fifth most populous county in England, the most populous non-Metropolitan county and the most populous of the home counties.

Roadster (automobile)

Roadster (automobile)

A roadster is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. Initially an American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles.

Downforce

Downforce

Downforce is a downwards lift force created by the aerodynamic features of a vehicle. If the vehicle is a car, the purpose of downforce is to allow the car to travel faster by increasing the vertical force on the tires, thus creating more grip. If the vehicle is a fixed-wing aircraft, the purpose of the downforce on the horizontal stabilizer is to maintain longitudinal stability and allow the pilot to control the aircraft in pitch.

Background

At the end of the 1967 season the FIA redrew the rules for sports car racing. Engine capacity was limited to 3 litres for the lightest, most advanced Group 6 sports prototype class, while a new 5 litre Group 4 Sports Car class[1] was introduced for vehicles of which at least 50 examples had been built. Ford's American headquarters organisation withdrew from sports car racing at the end of 1967,[2] leaving those teams committed to running the aging GT40 without factory support. While some teams, such as JWA, decided to go down the Group 4 Sports Car route and began work on updating the GT40, Alan Mann Racing decided to build a brand new prototype car around Ford's recently introduced 3.0L DFV V8 Formula One engine.

Raising sponsorship from Ford, as well as Burmah-Castrol and Goodyear, AMR procured the services of leading Ford aerodynamicist Len Bailey, who had designed much of the GT40's bodywork, to work on their new car.

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Sports car racing

Sports car racing

Sports car racing is a form of motorsport road racing which utilises sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be purpose-built prototypes or grand tourers based on road-going models. Broadly speaking, sports car racing is one of the main types of circuit auto racing, alongside open-wheel single-seater racing, touring car racing and stock car racing. Sports car races are often, though not always, endurance races that are run over relatively large distances, and there is usually a larger emphasis placed on the reliability and efficiency of the car as opposed to outright speed of the driver. The FIA World Endurance Championship is an example of a sports car racing series.

Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, United States. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand, and luxury cars under its Lincoln luxury brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in China's Jiangling Motors. It also has joint ventures in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Russia. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family; they have minority ownership but the majority of the voting power.

Ford GT40

Ford GT40

The Ford GT40 is a high-performance endurance racing car commissioned by the Ford Motor Company. It grew out of the "Ford GT" project, an effort to compete in European long-distance sports car races, against Ferrari, which won the prestigious 24 Hours of Le Mans race from 1960 to 1965. Ford succeeded with the GT40, winning the 1966 through 1969 races.

Alan Mann Racing

Alan Mann Racing

Alan Mann Racing was a British motor racing team organised by Alan Mann, who was a part-time racing driver and team manager. The team ran a substantial part of the Ford works racing effort in Europe from 1964 to 1969, when it ceased operations. It was based in Byfleet, Surrey, near the Brooklands race circuit.

Cosworth DFV

Cosworth DFV

The DFV is an internal combustion engine that was originally produced by Cosworth for Formula One motor racing. The name is an abbreviation of Double Four Valve, the engine being a V8 development of the earlier four-cylinder FVA, which had four valves per cylinder.

V8 engine

V8 engine

A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder piston engine in which two banks of four cylinders share a common crankshaft and are arranged in a V configuration.

Formula One

Formula One

Formula One is the highest class of international racing for open-wheel single-seater formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The World Drivers' Championship, which became the FIA Formula One World Championship in 1981, has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950. The word formula in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on both purpose-built circuits and closed public roads.

Castrol

Castrol

Castrol is a British oil company that markets industrial and automotive lubricants, offering a wide range of oil, greases and similar products for most lubrication applications. The name Castrol was originally just the brand name for company's motor oils, but the company eventually changed its name to Castrol when the product name became better-known than the original company name CC Wakefield.

Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company

Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, motorcycles, SUVs, race cars, airplanes, farm equipment and heavy earth-moving machinery. It also makes bicycle tires, having returned from a break in production between 1976 and 2015. As of 2017, Goodyear is one of the top five tire manufacturers along with Bridgestone (Japan), Michelin (France), Continental (Germany) and MRF (India).

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Ancient Greek: ἀήρ aero (air) + Ancient Greek: δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly when affected by a solid object, such as an airplane wing. It involves topics covered in the field of fluid dynamics and its subfield of gas dynamics. The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, and is not limited to air. The formal study of aerodynamics began in the modern sense in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag were recorded much earlier. Most of the early efforts in aerodynamics were directed toward achieving heavier-than-air flight, which was first demonstrated by Otto Lilienthal in 1891. Since then, the use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximations, wind tunnel experimentation, and computer simulations has formed a rational basis for the development of heavier-than-air flight and a number of other technologies. Recent work in aerodynamics has focused on issues related to compressible flow, turbulence, and boundary layers and has become increasingly computational in nature.

Len Bailey

Len Bailey

Leonard Bailey was a British automobile designer.

Design

The car was built to Group 6 regulations, with an open two-seat bodywork design. This was perhaps rather liberally interpreted, with only a small hatch in the otherwise enveloping roof being left open to the elements.[3] The hatch also allowed the driver to see the centrally mounted rear-view mirror.

One major advantage of the open prototype regulations was that they permitted a much lower roofline than otherwise would have been possible. Bailey used this to create an extremely low, long, curvaceous, aerodynamically efficient design. With a Cd of only 0.27[2] and a frontal area of 14 ft²[3] the 3.0L engine was sufficient to push the P68 to over 350 km/h,[2] faster than contemporary Formula One cars. However, former driver Frank Gardner has criticised Bailey's pursuit of aerodynamic efficiency at the expense of driver comfort.[4] In order to keep the P68 on the road, Bailey incorporated a patented, vortex-generating tail scoop, intended to create downforce without adding to drag. However, although the car has since been shown to produce moderate downforce at speed, this is mostly over the front wheels.[2] The resultant high-speed instability led to both John Surtees and Jack Brabham refusing to drive the car.[2][5] Over the following months the P68 sprouted ever larger rear spoilers, and small chin spoilers, in an effort to stabilise the car.

Underneath the curvaceous bodywork, the chassis was a riveted, aluminium monocoque, with steel bulkheads onto which the suspension components were mounted.[3] The DFV engine was supported in an aluminium cradle behind the driver. Unlike the Lotus 49 for which the DFV had been designed, the engine was not used as a structural chassis member. In contrast, the suspension layout was almost a direct copy of contemporary F1 practice. Contemporary observers commented on the oversized front hub components, potentially allowing the car to be converted to four-wheel drive at some point.[3] The radiator was mounted in the nose, although later enhancements to cooling resulted in a wider opening being incorporated from mid-season. Fuel was stored in two deformable cells, one in each sill.

Following poor results, during the winter of 1968 Len Bailey adapted the P68's monocoque to fully exploit the open-roof regulations. A fully open spyder prototype was produced with almost completely new bodywork panels; even lower and wider, it also included a dramatic reduction in length.[5] Mechanicals were carried over from the P68 in almost unchanged form. This new car was numbered the P69, although differences with the P68 were only skin deep. In an attempt to cure the same stability problems that afflicted the P68, the P69 had an innovative system of interconnected, hydraulically-controlled, partially automatic, adjustable aerofoil wings.[5] However, following several accidents with similar systems during Formula One races, the wings were swiftly banned by the FIA early in the season. Without wings, AMR judged that the car would require a complete redesign to be competitive with the dominant Porsches and therefore, lacking funds, the P68/P69 project was abandoned.

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Group 6 (racing)

Group 6 (racing)

Group 6 was the official designation applied by the FIA to two motor racing classifications, the Prototype-Sports Car category from 1966 to 1971 and the Two-Seater Racing Cars class from 1976 to 1982.

Drag coefficient

Drag coefficient

In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water. It is used in the drag equation in which a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The drag coefficient is always associated with a particular surface area.

Downforce

Downforce

Downforce is a downwards lift force created by the aerodynamic features of a vehicle. If the vehicle is a car, the purpose of downforce is to allow the car to travel faster by increasing the vertical force on the tires, thus creating more grip. If the vehicle is a fixed-wing aircraft, the purpose of the downforce on the horizontal stabilizer is to maintain longitudinal stability and allow the pilot to control the aircraft in pitch.

Drag (physics)

Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid. This can exist between two fluid layers or between a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, the drag force depends on velocity.

John Surtees

John Surtees

John Surtees, was a British Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver. On his way to become a seven-time Grand Prix motorcycle World Champion, he won his first title in 1956, and followed with three consecutive doubles between 1958 and 1960, winning six World Championships in both the 500 and 350cc classes. Surtees then made the move to the pinnacle of Motorsport, the Formula 1 World Championship, and in 1964 made motor racing history by becoming the F1 World Champion. To this day Surtees remains the only person to have won World Championships on both two and four wheels. He founded the Surtees Racing Organisation team that competed as a constructor in Formula One, Formula 2 and Formula 5000 from 1970 to 1978. He was also the ambassador of the Racing Steps Foundation.

Jack Brabham

Jack Brabham

Sir John Arthur Brabham was an Australian racing driver who was Formula One World Champion in 1959, 1960, and 1966. He was a founder of the Brabham racing team and race car constructor that bore his name.

Aluminium

Aluminium

Aluminium is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a great affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air. Aluminium visually resembles silver, both in its color and in its great ability to reflect light. It is soft, non-magnetic and ductile. It has one stable isotope, 27Al; this isotope is very common, making aluminium the twelfth most common element in the Universe. The radioactivity of 26Al is used in radiodating.

Monocoque

Monocoque

Monocoque, also called structural skin, is a structural system in which loads are supported by an object's external skin, in a manner similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for "single shell".

Bulkhead (partition)

Bulkhead (partition)

A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship or within the fuselage of an airplane. Other kinds of partition elements within a ship are decks and deckheads.

Lotus 49

Lotus 49

The Lotus 49 was a Formula One racing car designed by Colin Chapman and Maurice Philippe for the 1967 F1 season. It was designed around the Cosworth DFV engine that would power most of the Formula One grid through the 1970s. It was one of the first F1 cars to use a stressed-member drivetrain to reduce weight, with other teams adopting the concept after its success. It also pioneered the use of aerofoils to generate downforce.

Four-wheel drive

Four-wheel drive

Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, and is typically linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges.

Radiator

Radiator

Radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating. The majority of radiators are constructed to function in cars, buildings, and electronics.

Race history

A Ford P68 on display at the Goodwood Festival of Speed.
A Ford P68 on display at the Goodwood Festival of Speed.

The first batch of cars was ready for the European season-opening BOAC 500 race, at Brands Hatch on 7 April 1968. Even this early in its career, the P68 had started to grow spoilers and air dams at its front and rear. Two cars were entered, for Bruce McLaren and Denny Hulme, and Jochen Rindt and Mike Spence.[6] However, the two cars were relatively untested, with one actually being brand new, and teething troubles beset the weekend. Although initially slow during practice, gradual tuning and tweaking meant that by the end of qualifying McLaren had managed to put in a lap fast enough to take second place on the grid, splitting the works Porsche 907s. Unfortunately, the Rindt/Spence car had suffered an engine mount failure and failed to qualify. Spence, something of a Brands Hatch specialist, was substituted into the lead car for the race, and was at the wheel, leading the race, when a rubber joint in the transmission failed, putting the car out. Although neither car had finished, the pace and performance while running looked to be promising better for the future.

This promise was never to be fulfilled. With Mike Spence's death during practice for the 1968 Indianapolis 500, fellow Brit Chris Irwin was drafted in for the P68's next race: the 1968 1000km Nürburgring. He was lucky to escape death when he lost control of his car at the Flugplatz during practice, although his injuries were severe enough for his career to be ended. The car was destroyed.[7] In the race, once again the remaining P68 failed to finish due to mechanical gremlins. This was to be the pattern during all the remaining races for which the P68 was entered during 1968. One tantalising highlight occurred when Frank Gardner, who performed much of the P68's limited developmental testing, took pole position at the 1000km Spa race. However, once again the car flattered to deceive, as it stuttered to a halt on the first lap of the race with faulty electrics. By this time the P68's faults were all too apparent, and Alan Mann Racing decided not to travel to the Zeltweg race.

For 1969 AMR intended to replace the P68 with its sister car, the P69. However, by the time of the 1969 BOAC 500 race only one P69 was ready. After trying the P69, prior to qualifying, Jack Brabham flatly refused to drive the car in anger so unstable did he find it. That left only a year-old P68 to carry the AMR flag, in the hands of Hulme and Gardner. A large, high-mounted wing was attached directly to the tops of the rear suspension towers, which went some way to reducing rear-end lift at speed, but again an engine failure stopped the car before the end of the race. The final competition outing for the Ford 3L prototype was at the AMOC Martini Trophy meeting at Silverstone. But driver Gardner never even made the grid, as rain during practice soaked the cars electrics, making it unable to start.

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Goodwood Festival of Speed

Goodwood Festival of Speed

The Goodwood Festival of Speed is an annual motorsports festival featuring modern and historic motor racing vehicles taking part in a hill climb and other events, held in the grounds of Goodwood House, West Sussex, England, in late June or early July; the event is scheduled to avoid clashing with the Formula One season, enabling fans to see F1 machines as well as cars and motorbikes from motor racing history climb the hill.

Brands Hatch

Brands Hatch

Brands Hatch is a motor racing circuit in West Kingsdown, Kent, England, United Kingdom. Originally used as a grasstrack motorcycle circuit on farmland, it hosted 12 runnings of the British Grand Prix between 1964 and 1986 and currently hosts many British and International racing events. The venue is owned and operated by Jonathan Palmer's MotorSport Vision organisation.

Bruce McLaren

Bruce McLaren

Bruce Leslie McLaren was a New Zealand racing car designer, driver, engineer, and inventor.

Denny Hulme

Denny Hulme

Denis Clive Hulme, commonly known as Denny Hulme, was a New Zealand racing driver who won the 1967 Formula One World Drivers' Championship for the Brabham team. Between his debut at Monaco in 1965 and his final race in the 1974 US Grand Prix, he started 112 Grand Prix, resulting eight victories and 33 trips to the podium. He also finished third in the overall standing in 1968 and 1972.

Jochen Rindt

Jochen Rindt

Karl Jochen Rindt was a German-born racing driver who competed with an Austrian license during his career, despite having German and not Austrian citizenship. In 1970, he was killed during practice for the Italian Grand Prix and became the only driver to be posthumously awarded the Formula One World Drivers' Championship.

Mike Spence

Mike Spence

Michael Henderson Spence was a British racing driver from England. He participated in 37 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 8 September 1963. He achieved one podium, and scored a total of 27 championship points. He also participated in numerous non-Championship Formula One races, as well as sports car racing.

Porsche 907

Porsche 907

The Porsche 907 is a sportscar racing prototype built by Porsche in 1967 and 1968.

1968 Indianapolis 500

1968 Indianapolis 500

The 52nd International 500 Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Thursday May 30, 1968. For the second year in a row, one of Andy Granatelli's STP Turbine-powered machines was leading late in the race, but once again, it failed within sight of victory.

Chris Irwin

Chris Irwin

Chris Irwin is a British former racing driver. He participated in 10 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 16 July 1966. He scored two championship points.

Jack Brabham

Jack Brabham

Sir John Arthur Brabham was an Australian racing driver who was Formula One World Champion in 1959, 1960, and 1966. He was a founder of the Brabham racing team and race car constructor that bore his name.

Silverstone Circuit

Silverstone Circuit

Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit in England, near the Northamptonshire villages of Towcester, Silverstone and Whittlebury. It is the home of the British Grand Prix, which it first hosted as the 1948 British Grand Prix. The 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created World Championship of Drivers. The race rotated between Silverstone, Aintree and Brands Hatch from 1955 to 1986, but settled permanently at the Silverstone track in 1987. The circuit also hosts the British round of the MotoGP series.

Complete World Championship for Makes results

(key) (results in bold indicate pole position; results in italics indicate fastest lap)

Year Entrants Chassis Class Drivers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Points WEMCP
1968 Alan Mann Racing P68 Group 6 DAY SEB BHC MNZ TFO SPA NÜR WGN ZEL LMS 0 -
New Zealand Bruce McLaren 29
United Kingdom Mike Spence 29
Austria Jochen Rindt DNS
New Zealand Denny Hulme PO
Australia Frank Gardner 49 35 36 DNA
United Kingdom Richard Attwood 49 DNA
United Kingdom Chris Irwin DNS
Mexico Pedro Rodríguez DNS
Germany Hubert Hahne 35 36
1969 Alan Mann Racing P69 Group 6 DAY SEB BHC MNZ TFO SPA NÜR LMS WGN ORC 0 -
Australia Jack Brabham DNS
Australia Frank Gardner DNS
P68 32
New Zealand Denny Hulme 32
United States Masten Gregory PO

Complete entries summary

Yr. Event Circuit Drivers Notes
1968 BOAC 500 Brands Hatch New Zealand Bruce McLaren
New Zealand Denny Hulme
DNF. Hulme replaced by Spence for race. Transmission failure.
United Kingdom Mike Spence
Austria Jochen Rindt
DNS. Engine mount failed in practice.
1000km Nürburgring Nürburgring Australia Frank Gardner
United Kingdom Richard Attwood
DNF. Brake failure.
United Kingdom Chris Irwin
Mexico Pedro Rodríguez
DNS. Car written off in practice.
RAC TT Oulton Park United Kingdom Richard Attwood DNF. Differential failure.
AMOC 500 Silverstone Australia Frank Gardner DNF. Engine failure.
1000km Spa Spa-Francorchamps Australia Frank Gardner
Germany Hubert Hahne
Pole position, DNF. Electrical failure.
500km Zeltweg Zeltweg Australia Frank Gardner
United Kingdom Richard Attwood
DNA.
n/d DNA.
1969 BOAC 500 Brands Hatch New Zealand Denny Hulme
United States Masten Gregory
P68, DNF. Gregory replaced by Gardner for race. Oil pressure.
Australia Frank Gardner
Australia Jack Brabham
P69, DNS. Withdrawn.
AMOC 300 Silverstone Australia Frank Gardner DNS. Wet electrics.

Discover more about Complete World Championship for Makes results related topics

Alan Mann Racing

Alan Mann Racing

Alan Mann Racing was a British motor racing team organised by Alan Mann, who was a part-time racing driver and team manager. The team ran a substantial part of the Ford works racing effort in Europe from 1964 to 1969, when it ceased operations. It was based in Byfleet, Surrey, near the Brooklands race circuit.

Group 6 (racing)

Group 6 (racing)

Group 6 was the official designation applied by the FIA to two motor racing classifications, the Prototype-Sports Car category from 1966 to 1971 and the Two-Seater Racing Cars class from 1976 to 1982.

1968 Targa Florio

1968 Targa Florio

The 52° Targa Florio took place on 5 May 1968, on the Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, Sicily (Italy).

1968 24 Hours of Le Mans

1968 24 Hours of Le Mans

The 1968 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 36th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 28 and 29 September 1968 on the Circuit de la Sarthe, in Le Mans, France.

Bruce McLaren

Bruce McLaren

Bruce Leslie McLaren was a New Zealand racing car designer, driver, engineer, and inventor.

Mike Spence

Mike Spence

Michael Henderson Spence was a British racing driver from England. He participated in 37 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 8 September 1963. He achieved one podium, and scored a total of 27 championship points. He also participated in numerous non-Championship Formula One races, as well as sports car racing.

Austria

Austria

The Republic of Austria, commonly just Austria, is a country in the southern part of Central Europe, lying in the Eastern Alps. It is a federation of nine states, one of which is the capital, Vienna, the most populous city and state. A landlocked country, Austria is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The country occupies an area of 83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi) and has a population of 9 million.

Jochen Rindt

Jochen Rindt

Karl Jochen Rindt was a German-born racing driver who competed with an Austrian license during his career, despite having German and not Austrian citizenship. In 1970, he was killed during practice for the Italian Grand Prix and became the only driver to be posthumously awarded the Formula One World Drivers' Championship.

Denny Hulme

Denny Hulme

Denis Clive Hulme, commonly known as Denny Hulme, was a New Zealand racing driver who won the 1967 Formula One World Drivers' Championship for the Brabham team. Between his debut at Monaco in 1965 and his final race in the 1974 US Grand Prix, he started 112 Grand Prix, resulting eight victories and 33 trips to the podium. He also finished third in the overall standing in 1968 and 1972.

Australia

Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

Chris Irwin

Chris Irwin

Chris Irwin is a British former racing driver. He participated in 10 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 16 July 1966. He scored two championship points.

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federal republic comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital. Other major urban areas include Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.

Source: "Ford P68", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_P68.

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References
  1. ^ Wimpffen, Janos L.; McCaw, Bruce R.; Shirley, Jon; Evans, Andrew (January 1, 1999). Time and Two Seats. Motorsport Research Group. ISBN 978-0967225203.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Ford F3L". www.Ultimatecarpage.com. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
  3. ^ a b c d Taylor, Ron (1968). "Prototype Parade No. 276: Ford 3L Proto". Model Cars. 5 (7): 322–323. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
  4. ^ Taylor, S. (2008) Lunch with... Frank Garner. Motor Sport, 84/3, p. 84-92
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  7. ^ Series of photos Archived 2010-01-14 at the Wayback Machine at 20832.com

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