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Errol Barrow

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Errol Walton Barrow
Errol Barrow 1968 - 2.png
1st Prime Minister of Barbados
In office
29 May 1986 – 1 June 1987
MonarchElizabeth II
Governor-GeneralHugh Springer
DeputyLloyd Erskine Sandiford
Preceded byBernard St. John
Succeeded byLloyd Erskine Sandiford
In office
30 November 1966 – 8 September 1976
MonarchElizabeth II
Governors-GeneralJohn Montague Stow
Arleigh Winston Scott
DeputyJames Cameron Tudor (1966-1971)
Cuthbert Edwy Talma (1971-1976)
Preceded byPosition Established
Succeeded byTom Adams
3rd Premier of Barbados
In office
4 December 1961 – 30 November 1966
MonarchElizabeth II
GovernorJohn Montague Stow
DeputyJames Cameron Tudor
Preceded byHugh Cummins
Succeeded byPosition Abolished
Personal details
Born(1920-01-21)21 January 1920
Saint Lucy, British Windward Islands (present day Barbados)
Died1 June 1987(1987-06-01) (aged 67)
Bridgetown, Barbados
Political partyDemocratic Labour Party (1955–1987)
Other political
affiliations
Barbados Labour Party (before 1955)
SpouseCarolyn Marie Barrow, (nee Plaskett)
ChildrenLesley Barrow
David O'Neal Barrow
Eric Wayne Padmore
Alma mater
Occupation
Military service
Allegiance Great Britain
Branch/serviceRoyal Air Force
Years of service1940–1947
RankFlying Officer

Errol Walton Barrow PC QC (21 January 1920 – 1 June 1987) was a Barbadian statesman and the first prime minister of Barbados. Born into a family of political and civic activists in the parish of Saint Lucy, he became a WWII aviator, combat veteran, lawyer, politician, gourmet cook and author. He is often referred to as the "Father of Independence" in Barbados.[1]

Errol Walton Barrow

Errol Walton Barrow was born on 21 January 1920 in Saint Lucy, Barbados, the fourth of five children born to the Rev. Reginald Grant Barrow (1889–1980) and his wife Ruth Albertha (née O'Neal) (1884–1939). Ruth was the daughter of a prosperous blacksmith whose success allowed him to purchase the plantation at Saint Lucy, where Errol would later be born.[2]

Reverend Barrow, an Anglican priest, had been appointed headmaster of the Alleyne school after his sermons as curate of St Lucy parish church brought him into conflict with the island's ruling class and church hierarchy. His removal from the pulpit did not succeed in curtailing his advocacy and agitation on behalf of poor black labourers on the island. In 1919 after he challenged the financial misappropriations of the white planters who oversaw the school's endowment, the church summarily transferred him to the island of St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands (USVI) leaving his wife alone to give birth to their second son at her family home, before she could join her husband with their four infant children.[3]

As Parish Priest at Holy Cross Episcopal Church, Rev. Barrow's brand of what was later termed "liberation theology", was no better received by church authorities there than it had been in Barbados. By late 1920 he was forced out of Holy Cross and he founded St. Luke AME, the first African Methodist Episcopal Church in the USVI. Although he found a home for his values in the AME Church, his theological freedom made him all the more dangerous in the eyes of the island's authorities, and in 1922 he was deported by order of the Governor as an "undesirable".[2]

Rev. Barrow eventually made his way to New York and became a Bishop in the AME church. Unfortunately, he never reunited with his wife and it was thus that Errol Barrow spent the first six years of his life in St Croix and began his education at the Danish Preparatory School there. He would not see his father again until years later.

Ruth Barrow returned to Barbados to raise her five children with the help of her extended family, living with their grandmother Catherine O’Neal in Bridgetown. Her older brother, Dr. Charles Duncan O’Neal, was a prominent physician and activist (later a National Hero of Barbados) who founded the Democratic League and Workingmen's Association, the first socialist organization in Barbados.[4] Under his fatherly influence, Dr. O'Neal's philosophies formed the core of the young Errol's political and social beliefs. Among Errol's playmates at his grandmother's house on Crumpton Street was his cousin Hugh Springer, later Sir Hugh, Governor General of Barbados and the third member of the family to be named a National Hero.

In Barbados Errol first attended Wesley Hall Boys School before winning a scholarship to Combermere School, which he attended for one year before being admitted to Harrison College, then the most prestigious boys school on the island. It was during his schoolboy days that Barrow acquired the nickname "Dipper", ostensibly for his awkward cricket batting style.[2] It was a moniker that would follow him as an affectionate brand well into his political career. After graduating from Harrison Barrow spent a year working as a legal clerk while studying to earn a scholarship to Codrington College, the school from which his father had emerged as its youngest ever graduate in 1919.[3] His mother died in 1939, and he won the Island Scholarship in 1940, but by December of that year he had chosen a different path.

Discover more about Errol Walton Barrow related topics

Saint Lucy, Barbados

Saint Lucy, Barbados

The parish of Saint Lucy is the northernmost area in the country of Barbados. Saint Lucy is the only parish of Barbados out of the eleven to be named after a female patron saint, Saint Lucy of Syracuse. Saint Lucy's shape also resembles a peninsula, surrounded on three sides by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, east and west. The Harrison Point Lighthouse is located in Harrisons, Saint Lucy between Great Head and Norse's Bay, also in Saint Lucy. To the south lies the neighbouring Parish of Saint Peter.

African Methodist Episcopal Church

African Methodist Episcopal Church

The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the AME Church or AME, is a predominantly African American Methodist denomination. It adheres to Wesleyan-Arminian theology and has a connexional polity. The African Methodist Episcopal Church is the first independent Protestant denomination to be founded by Black people; though it welcomes and has members of all ethnicities.

Bridgetown

Bridgetown

Bridgetown is the capital and largest city of Barbados. Formerly The Town of Saint Michael, the Greater Bridgetown area is located within the parish of Saint Michael. Bridgetown is sometimes locally referred to as "The City", but the most common reference is simply "Town". As of 2014, its metropolitan population stands at roughly 110,000.

Charles Duncan O'Neal

Charles Duncan O'Neal

Charles Duncan O'Neal was a Barbados physician, political figure and labor rights activist. He founded the radical Democratic League in 1924 and influenced the shift towards party-focused politics still seen in Barbados today.

Hugh Springer

Hugh Springer

Sir Hugh Worrell Springer was the organiser and first general secretary of the Barbados Workers' Union, and Barbados' fourth governor-general. He was a lawyer, politician and public servant. By an act of Parliament in 1998, Springer was named as one of the eleven National Heroes of Barbados.

Combermere School

Combermere School

Combermere School is a school in Barbados, notable as one of the oldest schools in the Caribbean, established in 1695. Its alumni include several leading cricketers, David Thompson, sixth prime minister of Barbados and other politicians, several authors and the singer Rihanna. In its first 75 years, the school "provided the Barbadian community with the vast bulk of its business leaders and civil servants " and it is "perhaps the first school anywhere to offer secondary education to black children".

Codrington College

Codrington College

Codrington College is an Anglican theological college in St. John, Barbados now affiliated with the University of the West Indies at Cave Hill. It is one of the oldest Anglican theological colleges in the Americas. It was affiliated to the University of Durham from 1875 to 1965.

World War II and the aftermath

In December 1940, Errol Barrow, along with 11 other of his countrymen who became known as "The Second Barbadian Contingent", enlisted in the Royal Air Force to serve during World War II.[5][6][7] His sister Dame Nita Barrow recounted the event in her eulogy to him at his funeral.

"I as the big sister packed his clothes ready for his move to the College. Then as he was about to leave a couple of days later, he calmly announced that he would not be going to College. 'I'm going to England. I've joined the Royal Air Force.' "[2]

After joining the RAF Volunteer Reserve in London as an Aircraftmen 2 (AC2), Barrow underwent initial training for light bomber crews at RAF Benson. He was then stationed at RAF Marham and trained as a wireless operator. By January 1942 he had been promoted to AC1 and thereafter undertook an eighteen-month navigator training course in Canada. Barrow was awarded his Air Navigator wings and promoted to Sergeant on 25 November 1943.[7]

At this point Barrow was united with the men whose lives would become mutually dependent on each other if they were to survive the war: RAF pilot Andrew Leslie Cole and RAAF Wireless/Air gunners Leo Leslie J. Schultz and Robert Allen Stewart and RAF Navigator and Bomber Errol Walton Barrow spent four months training for operational missions in Nova Scotia, graduating on 7 April 1944.[8] The newly formed crew returned to England on 20 September 1944 and joined 88 Squadron, part of the 2nd Tactical Air Force (TAF), flying Douglass Boston light bombers (aka DB-7s and A-20s by the Americans).[7] Between 23 September 1944 and 26 March 1945 Errol Barrow would fly 48 operational sorties giving him 103 hours and 25 mins combat flying. During that time he would have seen first-hand the horrors of medium-altitude bombing.[7] Under battle conditions Barrow proved himself to be an exceptionally competent Navigator. His key task as Navigator was to get the pilot and crew to their destination, then once over the target to discharge the bomb load and then get the crew back home.

Barrow saw active service supporting the Allied ground forces, bombing German communication infrastructure positions and airfields over the European theatre.[7] His first sorties included supporting ground forces involved in the Battle for Arnhem.[7] Others included support for ground forces during the Battle of the Bulge.[7] At wars end he was appointed as personal navigator to the Commander in Chief of the British Zone of occupied Germany, Air Chief Marshall Sir William Sholto Douglas. During that period Barrow rose to the rank of Flying Officer. Douglas, who later became chairman of British European Airways, remained close to Barrow and made him Godfather to his only child.[7]

His final RAF posting saw him seconded to the Colonial Office, where he oversaw the education and vocational training initiatives for ex-servicemen from all of the colonial territories.[4] Notably of the twelve men who left Barbados of part of the Second Contingent, six were killed during the war.[5]

In September 1947 he was given special permission by the University of London to study at the London School of Economics and study Law at the Inns of Court concurrently, taking degrees in 1950 and 1949 respectively.[1] During that time, Barrow also served as Chairman of the Council of Colonial Students where his contemporaries included Forbes Burnham, Michael Manley, Pierre Trudeau, and Lee Kwan Yew, all destined to become political leaders in their home countries.[2][4]

Discover more about World War II and the aftermath related topics

Royal Air Force

Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare and space force. It was formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, becoming the first independent air force in the world, by regrouping the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Following the Allied victory over the Central Powers in 1918, the RAF emerged as the largest air force in the world at the time. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries, including all of the great powers, fought as part of two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. Many participants threw their economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind this total war, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. Aircraft played a major role, enabling the strategic bombing of population centres and the only two nuclear weapons ever used in war.

Nita Barrow

Nita Barrow

Dame Ruth Nita Barrow, GCMG DA was the first female governor-general of Barbados. Barrow was a nurse and a public health servant from Barbados. She served as the fifth governor-general of Barbados from 6 June 1990 until her death on 19 December 1995. She was the older sister of Errol Barrow, the first prime minister of Barbados.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland".

Battle of the Bulge

Battle of the Bulge

The Battle of the Bulge, also known as the Ardennes Offensive, was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II. The battle lasted for five weeks from 16 December 1944 to 28 January 1945, towards the end of the war in Europe. It was launched through the densely forested Ardennes region between Belgium and Luxembourg. It overlapped with the Alsace Offensive, and subsequently the Colmar Pocket, another series of battles launched by the Germans in support of the Ardennes thrust.

British European Airways

British European Airways

British European Airways (BEA), formally British European Airways Corporation, was a British airline which existed from 1946 until 1974.

London School of Economics

London School of Economics

The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, and George Bernard Shaw, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the university in 1901. LSE began awarding its degrees in its own name in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. It became a university in its own right within the University of London in 2022.

Inns of Court

Inns of Court

The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of Court – Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple.

Forbes Burnham

Forbes Burnham

Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham was a Guyanese politician and the leader of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana from 1964 until his death in 1985. He served as Premier of British Guiana from 1964 to 1966, Prime Minister of Guyana from 1964 to 1980 and then as the first Executive President of Guyana from 1980 to 1985. He is often regarded as a strongman who embraced his own version of socialism.

Michael Manley

Michael Manley

Michael Norman Manley was a Jamaican politician who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1972 to 1980 and from 1989 to 1992. Manley championed a democratic socialist program, and has been described as a populist. He remains one of Jamaica's most popular prime ministers.

Pierre Trudeau

Pierre Trudeau

Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau, also referred to by his initials PET, was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the 15th prime minister of Canada from 1968 to 1979 and from 1980 to 1984. He also briefly served as the leader of the Opposition from 1979 to 1980. He served as leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1968 to 1984.

Political career

Barrow returned to Barbados in 1950 and was elected to the Barbados Parliament in 1951 as a member of the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) representing the parish of Saint George. Feeling the fever of anti-colonialism he had inculcated during his student days in London, he quickly became dissatisfied by general failure of the incremental approach to change advocated by the party stalwarts and their continued support of imperialist powers. By 1952 he began to openly challenge his party's policies and by 1955 made a declaration in Parliament stating: "I no longer want to be associated with them politically or otherwise."[9] :72

In April 1955 Barrow and twenty-one other like-minded politicians and activists adopted the Constitution of the Democratic Labour Party (DLP) as a progressive alternative to the BLP. In the 1956 general election, the DLP fielded 16 candidates, of whom 12 were defeated, including the incumbent Barrow in his Saint George constituency.[9] :75

Barrow returned to parliament in the by-election of 1958 representing the parish of Saint John and was elected Chairman of the DLP in 1959. In December 1961, the party won the general election with Barrow as its leader. He then served as Premier of Barbados from 1961 until 1966 when, after leading the country to independence from Great Britain, he became the island's first Prime Minister. He served continuously in that capacity as well as stints as Minister of Finance, and Minister of Foreign Affairs for the next ten years.

During his tenure, the DLP government accelerated industrial development, expanded the tourist industry to reduce the island's economic dependence on sugar, introduced National Health Insurance and Social Security, and implemented free secondary school education.

Barrow was a dedicated proponent of regional integration, spearheading the foundation of the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) in 1965. Eight years later CARIFTA evolved into the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), when Barrow, together with Forbes Burnham of Guyana, Dr. Eric Williams of Trinidad and Tobago and Michael Manley of Jamaica enacted the Treaty of Chaguaramas to bolster political and economic relations between the English-speaking Caribbean territories.[10]

After another landslide victory in 1971, the DLP returned to the electorate in 1976 for a mandate after two years of bitter controversy over constitutional amendments put forth by the government. Barrow, who had invited public comment on the amendments verbally lashed out at those who had been critical of what he viewed as a minor procedural change in the appointment of judges. A general economic downturn that affected most countries in the hemisphere contributed to a shift in public sentiment resulting in the party's election defeat.

As an indomitable advocate of Caribbean sovereignty he fiercely opposed interference in Caribbean affairs. As opposition leader in 1983 he spoke out forcefully against the United States invasion of Grenada and he was scathing in his criticism of other Caribbean leaders who kow-towed to Washington in the hope of getting economic handouts:

"Mr. Seaga (Prime Minister of Jamaica, Edward Seaga) thinks that the solution to Jamaica's problems is to get President Reagan to play Santa Claus. I do not believe in Santa Claus."

In May 1986, after 10 years in opposition, Barrow was re-elected as Prime Minister in a landslide victory in which the DLP won 24 of 27 seats in the House of Assembly. The campaign was notable for an address he gave at a political rally some two weeks before the election, which came to be known as the "Mirror Image" speech. In it, Barrow rhetorically asked Barbadians what kind of a future they saw for themselves when they looked in the mirror; contrasting a life of menial labour as an émigré in the developed world, or staying and building a strong and independent Barbados to rival other small states like Singapore.

His re-election served as a catalyst for resurgent nationalism in the region, which by and large had subordinated itself to U.S. aid policy in the early 1980s. Barrow wasted no time in distancing himself from the "mendicant mentality" of his predecessors J. M. G. Adams and Bernard St. John. In his first press conference as Prime Minister he referred to Reagan as "that cowboy in the White House". In a British interview, he characterized the President of the United States as "a zombie; he's programmed, a very dangerous person".

He chastised Washington for its treatment of not only the Caribbean states, but also of Canada and the United Kingdom, which he described as Barbados' closest allies. His political opponents deemed his attacks on Reagan as "tactically stupid", but for most Barbadians, his outspokenness meant that "The Skipper" was back.

A year after his re-election, Prime Minister Errol Barrow collapsed and died at his home on 1 June 1987. By an act of Parliament in 1998, Barrow was posthumously named as one of the National Heroes of Barbados.[11]

Discover more about Political career related topics

Parliament of Barbados

Parliament of Barbados

The Parliament of Barbados is the national legislature of Barbados. It is accorded legislative supremacy by Chapter V of the Constitution of Barbados. The Parliament is bicameral in composition and is formally made up of two houses, an appointed Senate and an elected House of Assembly, as well as the President of Barbados who is indirectly elected by both. Both houses sit in separate chambers in the Parliament Buildings, in the national capital Bridgetown in Saint Michael.

Barbados Labour Party

Barbados Labour Party

The Barbados Labour Party (BLP), colloquially known as the "Bees", is a social democratic political party in Barbados established in 1938. Led by Prime Minister Mia Amor Mottley, it is the governing party of Barbados and the sole ruling party in the House of Assembly of Barbados, holding 30 out of 30 seats. The BLP was elected to government on 25 May 2018 after a decade in opposition, with Mottley becoming the country's first female prime minister. The party originally won all of the seats in the House of Assembly, but Bishop Joseph Atherley, the MP for St. Michael West, became an independent MP and the leader of the opposition on 2 June 2018. The party won all 30 seats in the 2022 general election.

Saint George, Barbados

Saint George, Barbados

The parish of Saint George is located in the interior of Barbados. It is one of two land-locked parishes, the other being Saint Thomas to the north. A prominent landmark in the parish is Gun Hill Signal Station – one of the few remaining signal stations, dating back to 1818.

Democratic Labour Party (Barbados)

Democratic Labour Party (Barbados)

The Democratic Labour Party (DLP), colloquially known as the "Dems", is a political party in Barbados, established in 1955. It was the ruling party from 15 January 2008 to 24 May 2018 but faced an electoral wipeout in the 2018 general election which left it with no MPs.

Saint John, Barbados

Saint John, Barbados

The parish of Saint John is a parish of Barbados on the eastern side of the island. It is home to one of its secondary schools, The Lodge School. It is home to the St. John's Parish Church, which has a scenic view of the Atlantic Ocean from its perch near Hackleton's Cliff, which overlooks the East Coast of the island. In its southeastern corner, the shoreline turns northward, forming the small Conset Bay.

Caribbean Free Trade Association

Caribbean Free Trade Association

The Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) was organised on 1 May 1968, to provide a continued economic linkage between the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean. The agreements establishing it came following the dissolution of the West Indies Federation which lasted from 1958 to 1962.

Guyana

Guyana

Guyana, officially the Co‑operative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern mainland of South America. Guyana is an indigenous word which means "Land of Many Waters". The capital city is Georgetown. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, and Suriname to the east. With 215,000 km2 (83,000 sq mi), Guyana is the third-smallest sovereign state by area in mainland South America after Uruguay and Suriname, and is the second-least populous sovereign state in South America after Suriname; it is also one of the least densely populated countries on Earth. It has a wide variety of natural habitats and very high biodiversity.

Eric Williams

Eric Williams

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Jamaica

Jamaica

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola ; the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands lies some 215 kilometres (134 mi) to the north-west.

Federal government of the United States

Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a federal republic located primarily in North America, composed of 50 states, a city within a federal district, five major self-governing territories and several island possessions. The federal government, sometimes simply referred to as Washington, is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the president and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of Congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court.

Edward Seaga

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician, union leader, and actor who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Before ascending to the presidency, he previously served as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975 and was the president of the Screen Actors Guild from 1947 to 1952 and from 1959 until 1960.

Personal life

Errol Barrow was a son of the Rev. Reginald Grant Barrow (1889–1980) and Ruth Albertha O'Neal (maiden; 1884–1939). His sister, Dame Nita Barrow, also became a social activist, humanitarian leader and later Governor General of Barbados. He had three other siblings, and two half-siblings from his father's second marriage.

Errol Barrow married Carolyn Marie Plaskett, the daughter of a prominent American Baptist minister in Orange, NJ, on 18 November 1945. Their union produced two children: Lesley (1949–2008) and David (b. 1953). Despite their eventual estrangement the couple never divorced.

In the late 1950s his relationship with union activist Thelma Padmore produced a son Eric (b. 1960).[12]

In her autobiography the American singer Nina Simone claimed to have had an affair with Barrow (whose first name she misspells) during the brief period that she lived in Barbados.[13]

During the last thirteen years of his life until his death, Barrow lived with socialite Jeanine Leemans.

Legacy

The Errol Barrow Centre for Creative Imagination, at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill campus, promotes the making, study and appreciation of the arts. It is "a hub for creative expression and the creative cycle: creation, production, distribution, appreciation and preservation of art".[14] He is also one of the namesakes of the island's ABC Highway.

Source: "Errol Barrow", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Errol_Barrow.

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References
  1. ^ BGIS (21 January 2022). "Celebrating The Life Of Errol Walton Barrow". GIS. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e Morgan, Peter (1994). The life and times of Errol Barrow. Bridgetown, Barbados: Caribbean Communications Inc. pp. 12, 13.
  3. ^ a b "The Story of Rev. Reginald Grant Barrow". Barbados Today. 4 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Vanderpool, Tony (7 June 1987). "Errol Walton Barrow". The Sunday Advocate (Special ed.). Barbados. p. 27.
  5. ^ a b BARROW – Errol Walton Caribbean aircrew in the RAF during WW2.
  6. ^ Statesman Flying Officer Errol Walton Barrow, Royal (British) Air Force Museum.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Errol Barrow – Statesman, Prime Minister of Barbados, RAF Navigator World War II". www.bajanthings.com. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  8. ^ "The Beautiful Blonde in the Bank – F/L Andrew Leslie Cole AFC RAF". www.bajanthings.com. 31 May 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ a b Fathering a nation : Barbados and the legacy of Errol Walton Barrow. Hewitt, Guy. Hertford. 2016. ISBN 978-1-910553-63-3. OCLC 999629424.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  10. ^ "BARBADOS PRIME MINISTER BARROW DIES", The Washington Post, 3 June 1987.
  11. ^ Parliament of Barbados (2009). "Parliament's History". Barbadosparliament.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  12. ^ "Remembering Thelma E Padmore". obitmoments.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  13. ^ Simone, Nina (2003). I Put a Spell on You: the autobiography of Nina Simone. Cleary, Stephen. (paperback, 2nd ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81327-0. OCLC 53048134.
  14. ^ Errol Barrow Centre for Creative Imagination.
Further reading
  • Singh, Vickram P.; Singh, Jacqueline M., eds. (29 November 2016). "5. The Visionary Errol Walton Barrow; 6. Prime Ministers of Barbados; 11. The National Heroes of Barbados". Bajan Milestones 50th Anniversary Independence. Issuu. Souvenir Magazine. Legacy Advertising and Publishing Services. pp. 16–19, 29. Retrieved 16 April 2021.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  • Morgan, Peter, ed. (21 January 2016). "REMEMBERING BARROW: The end of an era". News. Daily Nation (Barbados). Retrieved 17 April 2021.
External links
Parliament of Barbados
Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Saint George
19511956
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Saint John
19581987
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Premier of Barbados
1961–1966
Office abolished
Minister of Finance of Barbados
1961–1976
Succeeded by
New office Prime Minister of Barbados
1966–1976
Preceded by Prime Minister of Barbados
1986–1987
Succeeded by
Party political offices
New political party Leader of the Democratic Labour Party
1955–1976
Succeeded by
Preceded by Leader of the Democratic Labour Party
1978–1987
Succeeded by
Categories

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