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Elementary abelian group

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In mathematics, specifically in group theory, an elementary abelian group is an abelian group in which all elements other than the identity have the same order. This common order must be prime number, and the elementary abelian groups in which the common order is p are a particular kind of p-group.[1][2] A group for which p = 2 (that is, an elementary abelian 2-group) is sometimes called a Boolean group.[3]

Every elementary abelian p-group is a vector space over the prime field with p elements, and conversely every such vector space is an elementary abelian group. By the classification of finitely generated abelian groups, or by the fact that every vector space has a basis, every finite elementary abelian group must be of the form (Z/pZ)n for n a non-negative integer (sometimes called the group's rank). Here, Z/pZ denotes the cyclic group of order p (or equivalently the integers mod p), and the superscript notation means the n-fold direct product of groups.[2]

In general, a (possibly infinite) elementary abelian p-group is a direct sum of cyclic groups of order p.[4] (Note that in the finite case the direct product and direct sum coincide, but this is not so in the infinite case.)

In the rest of this article, all groups are assumed finite.

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Mathematics

Mathematics

Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline.

Group theory

Group theory

In abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups. The concept of a group is central to abstract algebra: other well-known algebraic structures, such as rings, fields, and vector spaces, can all be seen as groups endowed with additional operations and axioms. Groups recur throughout mathematics, and the methods of group theory have influenced many parts of algebra. Linear algebraic groups and Lie groups are two branches of group theory that have experienced advances and have become subject areas in their own right.

Abelian group

Abelian group

In mathematics, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written. That is, the group operation is commutative. With addition as an operation, the integers and the real numbers form abelian groups, and the concept of an abelian group may be viewed as a generalization of these examples. Abelian groups are named after early 19th century mathematician Niels Henrik Abel.

Prime number

Prime number

A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, 1 × 5 or 5 × 1, involve 5 itself. However, 4 is composite because it is a product (2 × 2) in which both numbers are smaller than 4. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorized as a product of primes that is unique up to their order.

P-group

P-group

In mathematics, specifically group theory, given a prime number p, a p-group is a group in which the order of every element is a power of p. That is, for each element g of a p-group G, there exists a nonnegative integer n such that the product of pn copies of g, and not fewer, is equal to the identity element. The orders of different elements may be different powers of p.

Vector space

Vector space

In mathematics and physics, a vector space is a set whose elements, often called vectors, may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called scalars. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called vector axioms. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space.

Cyclic group

Cyclic group

In group theory, a branch of abstract algebra in pure mathematics, a cyclic group or monogenous group is a group, denoted Cn, that is generated by a single element. That is, it is a set of invertible elements with a single associative binary operation, and it contains an element g such that every other element of the group may be obtained by repeatedly applying the group operation to g or its inverse. Each element can be written as an integer power of g in multiplicative notation, or as an integer multiple of g in additive notation. This element g is called a generator of the group.

Modular arithmetic

Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" when reaching a certain value, called the modulus. The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, published in 1801.

Direct product of groups

Direct product of groups

In mathematics, specifically in group theory, the direct product is an operation that takes two groups G and H and constructs a new group, usually denoted G × H. This operation is the group-theoretic analogue of the Cartesian product of sets and is one of several important notions of direct product in mathematics.

Finite group

Finite group

In abstract algebra, a finite group is a group whose underlying set is finite. Finite groups often arise when considering symmetry of mathematical or physical objects, when those objects admit just a finite number of structure-preserving transformations. Important examples of finite groups include cyclic groups and permutation groups.

Examples and properties

  • The elementary abelian group (Z/2Z)2 has four elements: {(0,0), (0,1), (1,0), (1,1)} . Addition is performed componentwise, taking the result modulo 2. For instance, (1,0) + (1,1) = (0,1). This is in fact the Klein four-group.
  • In the group generated by the symmetric difference on a (not necessarily finite) set, every element has order 2. Any such group is necessarily abelian because, since every element is its own inverse, xy = (xy)−1 = y−1x−1 = yx. Such a group (also called a Boolean group), generalizes the Klein four-group example to an arbitrary number of components.
  • (Z/pZ)n is generated by n elements, and n is the least possible number of generators. In particular, the set {e1, ..., en} , where ei has a 1 in the ith component and 0 elsewhere, is a minimal generating set.
  • Every elementary abelian group has a fairly simple finite presentation.

Vector space structure

Suppose V (Z/pZ)n is an elementary abelian group. Since Z/pZ Fp, the finite field of p elements, we have V = (Z/pZ)n Fpn, hence V can be considered as an n-dimensional vector space over the field Fp. Note that an elementary abelian group does not in general have a distinguished basis: choice of isomorphism V (Z/pZ)n corresponds to a choice of basis.

To the observant reader, it may appear that Fpn has more structure than the group V, in particular that it has scalar multiplication in addition to (vector/group) addition. However, V as an abelian group has a unique Z-module structure where the action of Z corresponds to repeated addition, and this Z-module structure is consistent with the Fp scalar multiplication. That is, c·g = g + g + ... + g (c times) where c in Fp (considered as an integer with 0 ≤ c p) gives V a natural Fp-module structure.

Automorphism group

As a vector space V has a basis {e1, ..., en} as described in the examples, if we take {v1, ..., vn} to be any n elements of V, then by linear algebra we have that the mapping T(ei) = vi extends uniquely to a linear transformation of V. Each such T can be considered as a group homomorphism from V to V (an endomorphism) and likewise any endomorphism of V can be considered as a linear transformation of V as a vector space.

If we restrict our attention to automorphisms of V we have Aut(V) = { T : VV | ker T = 0 } = GLn(Fp), the general linear group of n × n invertible matrices on Fp.

The automorphism group GL(V) = GLn(Fp) acts transitively on V \ {0} (as is true for any vector space). This in fact characterizes elementary abelian groups among all finite groups: if G is a finite group with identity e such that Aut(G) acts transitively on G \ {e}, then G is elementary abelian. (Proof: if Aut(G) acts transitively on G \ {e}, then all nonidentity elements of G have the same (necessarily prime) order. Then G is a p-group. It follows that G has a nontrivial center, which is necessarily invariant under all automorphisms, and thus equals all of G.)

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Linear algebra

Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as:

Endomorphism

Endomorphism

In mathematics, an endomorphism is a morphism from a mathematical object to itself. An endomorphism that is also an isomorphism is an automorphism. For example, an endomorphism of a vector space V is a linear map f: V → V, and an endomorphism of a group G is a group homomorphism f: G → G. In general, we can talk about endomorphisms in any category. In the category of sets, endomorphisms are functions from a set S to itself.

Automorphism

Automorphism

In mathematics, an automorphism is an isomorphism from a mathematical object to itself. It is, in some sense, a symmetry of the object, and a way of mapping the object to itself while preserving all of its structure. The set of all automorphisms of an object forms a group, called the automorphism group. It is, loosely speaking, the symmetry group of the object.

General linear group

General linear group

In mathematics, the general linear group of degree n is the set of n×n invertible matrices, together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication. This forms a group, because the product of two invertible matrices is again invertible, and the inverse of an invertible matrix is invertible, with identity matrix as the identity element of the group. The group is so named because the columns of an invertible matrix are linearly independent, hence the vectors/points they define are in general linear position, and matrices in the general linear group take points in general linear position to points in general linear position.

A generalisation to higher orders

It can also be of interest to go beyond prime order components to prime-power order. Consider an elementary abelian group G to be of type (p,p,...,p) for some prime p. A homocyclic group[5] (of rank n) is an abelian group of type (m,m,...,m) i.e. the direct product of n isomorphic cyclic groups of order m, of which groups of type (pk,pk,...,pk) are a special case.

Related groups

The extra special groups are extensions of elementary abelian groups by a cyclic group of order p, and are analogous to the Heisenberg group.

Source: "Elementary abelian group", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_abelian_group.

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References
  1. ^ Hans J. Zassenhaus (1999) [1958]. The Theory of Groups. Courier Corporation. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-486-16568-4.
  2. ^ a b H.E. Rose (2009). A Course on Finite Groups. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-84882-889-6.
  3. ^ Steven Givant; Paul Halmos (2009). Introduction to Boolean Algebras. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-387-40293-2.
  4. ^ L. Fuchs (1970). Infinite Abelian Groups. Volume I. Academic Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-08-087348-0.
  5. ^ Gorenstein, Daniel (1968). "1.2". Finite Groups. New York: Harper & Row. p. 8. ISBN 0-8218-4342-7.

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