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Flag of Martinique

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Martinique
Flag of France.svg
Flag of France
Martinique is an overseas territorial collectivity of France
Tricolore
UseNational flag, civil and state ensign
Proportion2:3
Adopted15 February 1794
Flag of Martinique (Local).svg
Flag of the local government of Martinique
Proportion2:3
Adopted28 November 2016

Martinique has no official flag. The flag of France, its parent country, is the only flag flown with official standing. However, the local council flies a flag with its logo on it and several unofficial flags represent the territory.

In 2018, the local council held a competition to create a flag and anthem for the island, but 2+12 years following the presentation of the winners, the flag and anthem were annulled by the local administrative tribunal, as the method of their selection were not deemed within the responsibilities of the council. In 2022, the island began a public vote on an official flag and anthem.[1][2] A winning choice was announced on 16 January 2023,[3][4] but the design was withdrawn from consideration at the request of the designer following accusations of plagiarism. The runner-up design, an established flag used by nationalists, will instead be considered by the Assembly on 2–3 February 2023.[5]

2022 flag consultation

The hummingbird flag
The hummingbird flag

Prior to 2023, Martinique did not have its own flag. In 2018, the local council held a competition to create a flag and anthem for the island, but 2+12 years following the presentation of the winners, the flag and anthem were annulled by the local administrative tribunal, as the method of their selection was not deemed within the responsibilities of the council. In 2022, the island began a public vote on an official flag and anthem.[6][7] However, turnout for the first phase, which narrowed the choices down to two options, was very low, with only 19,084 voting for a flag and 9,294 for the anthem out of an eligible population of around 300,000.[8] The winners, announced 16 January 2023, were the hummingbird design for the flag and "Ansanm" for the anthem, representing 72.84% and 53.76% of votes cast, respectively.[9][10] During the second round of voting, turnout remained relatively low, with a total of 26,633 votes cast for a flag, and 10,289 votes cast for an anthem.[11] The design of the hummingbird in the illustrations used in the vote appears to be identical in shape to one present on the Shutterstock website.[12][13][14]

The designer, Anaïs Delwaulle, initially defended her use of the stock image and her design in general, but on 23 January announced that she wanted her design withdrawn from the process. The president of the Executive Council accepted this withdrawal, and explained that as a result, the runner-up would be submitted to the Assembly for consideration on 2–3 February.[5]

Local government flag

On 1 August 2016, a design competition for the collectivity's logo was opened to all people of age living in Martinique. Out of 647 eligible proposals, a design by 22-year-old graphic artist Stévy Desbonnes was selected. The logo features a hummingbird whose wings form a stylized map of Martinique. The colour ochre represents the local soil and blue represents the ocean.

In late 2016 the local government flag was created, consisting of the new logo on a white background.[15]

Ipséité

The Ipséité flag
The Ipséité flag

In 2018, the local council launched a competition to create a flag to represent Martinique at international sporting and cultural events. The anthem Lorizon (by Rosetta Varasse) and the flag Ipséité ("Selfhood") were chosen by the president of the Martinique Executive Council, Alfred Marie-Jeanne. They were officially presented on May 10, 2019.[16] On November 15, 2021 the flag and anthem were annulled by the local administrative tribunal, as the method of their selection were not deemed within the responsibilities of the Executive Council. It is still seen as a cultural symbol.[17]

The flag, designed by Johnny Vigne, depicts a lambi, an emblematic shell of the Antilles whose conch is used as a traditional musical instrument. Around it, 34 Amerindian stars symbolize the 34 municipalities of Martinique and eight segments evoke eight of the different languages spoken on the island: French, Creole, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Chinese and Arabic. The colour blue refers to the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while green recalls the steep hills and nature of the territory.[18]

The flag was first flown in June 2019 by Martinique's national football team during their participation at the 2019 CONCACAF Gold Cup.[19]

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Alfred Marie-Jeanne

Alfred Marie-Jeanne

Alfred Marie-Jeanne is a French politician, a leader in the Martinican Independence Movement (MIM) since 1978. He served as mayor of the commune of Rivière-Pilote from 1971 to 2000 and served as President of the Regional Council of Martinique from March 20, 1998 to March 22, 2010. Alfred Marie-Jeanne represented Martinique's 1st constituency in the French National Assembly from 2012 to 2017. He was succeeded in this constituency by Josette Manin.

Aliger gigas

Aliger gigas

Aliger gigas, originally known as Strombus gigas or more recently as Lobatus gigas, commonly known as the queen conch, is a species of large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family of true conches, the Strombidae. This species is one of the largest molluscs native to the Caribbean Sea, and tropical northwestern Atlantic, from Bermuda to Brazil, reaching up to 35.2 centimetres (13.9 in) in shell length. A. gigas is closely related to the goliath conch, Lobatus goliath, a species endemic to Brazil, as well as the rooster conch, Aliger gallus.

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi). It covers approximately 20% of Earth's surface and about 29% of its water surface area. It is known to separate the "Old World" of Africa, Europe and Asia from the "New World" of the Americas in the European perception of the World.

Caribbean Sea

Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and southwest, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the northern coast of South America. The Gulf of Mexico lies to the northwest.

Martinique national football team

Martinique national football team

The Martinique national football team represents the French overseas department and region of Martinique in international football. The team is controlled by the Ligue de Football de la Martinique, a local branch of French Football Federation. On 7 August 2010, the team adopted the nickname Les Matinino, which pays tribute to the history of the island.

2019 CONCACAF Gold Cup

2019 CONCACAF Gold Cup

The 2019 CONCACAF Gold Cup was the 15th edition of the CONCACAF Gold Cup, the biennial international men's soccer championship of the North, Central American, and Caribbean region organized by CONCACAF. The tournament was primarily hosted in the United States, with Costa Rica and Jamaica hosting double-headers in the first round of matches in groups B and C, respectively.

Nationalist flag

The nationalist flag
The nationalist flag

The rouge-vert-noir ("red-green-black") flag is the preferred symbol of Martiniquais independence activists. It was designed by Guy Cabort-Masson and Alex Ferdinand in 1968 and secretly transferred to Martinique in 1971.[20]

The colours of the flag are also found on the pan-African flag, designed in 1920. The pan-African flag has many derivative flags (such as the flags of Malawi, Kenya and South Sudan), although it is not known if the nationalist flag of Martinique is one of these.

The flag currently has no official status. In 1995, it was controversially raised in the town of Sainte-Anne by nationalist mayor Garcin Malsa. The flag was included as one of the options taken to public vote in 2023, along with many other designs using colours derived from this flag, reaching the last round of voting and ultimately second place.[21] However, as the winner withdrew after the results were announced, and it was one of the final two options voted on in the last round of voting, the flag will be considered for adoption by the Assembly on 2-3 February 2023.[5]

Snake flag

The snake flag
The snake flag

The "snake flag" (drapeau aux serpents) features a white cross on a blue field with a white fer-de-lance viper (Bothrops lanceolatus), a snake species endemic to the island, in each corner. The symbol dates from an edict issued 4 August 1766, specifying that vessels of the French colony of Martinique and Saint Lucia should fly a version of the French ensign—which at the time was a white cross on a blue field—with L-shaped (for Lucia) snakes in each quarter of the cross. The same design was used for the lesser coat of arms.

The snake flag is highly controversial because of its historical use on ships engaged in the Atlantic slave trade. Deputy Jean-Philippe Nilor demanded its withdrawal from public use and even compared it to the Nazi swastika that refers to the Holocaust.[22] In October 2018, the National Gendarmerie stopped using the emblem by order of President Emmanuel Macron.[23]

Before the 21st century, the snake flag was largely unused in Martinique. It was mainly erroneously used as a courtesy ensign by yachters and was not available for sale locally.[24]

The emoji of the flag is sometimes used by the Québécois as a stand in for Quebec's own flag, as there is no Quebec flag available.[25]

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Bothrops lanceolatus

Bothrops lanceolatus

Bothrops lanceolatus — known as the fer-de-lance, Martinican pit viper, and Martinique lancehead — is a species of pit viper endemic to the Caribbean island of Martinique. Some reserve the common name fer-de-lance for this species, while others apply that name to other Bothrops species as well. No subspecies are currently recognized.

Saint Lucia

Saint Lucia

Saint Lucia is an island country of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean. The island was previously called Iouanalao and later Hewanorra, names given by the native Arawaks and Caribs, two Amerindian peoples. Part of the Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north/northeast of the island of Saint Vincent, northwest of Barbados and south of Martinique. It covers a land area of 617 km2 with an estimated population of over 180,000 people as of 2022. The national capital is the city of Castries.

French ensigns

French ensigns

A French ensign is the flag flown at sea to identify a vessel as French. Several such ensigns have existed over the years as well as terrestrial flags based on the ensign motif.

Coat of arms of Martinique

Coat of arms of Martinique

Martinique, a région and overseas département of France in the Caribbean, does not have an official coat of arms. The Regional Assembly has adopted a distinctive logo to represent the Territorial Collectivity of Martinique.

Atlantic slave trade

Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas. The slave trade regularly used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from Central and West Africa that had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders, while others had been captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids; Europeans gathered and imprisoned the enslaved at forts on the African coast and then brought them to the Americas. Except for the Portuguese, European slave traders generally did not participate in the raids because life expectancy for Europeans in sub-Saharan Africa was less than one year during the period of the slave trade. The colonial South Atlantic and Caribbean economies were particularly dependent on labour for the production of sugarcane and other commodities. This was viewed as crucial by those Western European states which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with one another to create overseas empires.

Jean-Philippe Nilor

Jean-Philippe Nilor

Jean-Philippe Nilor is a French politician who was elected to the French National Assembly on 17 June 2012, representing Martinique's 4th constituency.

Nazism

Nazism

Nazism, the common name in English for National Socialism, is the political ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany. During Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s in Europe, it was frequently referred to as Hitlerism. It is placed on the far-right of the political spectrum, and is extensively referred to as an example of totalitarianism. The later related term "neo-Nazism" is applied to other far-right groups with similar ideas which formed after the Second World War.

Swastika

Swastika

The swastika is an ancient religious and cultural symbol, predominantly in various Eurasian, as well as some African and American cultures, now also widely recognized for its appropriation by the Nazi Party and by neo-Nazis. It continues to be used as a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. It generally takes the form of a cross, the arms of which are of equal length and perpendicular to the adjacent arms, each bent midway at a right angle.

National Gendarmerie

National Gendarmerie

The National Gendarmerie is one of two national law enforcement forces of France, along with the National Police. The Gendarmerie is a branch of the French Armed Forces placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior, with additional duties from the Ministry of Armed Forces. Its responsibilities include policing smaller towns, suburbs and rural areas, along with special subdivisions like the GSPR. By contrast, the National Police is a civilian law enforcement agency that is in charge of policing cities and larger towns. Because of its military status, the Gendarmerie also fulfills a range of military and defence missions, including having a cybercrime division. The Gendarmerie has a strength of around 102,269 people.

Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Macron is a French politician who has served as President of France since 2017. Ex officio, he is also one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra. Prior to his presidency, Macron served as Minister of Economics, Industry and Digital Affairs under President François Hollande between 2014 and 2016.

Québécois people

Québécois people

Quebecers or Quebeckers are people associated with Quebec. The term is most often used in reference to descendants of the French settlers in Quebec but it can also be used to describe people of any ethnicity who live in the province.

Flag of Quebec

Flag of Quebec

The flag of Quebec, called the Fleurdelisé, represents the Canadian province of Quebec. It consists of a white cross on a blue background, with four white fleurs-de-lis.

Gallery

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Source: "Flag of Martinique", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_Martinique.

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References
  1. ^ "Drapeau et hymne : la deuxième phase du vote est en cours". Martinique la 1ère (in French). Retrieved 2023-01-11.
  2. ^ "Cyberattack halts Martinique's search for new flag, hymn". AP NEWS. 2023-01-04. Retrieved 2023-01-11.
  3. ^ "La Martinique a un nouveau drapeau, voici sa signification". huffingtonpost.fr (in French). 17 January 2023.
  4. ^ "La Martinique a son nouveau drapeau et son hymne". Martinique la 1ère (in French). Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  5. ^ a b c "Victime de cyberharcèlement, la créatrice du drapeau au colibri, jette l'éponge". franceinfo (in French). 2023-01-24. Retrieved 2023-01-25.
  6. ^ "Drapeau et hymne : la deuxième phase du vote est en cours". Martinique la 1ère (in French). Retrieved 2023-01-11.
  7. ^ "Cyberattack halts Martinique's search for new flag, hymn". AP NEWS. 2023-01-04. Retrieved 2023-01-11.
  8. ^ Rafe, Juliette (2023-01-12). "En Martinique, le vote pour le nouveau drapeau se poursuit dans la contestation générale". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 2023-01-12.
  9. ^ "Le drapeau au colibri et l'hymne Ansanm, nouveaux emblèmes de la Martinique". viàATV (in French). Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  10. ^ "Martinique : Le drapeau au colibri et l'hymne « Ansanm » choisis par les internautes". Outremers360° (in French). Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  11. ^ "Drapeau et Hymne de la Martinique : la population a choisi !". Collectivité Territoriale de Martinique (in French). 2023-01-16. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  12. ^ "Drapeau de la Martinique : la créatrice de l'étendard au colibri s'exprime après la polémique". viàATV (in French). 2023-01-23. Retrieved 2023-01-23.
  13. ^ "Pourquoi le nouveau drapeau martiniquais crée la polémique ?". midilibre.fr (in French). Retrieved 2023-01-23.
  14. ^ "Flying Colibri Logo Business Education Natural Stock Vector (Royalty Free) 712172716". Shutterstock. Archived from the original on 2023-01-16. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  15. ^ "Martinique (Territorial Collectivity, France)". Flags Of The World (FOTW). Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  16. ^ "Martinique now has a territorial hymn and flag for sports, cultural and international events". Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  17. ^ "La justice annule l'utilisation du drapeau et de l'hymne choisis en 2019 par la CTM". RCI. Retrieved 27 November 2021.
  18. ^ "The flags and hymns submitted to the vote of Martinicans have been unveiled". la1ere.francetvinfo.fr. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  19. ^ "The Martininos fly to the Gold Cup". La 1ere. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  20. ^ "Mouvement des Démocrates et des Écologistes pour une Martinique Indépendante". Flags Of The World (FOTW). Retrieved 27 November 2021.
  21. ^ à 10h04, Par Juliette Rafe Le 12 janvier 2023 (2023-01-12). "En Martinique, le vote pour le nouveau drapeau se poursuit dans la contestation générale". leparisien.fr (in French). Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  22. ^ "The deputy Nilor wants the withdrawal of the emblem with four snakes which symbolizes Martinique". La 1ere. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  23. ^ "By order of the President, the gendarmerie in Martinique will no longer wear the emblem with the 4 snakes!". Makacla. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  24. ^ "Flag Log's World Flag Chart 2000". Flag Log. Retrieved 27 November 2021.
  25. ^ Quebec's Latest Demand For Recognition: An Emoji
  26. ^ "Image here". Archived from the original on 2017-02-06. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
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