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Exposition Park (Pittsburgh)

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Exposition Park
Exposition Park Pittsburgh 1903.jpg
Game 4 of the 1903 World Series at Exposition Park.
LocationAllegheny City, Pa. (pre-1907)
Pittsburgh, Pa. (1907–c.1915)
Capacity16,000[1]
Field sizeLeft and Right Field – 400 feet (122 m)
Center Field – 450 feet (137 m)
SurfaceGrass
Opened1890
Closedc.. 1915
Tenants
Baseball
Allegheny (AA) (1882–1883)
Pittsburgh Burghers (PL) (1890)
Pittsburgh Pirates (NL) (1891–1909)
Pittsburgh Filipinos (USBL) (1912)
Pittsburgh Stogies/Rebels (FL) (1913–1915)
Football
Allegheny Athletic Association (1890–1896)
Duquesne Country & A.C. (1895–1900)
Homestead Library & A.C. Football Team (1900-1901)
Western University of Pennsylvania (1904–1908)
Official nameFirst World Series
DesignatedSeptember 18, 1998[2]

Exposition Park was the name given to three historic stadiums, located in what is today Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The fields were used mainly for professional baseball and American football from c. 1879 to c. 1915. The ballparks were initially located on the north side of the Allegheny River in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. The city was annexed into Pittsburgh (then often spelled "Pittsburg") in 1907, which became the city's North Side, located across from Pittsburgh's downtown area. Due to flooding from the nearby river, the three stadiums' exact locations varied somewhat. The final version of the ballpark was between the eventual sites of Three Rivers Stadium and PNC Park.

In 1903, the third incarnation of Exposition Park was the first National League ballpark to host a World Series game. The Western University of Pennsylvania (WUP)—known today as the University of Pittsburgh—played home football games at Exposition Park, and also used the park as a home field for the university's baseball team.[3]

Discover more about Exposition Park (Pittsburgh) related topics

Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. It is the most populous city in both Allegheny County and Western Pennsylvania, the second-most populous city in Pennsylvania after Philadelphia, and the 68th-largest city in the U.S. with a population of 302,971 as of the 2020 census. The city anchors the Pittsburgh metropolitan area of Western Pennsylvania; its population of 2.37 million is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 27th-largest in the U.S. It is the principal city of the greater Pittsburgh–New Castle–Weirton combined statistical area that extends into Ohio and West Virginia.

Baseball

Baseball

Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each, taking turns batting and fielding. The game occurs over the course of several plays, with each play generally beginning when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball that a player on the batting team, called the batter, tries to hit with a bat. The objective of the offensive team is to hit the ball into the field of play, away from the other team's players, allowing its players to run the bases, having them advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, and to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner legally advances around the bases in order and touches home plate.

American football

American football

American football, also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team with possession of the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with the ball or passing it, while the defense, the team without possession of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs or plays; if they fail, they turn over the football to the defense, but if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs to continue the drive. Points are scored primarily by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.

Allegheny River

Allegheny River

The Allegheny River is a 325 mi (523 km) long headwater stream of the Ohio River in western Pennsylvania and New York. The Allegheny River runs from its headwaters just below the middle of Pennsylvania's northern border northwesterly into New York then in a zigzag southwesterly across the border and through Western Pennsylvania to join the Monongahela River at the Forks of the Ohio at Point State Park in Downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Allegheny River is, by volume, the main headstream of both the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Historically, the Allegheny was considered to be the upper Ohio River by both Native Americans and European settlers.

North Side (Pittsburgh)

North Side (Pittsburgh)

North Side refers to the region of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, located to the north of the Allegheny River and the Ohio River. The term "North Side" does not refer to a specific neighborhood, but rather to a disparate collection of contiguous neighborhoods.

Three Rivers Stadium

Three Rivers Stadium

Three Rivers Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1970 to 2000. It was home to the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League (NFL).

PNC Park

PNC Park

PNC Park is a baseball stadium on the North Shore of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is the fifth home of the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball (MLB). It was opened during the 2001 MLB season, after the controlled implosion of the Pirates' previous home, Three Rivers Stadium. PNC Park stands just east of its predecessor along the Allegheny River with a view of the Downtown Pittsburgh skyline. Constructed of steel and limestone, PNC Park has a natural grass playing surface and can seat 38,747 people for baseball.

National League

National League

The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest extant professional team sports league. Founded on February 2, 1876, to replace the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP) of 1871–1875, the NL is sometimes called the Senior Circuit, in contrast to MLB's other league, the American League, which was founded 25 years later and is called the "Junior Circuit".

World Series

World Series

The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, contested since 1903 between the champion teams of the American League (AL) and the National League (NL). The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff, and the winning team is awarded the Commissioner's Trophy.

University of Pittsburgh

University of Pittsburgh

The University of Pittsburgh is a public state-related research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The university is composed of 17 undergraduate and graduate schools and colleges at its urban Pittsburgh campus, home to the university's central administration and around 28,000 undergraduate and graduate students. The 132-acre Pittsburgh campus includes various historic buildings that are part of the Schenley Farms Historic District, most notably its 42-story Gothic revival centerpiece, the Cathedral of Learning. Pitt is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity". It is the second-largest non-government employer in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area.

Pittsburgh Panthers football

Pittsburgh Panthers football

The Pittsburgh Panthers football program is the intercollegiate football team of the University of Pittsburgh, often referred to as "Pitt", in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Traditionally the most popular sport at the university, Pitt football has played at the highest level of American college football competition, now termed the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, since the beginning of the school's official sponsorship of the sport in 1890. Pitt competes as a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC).

Pittsburgh Panthers baseball

Pittsburgh Panthers baseball

The Pittsburgh Panthers baseball is the NCAA Division I intercollegiate baseball program of the University of Pittsburgh, often referred to as "Pitt", located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Pitt baseball team competes in the Atlantic Coast Conference and plays their home games at Charles L. Cost Field in the Petersen Sports Complex. It is the university's oldest recorded sport, dating to 1869. Prior to joining the ACC in 2013-14, Pitt had won both the Big East Conference regular season and Big East Tournament championships. The Panthers have also received four First Team All-American selections, and have appeared in three NCAA championships. 52 Panthers have been selected in the Major League Baseball Draft.

History

Exposition Park I and II

Local newspapers referred to the general area along the Allegheny waterfront as "the Exposition grounds", named for other "expositions" that would be shown there, including horse racing and circuses.

Exposition Park I was the first venue in Pittsburgh that hosted major league baseball.[4] In 1882, the club now known as the Pittsburgh Pirates—then known simply as Allegheny, or informally as "the Alleghenys"—began play at Exposition Park as a member of the American Association; however, after one season a fire and flooding of the field from the nearby river forced a second park to be built.[5]

Despite its reason for construction, Exposition Park II was built closer to the river. The Alleghenys played at the second incarnation of the park for the first part of the 1883 season, but after the game of June 9, the club decided to return to Exposition Park I, starting with the game of June 12.[6][7] The Allegheny club abandoned Expo II in 1884, moving to Recreation Park, which was several blocks north and out of the flood plain.[4] The final usage of Expo II for baseball came in the last week of August, 1884, where the struggling Union Association club dubbed the Pittsburgh Stogies finished out their schedule after moving from Chicago.

Exposition Park III

Postcard ca. 1900 including Exposition Park
Postcard ca. 1900 including Exposition Park

While the Alleghenys were playing home games at Recreation Park, owners John Beemer and M. B. Lennon of the Pittsburgh Burghers constructed a baseball park near the former sites of Exposition Parks I and II,[8] approximately two blocks west of where PNC Park sits today. Exposition Park III included a roofed wooden grandstand around the infield, and open bleacher sections extending to the right and left field corners. Total capacity was about 10,000 spectators. The seats faced the Allegheny River and the Point.[5] The Burghers played at the stadium during the 1890 Players' League season— both the team and league's only season in existence.[9] On June 10, 1890, Jocko Fields of the Pittsburgh Burghers hit the first home run at Exposition Park III.

The recurrent flooding which plagued the location through its entire existence led to this editorial comment about the Brotherhood (Players' League) club: "They have the most level grounds in the country. Exposition Park is covered with water."[Pittsburgh Daily Post, January 9, 1890, p.6]

The Pirates — 1901–1903
The Pirates — 1901–1903

The newly-redubbed Pittsburgh Pirates moved to Exposition Park the following season. On April 24, 1891, Fred Carroll hit the first home run by a Pirate in the stadium. Under the management of Fred Clarke the Pirates won the National League pennant in 1901, 1902, and 1903. After the 1903 season, Dreyfuss and Boston Americans owner Henry Killilea organized a best of nine-game series to match the two pennant winners against each other. This first modern World Series held three games in Boston before moving to Exposition Park with the Pirates leading the series 2–1.[10] On October 6, 1903, 7,600 people attended the first World Series game in a National League stadium—the Pirates won by one run. The following day 12,000 people attended the game, forcing some spectators to stand behind a rope in the outfield.[5] The Pirates lost three of four games at Exposition Park and eventually the Series.

During a July 4, 1902 doubleheader against the Brooklyn Superbas (whose roster included a player named Flood), an Allegheny flood caused water to rise to thigh level in center and right fields, and about head level in deep center. Players occasionally caught a ball and dove under the water. The Pirates won both games of the doubleheader.[11] Ham Hyatt is believed to be the only person to hit a ball over the right field fence.[8] Monument Hill, which overlooked the field, allowed spectators a free view of the game.

Baseball game, 1904
Baseball game, 1904

In 1906, the Pirates were the first baseball team to cover their field with a tarp during inclement weather, and though the field was kept dry from the rain, the Allegheny River still caused problems.[12] Flooding sometimes covered the entire outfield with inches of standing water, causing ground rules that gave any ground ball hit into the outfield an automatic single. In 1907, Pittsburgh's pitcher Nick Maddox threw a no-hitter at Exposition Park. That would prove to be the last no-hitter thrown at a Pirates home field until Bob Gibson of the Cardinals no-hit the Pirates in 1971, at Three Rivers.

In 1908, owing to the large numbers of people that attended Pirates games, team owner Barney Dreyfuss began looking for a location to construct a new Pirates stadium. The final Pirates game at Exposition Park was played against the Chicago Cubs on June 29, 1909. The Pirates won the game 8–1 in front of 5,545 people,[13] with George Gibson achieving the final National League hit in the ballpark.[8] The very next day, the Pirates once again played the Cubs as the team opened Forbes Field.

A view of Exposition Park III in 1915. Exposition Hall and its rollercoaster can also be seen in the foreground
A view of Exposition Park III in 1915. Exposition Hall and its rollercoaster can also be seen in the foreground

The Pittsburgh Filipinos called Exposition Park their home in 1912. The Filipinos lasted just over a month after folding with the United States Baseball League. In 1914, the Pittsburgh Stogies began play at Exposition Park. There were some cosmetic changes to the ballpark, including the removal of the rooftop turrets, and construction of a roof over the bleachers on the first base side. In 1915, the team, renamed the Pittsburgh Rebels, improved from the previous season, finishing just percentage points behind the first place Chicago Whales. After the season, the club disbanded along with the entire Federal League, due to financial losses. That was the end of major league ball at Exposition Park. The venue continued to host Semi-professional baseball games, circuses, scrap metal drives and other events, but "was eventually razed".[8] The 1917 city directory gave the ballpark's address as 700 South Avenue. South Avenue later became General Robinson Drive, and the 700 address corresponds to the ballpark's main entrance, now part of a parking lot.

Dimensions

In an article on the soon-to-be-opened Forbes Field, the Pittsburgh Post for June 27, 1909, stated the Expo Park dimensions as follows: left field 380 feet (115.8 metres), center field 400 feet (121.9 metres), right field 327 feet (99.7 metres).[14]

Football

The Western University of Pennsylvania (WUP), which would in 1908 be renamed the University of Pittsburgh, played its first official game at Exposition Park on October 11, 1890, when Shadyside Academy failed to show up for their game with the Allegheny Athletic Association. The Allegheny A.A. made a call to WUP team founder Bert Smyers to bring the WUP team to the park as a replacement.

University of Pittsburgh football game — 1908
University of Pittsburgh football game — 1908

The WUP team was subsequently defeated 38–0.[15] The WUP football team began playing games more regularly at Exposition Park around 1900, occasionally playing in other local venues.[16] Prior to the 1903 season, Arthur Mosse was recruited from the University of Kansas to become the team's new coach. In addition to players that Mosse brought with him, WUP also recruited players from Geneva College to play on the team. Mosse's first season was a disappointment as the WUP football team went 0–8–1 and supporters of the team disbanded leaving the team $500 in debt. George Hubbard Clapp then organized a voluntary $5 "athletic fee" to be paid by students in order to allow the debt to be repaid and the school's football team to play home games at Exposition Park during the next season in order to give the WUP team a more permanent and stable home. Mosse and university officials then obtained a lease to play at Exposition Park during the fall from Pirates owner Barney Dreyfuss for 20% of the admission fee. The 1904 WUP team, the first full season in which WUP played at Exposition Park, saw WUP achieve a remarkable turnaround that included a 10–0 record in which they outscored opponents 407–5 and finished second in the state behind the University of Pennsylvania.[17] Prior to home games at Exposition Park, WUP students would organize parades through downtown streets prior to marching across a bridge to the game. A gong, used to announce the beginning of Pirates games, was also sounded prior to the opening kickoff of WUP football contests.[18]

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Horse racing

Horse racing

Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been mostly unchanged since at least classical antiquity.

Circus

Circus

A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, dancers, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, magicians, ventriloquists, and unicyclists as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists. The term circus also describes the performance which has followed various formats through its 250-year modern history. Although not the inventor of the medium, Philip Astley is credited as the father of the modern circus. In 1768, Astley, a skilled equestrian, began performing exhibitions of trick horse riding in an open field called Ha'Penny Hatch on the south side of the Thames River, England. In 1770, he hired acrobats, tightrope walkers, jugglers and a clown to fill in the pauses between the equestrian demonstrations and thus chanced on the format which was later named a "circus". Performances developed significantly over the next fifty years, with large-scale theatrical battle reenactments becoming a significant feature. The traditional format, in which a ringmaster introduces a variety of choreographed acts set to music, developed in the latter part of the 19th century and remained the dominant format until the 1970s.

Pittsburgh Pirates

Pittsburgh Pirates

The Pittsburgh Pirates are an American professional baseball team based in Pittsburgh. The Pirates compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. Founded as part of the American Association in 1881 under the name Pittsburgh Allegheny, the club joined the National League in 1887 and was a member of the National League East from 1969 through 1993. The Pirates have won five World Series championships, nine National League pennants, nine National League East division titles and made three appearances in the Wild Card Game.

Chicago Browns/Pittsburgh Stogies

Chicago Browns/Pittsburgh Stogies

The Chicago Browns/Pittsburgh Stogies were a short-lived professional baseball team in the Union Association of 1884. They were to battle the Chicago White Stockings, of the National League, for the Chicago baseball market; however, the Browns lost that battle to the White Stockings. After a Baltimore mattress maker gave the club a degree of financial support, the Browns then tried to entice the White Stockings' Larry Corcoran, one of the 1880s top pitchers, to join the team. However, the club did not succeed in doing so. The Chicago Browns disbanded after a game on August 22, 1884. The club then moved to Pittsburgh and became the Stogies, which disbanded after a game played on September 18, 1884. Many of the club's players then joined the Baltimore Monumentals. Altogether, they won 41 games, lost 50, and tied 2, finishing sixth in the twelve-team league.

Pittsburgh Burghers

Pittsburgh Burghers

The Pittsburgh Burghers were a baseball team in the Players' League, a short-lived Major League that existed only for the 1890 season. The team included a number of players who had jumped from the National League's Pittsburgh Alleghenys, including Hall of Famers Pud Galvin, Ned Hanlon, and Jake Beckley. Hanlon served as the team's manager. Meanwhile, John Tener, who would go on to represent Pittsburgh in the United States Congress and be elected the 25th Governor of Pennsylvania, finished his pitching career with the Burghers in 1890. Later Tener would become the president of the National League, and a director of the Philadelphia Phillies.

Players' League

Players' League

The Players' National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, popularly known as the Players' League (PL), was a short-lived but star-studded professional American baseball league of the 19th century. The PL was formed by the Brotherhood of Professional Base Ball Players in November 1889, after a dispute over pay with the National League (NL) and American Association (AA). The NL had implemented a reserve clause in 1879, which limited the ability of players to negotiate across teams for their salaries; both the AA and NL had passed a salary cap of US$2,000 per player in 1885, equivalent to $50,737 in 2020; the owners of the NL had agreed to remove the salary cap in 1887 but failed to do so. Major League Baseball (MLB) considers the PL a "major" league for official statistical purposes.

Jocko Fields

Jocko Fields

John Joseph "Jocko" Fields was a Major League Baseball player. He was born on October 20, 1864 in Cork, Ireland. Fields made his Major League debut on May 31, 1887. He played for the Pittsburgh Pirates, Pittsburgh Burghers, Philadelphia Phillies and New York Giants. Fields played 341 games in the majors, with 358 hits in 1,319 at bats. He had a lifetime average of .271. He had 12 home runs and 176 RBI. Fields died on October 14, 1950 in Jersey City, New Jersey.

Fred Carroll

Fred Carroll

Frederick Herbert Carroll was a catcher and outfielder in Major League Baseball. From 1884 through 1891, he played with the Columbus Buckeyes (1884) and for the Pittsburgh teams Alleghenys (1885–89), Burghers (1890) and Pirates (1891). Carroll batted and threw right-handed. He was born in Sacramento, California.

Fred Clarke

Fred Clarke

Fred Clifford Clarke was an American Major League Baseball player from 1894 to 1915 and manager from 1897 to 1915. A Hall of Famer, Clarke played for and managed both the Louisville Colonels and Pittsburgh Pirates. He was a left fielder and left-handed batter.

Henry Killilea

Henry Killilea

Henry James Killilea was an American baseball team owner and attorney. He was one of the founders of baseball's American League. He also played college football and baseball at the University of Michigan.

1903 World Series

1903 World Series

The 1903 World Series was the first modern World Series to be played in Major League Baseball. It matched the American League (AL) champion Boston Americans against the National League (NL) champion Pittsburgh Pirates in a best-of-nine series, with Boston prevailing five games to three, winning the last four. The first three games were played in Boston, the next four in Allegheny, and the eighth (last) game in Boston.

Ham Hyatt

Ham Hyatt

Robert Hamilton Hyatt was an American professional baseball first baseman. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1909 to 1918 for the Pittsburgh Pirates, St. Louis Cardinals, and New York Yankees.

Today

1906 Sanborn diagram of Exposition Park
1906 Sanborn diagram of Exposition Park

After parts of 62 seasons in the Oakland district, baseball and football returned to the north side of the Allegheny River when Three Rivers Stadium opened. The site of the final incarnation of Exposition Park, relative to Three Rivers and the later PNC Park, was in between the two venues.

Exposition Park had been on the southwest corner of South Avenue (later Robinson) to the north (first base) and School Street (later Scotland) to the east (third base). To the south (left field) was some open space and railroad tracks and the Allegheny. To the west (right field) was some open space and then Grant Street (later Galveston). That open space would eventually be the site of Three Rivers. Therefore, the site of Exposition Park was the northeast corner of the parking lot east of Three Rivers.

In 1995, members of the Society for American Baseball Research marked and painted the location where home plate is believed to have been located, in honor of one of the two sites of the first World Series (the other being in Boston). At the time, the location of home plate was parking lot for Three Rivers.[19] In 2018, the faded home plate paint was replaced by a metal plaque by the Society for American Baseball Research.[20]

In 1998, a Pennsylvania Historical marker was placed at the site of the park.[5] Interstate 279 currently runs over portions of the site of Exposition Park just before crossing the Allegheny River along the Fort Duquesne Bridge.

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Three Rivers Stadium

Three Rivers Stadium

Three Rivers Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1970 to 2000. It was home to the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League (NFL).

Society for American Baseball Research

Society for American Baseball Research

The Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) is a membership organization dedicated to fostering the research and dissemination of the history and record of baseball primarily through the use of statistics. Established in Cooperstown, New York, on August 10, 1971, by sportswriter Bob Davids, it is based in Phoenix, Arizona. Its membership as of June 1, 2019, is 5,367.

Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission

Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission

The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission (PHMC) is the governmental agency of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania responsible for the collection, conservation and interpretation of Pennsylvania's historic heritage. The commission cares for historical manuscripts, public records, and objects of historic interest; museums; archeology; publications; historic sites and properties; historic preservation; geographic names; and the promotion of public interest in Pennsylvania history.

Interstate 279

Interstate 279

Interstate 279 (I-279), locally referred to as Parkway North, is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway that lies entirely within Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Its southern end is at I-376 at the Fort Pitt Bridge in Pittsburgh, and the north end is in Franklin Park at I-79. It primarily serves at the main access route between Pittsburgh and its northern suburbs.

Allegheny River

Allegheny River

The Allegheny River is a 325 mi (523 km) long headwater stream of the Ohio River in western Pennsylvania and New York. The Allegheny River runs from its headwaters just below the middle of Pennsylvania's northern border northwesterly into New York then in a zigzag southwesterly across the border and through Western Pennsylvania to join the Monongahela River at the Forks of the Ohio at Point State Park in Downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Allegheny River is, by volume, the main headstream of both the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Historically, the Allegheny was considered to be the upper Ohio River by both Native Americans and European settlers.

Fort Duquesne Bridge

Fort Duquesne Bridge

The Fort Duquesne Bridge is a steel bowstring arch bridge that spans the Allegheny River in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was colloquially referred to as "The Bridge to Nowhere".

Source: "Exposition Park (Pittsburgh)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Park_(Pittsburgh).

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References
  1. ^ "Ballparks: 1887 - Present", Pirates Ballparks, PittsburghPirates.com, retrieved 1 January 2009
  2. ^ "PHMC Historical Markers Search". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original (Searchable database) on 2016-03-21. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
  3. ^ The Owl, University of Pittsburgh, 1911, p. 205, retrieved 2010-05-20
  4. ^ a b Finoli & Ranier 2003, p. 485
  5. ^ a b c d "Exposition Park", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 11 July 2006, retrieved 31 December 2008
  6. ^ "Exposition Park I".
  7. ^ "Exposition Park II".
  8. ^ a b c d Finoli & Ranier 2003, pp. 486–7
  9. ^ "Pittsburgh Burghers History & Encyclopedia", BaseballReference.com, Sports Reference, LLC, retrieved 31 December 2008
  10. ^ "1903 World Series", WorldSeries.com, MLB.com, retrieved 1 January 2009
  11. ^ Lowry, Philip (2006), Green Cathedrals, Walker & Company, p. 184, ISBN 978-0-8027-1608-8
  12. ^ "Top 5 Sports Stories". Huffington Post. 6 May 2010.
  13. ^ Potter, Chris (12 June 2008), Was there a baseball field that the Pittsburgh Pirates played in before Forbes Field in Oakland?, Pittsburgh City Paper, retrieved 1 January 2009
  14. ^ Jerpe, James (June 27, 1909). "Forbes Field, the World's Finest Baseball Grounds". The Pittsburgh Sunday Post. Sec. 6, p. 6.
  15. ^ Sciullo, Sam Jr. (2008), University of Pittsburgh Football Vault: The History of the Panthers, Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing, LLC, p. 8, ISBN 978-0-7948-2653-6
  16. ^ Western University of Pennsylvania, "Athletics", Western University Courant, 16 (2): 46, retrieved 2008-08-08
  17. ^ Alberts, Robert C. (1986), Pitt :the story of the University of Pittsburgh, 1787-1987, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 64–5
  18. ^ Sciullo, Sam Jr. (2008), University of Pittsburgh Football Vault: The History of the Panthers, Atlanta, Georgia: Whitman Publishing, LLC, p. 13, ISBN 978-0-7948-2653-6
  19. ^ "The Grandstander: Exposition Park Gets Remembered". 29 October 2016.
  20. ^ "The Grandstander: On Exposition Park". 22 December 2018.
Bibliography
  • Finoli, David; Ranier, Bill (2003). The Pittsburgh Pirates Encyclopedia. Sports Publishing LLC. ISBN 978-1-58261-416-8.

Coordinates: 40°26′49″N 80°0′39″W / 40.44694°N 80.01083°W / 40.44694; -80.01083

Preceded by Home of the Pittsburgh Pirates
1891–1909
Succeeded by

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