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Eleanor Hadley

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Eleanor Hadley

Eleanor Hadley.png
Born(1916-07-17)July 17, 1916
Seattle, Washington, United States
DiedJune 1, 2007(2007-06-01) (aged 90)
Seattle, Washington, United States
Occupation
  • Economist
  • policymaker
  • professor
  • research analyst
Academic background
Alma mater
ThesisConcentrated Business Power in Japan (1949)
Academic work
DisciplineEconomics
Sub-discipline
Institutions
Notable worksAntitrust in Japan (1970)

Eleanor Martha Hadley (July 17, 1916 – June 1, 2007) was an American economist and policymaker. Because of her relatively rare research specialization in Japanese economics, during World War II Hadley was recruited first into OSS and then the State Department to support the United States' war effort while she was a doctoral candidate in economics at Radcliffe College. Hadley helped draft the United States' plans for dissolving zaibatsu business conglomerates as part of a planned effort to democratize Japan after the war, and she participated in implementing this economic deconcentration program when the postwar occupation brought her to Japan to work for SCAP as an economist.

After ending her time with SCAP in the occupation of Japan, Hadley completed her dissertation, earning her doctorate at Radcliffe College. Although interested in continuing a career in working for the United States, she discovered that she could not obtain meaningful work in government because Charles A. Willoughby, an ultraconservative military officer in the occupation, had blacklisted her, resulting in the denial of necessary security clearance. Hadley turned to academia, and she taught at Smith College and George Washington University. After Hadley finally cleared her name and achieved clearance, she worked in government for the U. S. Tariff Commission and General Accounting Office from 1967 to 1981.

In 1970, Princeton University Press published Hadley's monograph Antitrust in Japan. Economist George Cyril Allen called Antitrust "undoubtedly the most comprehensive and authoritative" study on zaibatsu and their dissolution available in the Western world. Hadley received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, third degree, from the Japanese government in 1986, and in 1997 she received the Association for Asian Studies' Award for Distinguished Contributions.

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Economic history of Japan

Economic history of Japan

The economic history of Japan is most studied for the spectacular social and economic growth in the 1800s after the Meiji Restoration. It became the first non-Western great power, and expanded steadily until its defeat in the Second World War. When Japan recovered from devastation to become the world's second largest economy behind the United States, and from 2010 behind China as well. Scholars have evaluated the nation's unique economic position during the Cold War, with exports going to both U.S.- and Soviet-aligned powers, and have taken keen interest in the situation of the post-Cold War period of the Japanese "lost decades".

Office of Strategic Services

Office of Strategic Services

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was the intelligence agency of the United States during World War II. The OSS was formed as an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for all branches of the United States Armed Forces. Other OSS functions included the use of propaganda, subversion, and post-war planning.

Radcliffe College

Radcliffe College

Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and functioned as the female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College. Considered founded in 1879, it was one of the Seven Sisters colleges and held the popular reputation of having a particularly intellectual, literary, and independent-minded female student body.

Occupation of Japan

Occupation of Japan

Japan was occupied and administered by the victorious Allies of World War II from the 1945 surrender of the Empire of Japan at the end of the war until the Treaty of San Francisco took effect in 1952. The occupation, led by the United States with support from the British Commonwealth and under the supervision of the Far Eastern Commission, involved a total of nearly 1 million Allied soldiers. The occupation was overseen by American General Douglas MacArthur, who was appointed Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers by US President Harry Truman; MacArthur was succeeded as supreme commander by General Matthew Ridgway in 1951. Unlike in the occupation of Germany, the Soviet Union had little to no influence over the occupation of Japan, declining to participate because it did not want to place Soviet troops under MacArthur's direct command.

Charles A. Willoughby

Charles A. Willoughby

Charles Andrew Willoughby was a major general in the U.S. Army, serving as General Douglas MacArthur's chief of intelligence during most of World War II and the Korean War.

Smith College

Smith College

Smith College is a private liberal arts women's college in Northampton, Massachusetts. It was chartered in 1871 by Sophia Smith and opened in 1875. It is the largest member of the historic Seven Sisters colleges, a group of elite women's colleges in the Northeastern United States. Smith is also a member of the Five College Consortium, along with four other nearby institutions in the Pioneer Valley: Mount Holyoke College, Amherst College, Hampshire College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst; students of each college are allowed to attend classes at any other member institution. On campus are Smith's Museum of Art and Botanic Garden, the latter designed by Frederick Law Olmsted.

George Washington University

George Washington University

The George Washington University is a private federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. Chartered in 1821 by the United States Congress, GWU is the largest institution of higher education in the District of Columbia.

Government Accountability Office

Government Accountability Office

The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluative, and investigative services for the United States Congress. It is the supreme audit institution of the federal government of the United States. It identifies its core "mission values" as: accountability, integrity, and reliability. It is also known as the "congressional watchdog".

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within academia and society at large.

George Cyril Allen

George Cyril Allen

George Cyril Allen, published as G. C. Allen, was a British economist and academic. He was Brunner Professor of Economic Science at the University of Liverpool from 1933 to 1947, and then Professor of Political Economy at University College London from 1947 to 1967. He wrote on Japanese and British industrial policy.

Order of the Sacred Treasure

Order of the Sacred Treasure

The Order of the Sacred Treasure is a Japanese order, established on 4 January 1888 by Emperor Meiji as the Order of Meiji. Originally awarded in eight classes, since 2003 it has been awarded in six classes, the lowest two medals being abolished that year. Originally a male-only decoration, the order has been made available to women since 1919.

Association for Asian Studies

Association for Asian Studies

The Association for Asian Studies (AAS) is a scholarly, non-political and non-profit professional association focusing on Asia and the study of Asia. It is based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

Early education

Eleanor Martha Hadley was born July 17, 1916, in Seattle, Washington to parents Homer and Margaret Hadley.[1] Homer Hadley was a locally famous civil engineer and later the namesake of the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge spanning part of Lake Washington.[2] Margaret Hadley was a teacher who specialized in preschool education and the education of children with disabilities.[3] Growing up, Hadley's family was relatively well off.[4]

After graduating from Seattle's Franklin High School in 1934, Hadley enrolled at Mills College in Oakland, California.[1] While a student at Mills, she participated in the nascent Japan–America Student Conferences, attending the program's 1935 conference in Portland, Oregon and its 1936 conference in Japan, the latter as the Mills College delegate.[4][5] Hadley's interest in international affairs continued, and she attended a conference of the International Relations Club at Mills College in 1937.[4] Hadley graduated from Mills in 1938 with a degree in politics, economics, and philosophy.[6]

Hadley received a fellowship from Tokyo Imperial University which financed a stay in Tokyo from 1938 to 1940, during which time she also traveled extensively in Japan and China.[1][6] In addition to being one of the few Americans to have studied in Japan before the outbreak of war between the United States and Japan,[7] Hadley was also among the earliest Westerners to go to Nanjing after the Nanjing Massacre three years earllier.[1] After returning to the United States, Hadley continued her education at Radcliffe College (at the time a coordinate institution through which women could attend classes at Harvard University, which only admitted male students), enrolling there in 1941 to seek a doctorate in economics.[8]

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Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge

Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge

The Third Lake Washington Bridge, officially the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge, is a floating bridge in the Seattle metropolitan area of the U.S. state of Washington. It is one of the Interstate 90 floating bridges, carrying the westbound lanes of Interstate 90 across Lake Washington between Mercer Island and Seattle. The floating bridge is the fifth-longest of its kind in the world, at 5,811 feet.

Lake Washington

Lake Washington

Lake Washington is a large freshwater lake adjacent to the city of Seattle. It is the largest lake in King County and the second largest natural lake in the state of Washington, after Lake Chelan. It borders the cities of Seattle on the west, Bellevue and Kirkland on the east, Renton on the south and Kenmore on the north, and encloses Mercer Island. The lake is fed by the Sammamish River at its north end and the Cedar River at its south.

Franklin High School (Seattle)

Franklin High School (Seattle)

Franklin High School is a public high school in Seattle, Washington, located in its Mount Baker neighborhood and administered by Seattle Public Schools.

Japan America Student Conference

Japan America Student Conference

The Japan-America Student Conference (JASC) is an educational and cultural exchange program for university students.

Portland, Oregon

Portland, Oregon

Portland is a port city in the Pacific Northwest and the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon. Situated at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers, Portland is the county seat of Multnomah County, the most populous county in Oregon. As of 2020, Portland had a population of 652,503, making it the 26th-most populated city in the United States, the sixth-most populous on the West Coast, and the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest, after Seattle. Approximately 2.5 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area (MSA), making it the 25th most populous in the United States. About half of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area.

University of Tokyo

University of Tokyo

The University of Tokyo , abbreviated as Todai or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyō, Tokyo, Japan. Established in 1877, the university was the first Imperial University and is currently a Top Type university of the Top Global University Project by the Japanese government.

Nanjing Massacre

Nanjing Massacre

The Nanjing Massacre or the Rape of Nanjing was the mass murder of Chinese civilians in Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China, immediately after the Battle of Nanking in the Second Sino-Japanese War, by the Imperial Japanese Army. Beginning on December 13, 1937, the massacre lasted six weeks. The perpetrators also committed other war crimes such as mass rape, looting, and arson. The massacre was one of the worst atrocities committed during World War II.

Radcliffe College

Radcliffe College

Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and functioned as the female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College. Considered founded in 1879, it was one of the Seven Sisters colleges and held the popular reputation of having a particularly intellectual, literary, and independent-minded female student body.

Harvard University

Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the Puritan clergyman John Harvard, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious and highly ranked universities in the world.

State Department career

After the Empire of Japan's December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States formally entered World War II.[9] After completing her comprehensive examinations but not her dissertation,[10] Hadley was recruited by Charles Burton Fahs—chief of the Research and Analysis Division (Far East) at the State Department[11]—to work as a research analyst for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) starting in 1943.[8] There, Hadley completed a project about Japan's wooden-shipbuilding industry, and she proposed that OSS next study industrial organization. Fortuitously for Hadley, the economic section of the State, War, Navy Coordinating Council (SWNCC)'s economic section needed to draft a paper on the zaibatsu business combines of Japan's modern economy, related to industrial organization.[12]

Hadley was transferred to the State Department in late 1944, called upon for what the Association for Asian Studies later described as her "rare expertise on the Japanese economy,"[6] and she "helped plan the Japanese deconcentration program".[13] Hadley went to work studying zaibatsu in the Business Practice Branch of the International Area Committee for the Far East's Commodities Division, and she concluded that zaibatsu were "one of the architects of Japan's irresponsible government" in the years of its military aggression.[14] When SWNCC drafted the Basic Directive—policy directions to guide Douglas MacArthur during the anticipated occupation of Japan—Hadley drafted the research policy paper undergirding the portion of the Directive which recommended dissolving the zaibatsu in order to democratize the Japanese economy.[15]

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Empire of Japan

Empire of Japan

The Empire of Japan, also known as the Japanese Empire or Imperial Japan, was a historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan. It encompassed the Japanese archipelago and several colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 8:00 a.m. on Sunday, December 7, 1941. The United States was a neutral country at the time; the attack led to its formal entry into World War II the next day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, and as Operation Z during its planning.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

Comprehensive examination

Comprehensive examination

In higher education, a comprehensive examination, often abbreviated as "comps", is a specific type of examination that must be completed by graduate students in some disciplines and courses of study, and also by undergraduate students in some institutions and departments. Unlike final examinations, comprehensive examinations are not linked to any particular course, but rather test knowledge across one or more general fields of study.

All but dissertation

All but dissertation

"All but dissertation" (ABD) is a term identifying a stage in the process of obtaining a research doctorate, most commonly used in the United States.

Office of Strategic Services

Office of Strategic Services

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was the intelligence agency of the United States during World War II. The OSS was formed as an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for all branches of the United States Armed Forces. Other OSS functions included the use of propaganda, subversion, and post-war planning.

State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee

State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee

The State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee was a United States federal government committee created in December 1944 to address the political-military issues involved in the occupation of the Axis powers following the end of World War II.

Zaibatsu

Zaibatsu

Zaibatsu is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial vertically integrated business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II. A zaibatsu's general structure included a family-owned holding company on top, and a bank which financed the other, mostly industrial subsidiaries within them. Although the zaibatsu played an important role in the Japanese economy from the 1860s to 1945, they increased in number and importance following the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, World War I and Japan's subsequent attempt to conquer East Asia during the inter-war period and World War II. After World War II they were dissolved by the Allied occupation forces and succeeded by the keiretsu. Equivalents to the zaibatsu can still be found in other countries, such as the chaebol conglomerates of South Korea.

Association for Asian Studies

Association for Asian Studies

The Association for Asian Studies (AAS) is a scholarly, non-political and non-profit professional association focusing on Asia and the study of Asia. It is based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

Douglas MacArthur

Douglas MacArthur

Douglas MacArthur was an American military leader who served as General of the Army for the United States, as well as a field marshal to the Philippine Army. He had served with distinction in World War I, was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s, and he played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. MacArthur was nominated for the Medal of Honor three times, and received it for his service in the Philippines campaign. This made him along with his father Arthur MacArthur Jr. the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the U.S. Army, and the only one conferred the rank of field marshal in the Philippine Army.

Occupation of Japan

Occupation of Japan

Japan was occupied and administered by the victorious Allies of World War II from the 1945 surrender of the Empire of Japan at the end of the war until the Treaty of San Francisco took effect in 1952. The occupation, led by the United States with support from the British Commonwealth and under the supervision of the Far Eastern Commission, involved a total of nearly 1 million Allied soldiers. The occupation was overseen by American General Douglas MacArthur, who was appointed Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers by US President Harry Truman; MacArthur was succeeded as supreme commander by General Matthew Ridgway in 1951. Unlike in the occupation of Germany, the Soviet Union had little to no influence over the occupation of Japan, declining to participate because it did not want to place Soviet troops under MacArthur's direct command.

Occupation of Japan

Japan publicly announced its surrender on August 15, 1945, and formally surrendered to the United States on September 2, 1945. The Allied Powers, with the United States leading, began a military occupation of Japan with Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP).[16] Early in the occupation, the Yasuda zaibatsu submitted an economic plan to SCAP which called for dissolving the zaibatsu holding companies but not the business combines themselves. When MacArthur approved this plan, the American press criticized the decision as too lenient, and United States president Harry S. Truman sent a team of economists led by Corwin Edwards to address these concerns in January 1946.[17] Hadley was interested in immediate assignment to work for SCAP as part of the Edwards mission, but she was kept off the all-male team, despite having written the zaibatsu policy paper, because she was a woman. Hadley, still a doctoral candidate with an in-progress dissertation, finally joined the occupation in April 1946 when SCAP's Government Section issued a request for staff familiar with Japan.[18] Hadley worked directly for the Government Section, but she also assisted the Economic and Scientific Section's Anti-Trust and Cartels Division.[19]

The D. C. Evening Star reporting on Hadley's AAUW fellowship.[20]
The D. C. Evening Star reporting on Hadley's AAUW fellowship.[20]

Upon arrival, in addition to being one of the first women professionals to work at SCAP, Hadley soon played what economists Patricia Hagan Kuwayama and Hugh T. Patrick call a "key role" in the occupation because for several months she was "the only member of the Occupation staff with a knowledge of and commitment to the economic deconcentration program" outlined in the Basic Directive she had helped write.[6][21] Breaking up the zaibatsu was Hadley's role in the occupation.[22]

Hadley's first memorandum, written to Major General Courtney Whitney in June 1946, pointed out the Yasuda plan's deviation from the Basic Direction, which called for dissolving business combines as well as holding companies. Hadley's memo eventually influenced MacArthur to pursue more vigorous deconcentration policy, including purging more than 1,500 corporate officers as part of dissolving the zaibatsu, and Hadley was assigned to help implement this.[23] Hadley was also involved in establishing the Japan Fair Trade Commission and creating antitrust competition laws. Ultimately, deconcentration laid the groundwork for modern Japan becoming a "more open and democratic society as well as a more competitive and stronger economy," Kuwayama and Patrick explain.[6]

When Hadley first arrived at SCAP, her rank was P-3, comparable to an army captain, but she "advanced fairly rapidly," as she recalled, to P-5: "the equivalent of a major."[24] Major General Courtney Whitney valued Hadley's work on his staff so much that when she considered returning to the United States in order to accept a fellowship from the American Association of University Women (AAUW), he wrote to the association to request they allow Hadley to defer the fellowship for a year, which the AAAUW granted.[6] In the meantime, Hadley researched for her dissertation in what spare time she had.[10]

In the latter half of 1947, however, anticommunist fears became more prominent in American society, and domestic politics shifted against economic democratization. Businessmen and conservatives in government, such as senator William Knowland, criticized the deconcentration program, and SCAP eventually pursued a "reverse course" on economic reforms.[6][25] Concurrently, Major General Charles Willoughby, the ultraconservative chief of SCAP's intelligence division and an opponent of the deconcentration program, claimed without basis that there was a "leftist infiltration" in SCAP and investigated Eleanor Hadley without the knowledge of those she worked with, resulting in her blacklisting as an uncleared potential security risk in the eyes of the FBI.[6][26]

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Allies of World War II

Allies of World War II

The Allies, formally referred to as the United Nations from 1942, were an international military coalition formed during the Second World War (1939–1945) to oppose the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and Fascist Italy. Its principal members by 1941 were the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and China.

Occupation of Japan

Occupation of Japan

Japan was occupied and administered by the victorious Allies of World War II from the 1945 surrender of the Empire of Japan at the end of the war until the Treaty of San Francisco took effect in 1952. The occupation, led by the United States with support from the British Commonwealth and under the supervision of the Far Eastern Commission, involved a total of nearly 1 million Allied soldiers. The occupation was overseen by American General Douglas MacArthur, who was appointed Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers by US President Harry Truman; MacArthur was succeeded as supreme commander by General Matthew Ridgway in 1951. Unlike in the occupation of Germany, the Soviet Union had little to no influence over the occupation of Japan, declining to participate because it did not want to place Soviet troops under MacArthur's direct command.

Douglas MacArthur

Douglas MacArthur

Douglas MacArthur was an American military leader who served as General of the Army for the United States, as well as a field marshal to the Philippine Army. He had served with distinction in World War I, was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s, and he played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. MacArthur was nominated for the Medal of Honor three times, and received it for his service in the Philippines campaign. This made him along with his father Arthur MacArthur Jr. the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the U.S. Army, and the only one conferred the rank of field marshal in the Philippine Army.

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers

The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the United States-led Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. It issued SCAP Directives to the Japanese government, aiming to suppress its "militaristic nationalism". The position was created at the start of the occupation of Japan on August 14, 1945.

Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman was the 33rd president of the United States, serving from 1945 to 1953. A leader of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 34th vice president from January to April 1945 under Franklin Roosevelt and as a United States senator from Missouri from 1935 to January 1945. Assuming the presidency after Roosevelt's death, Truman implemented the Marshall Plan to rebuild the economy of Western Europe and established both the Truman Doctrine and NATO to contain the expansion of Soviet communism. He proposed numerous liberal domestic reforms, but few were enacted by the Conservative Coalition which dominated the Congress.

Corwin D. Edwards

Corwin D. Edwards

Corwin D. Edwards was an American economist.

Courtney Whitney

Courtney Whitney

Major General Courtney Whitney was a lawyer and United States Army commander during World War II who later served as a senior official during the American occupation of Japan (1945–1951). He played a major role in the liberalization of Japanese government, society, and economy during the occupation.

Fair Trade Commission (Japan)

Fair Trade Commission (Japan)

The Japan Fair Trade Commission is the competition regulator in Japan. It is a commission of the Japanese government responsible for regulating economic competition, as well as enforcement of the Antimonopoly Act. Headed by a chairman, the commission is commonly known as Kōtori (公取) or Kōtorii (公取委).

Competition law

Competition law

Competition law is the field of law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies. Competition law is implemented through public and private enforcement. It is also known as antitrust law, trust busting, anti-monopoly law, and trade practices law.

American Association of University Women

American Association of University Women

The American Association of University Women (AAUW), officially founded in 1881, is a non-profit organization that advances equity for women and girls through advocacy, education, and research. The organization has a nationwide network of 170,000 members and supporters, 1,000 local branches, and 800 college and university partners. Its headquarters are in Washington, D.C. AAUW's CEO is Gloria L. Blackwell.

Charles A. Willoughby

Charles A. Willoughby

Charles Andrew Willoughby was a major general in the U.S. Army, serving as General Douglas MacArthur's chief of intelligence during most of World War II and the Korean War.

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U.S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.

Post-occupation

Hadley left Japan in September 1947, returning to Radcliffe to complete her doctorate,[27] funded by an AAUW fellowship.[20] She finished her program in 1949 with a dissertation titled "Concentrated Business Power in Japan", about zaibatsu before World War II.[6][8]

After matriculating at Radcliffe, although Hadley received what Kuwayama and Patrick call "an impressive array of offers including academic, nonprofit, and official positions," she instead sought a job in the government because working for SCAP had brought her "professional satisfaction." However, when the CIA recruited her as an analyst, she was denied security clearance and could not be hired. Several other jobs offered to Hadley "disappear[ed]," and she subsequently realized that Willoughby had "blackballed" her such that she could only work on the fringes of government.[6][28] She did work for President Truman's Commission on Migratory Labor from 1950 to 1951, though only through the recommendation of a SCAP friend who personally knew its executive director, Varden Fuller.[8][29] The blacklisting was such a demoralizing hit to her reputation that Hadley later reminisced that during this time she "was afraid to get a book out of the library."[27]

When Smith College offered Hadley an appointment in its economics department in 1956, she accepted, leaving government for academia.[30] Hadley taught at Smith from 1956 to 1965, taking 1963 to 1965 off to research in Japan on a Fulbright Fellowship.[8]

In 1965, Washington senator Henry M. Jackson began working to help Hadley clear her name from the blacklist.[27] Hadley finally received security clearance for executive branch jobs in 1966.[8] Willoughby had never had any concrete accusations against her.[31]

Finally cleared for government work, Hadley worked for the U. S. Tariff Commission as an economist from 1967 to 1974. In 1974, comptroller general Elmer B. Staats hired her to work for the General Accounting Office where she became assistant director of the International Division, working until 1981.[8][32] While working for the government, Hadley finished writing the manuscript of Antitrust in Japan, subsequently published by Princeton University Press in 1970,[33] participated in the interuniversity Japan Economic Seminar,[6] and taught as a lecturer at George Washington University, from 1972 to 1984.[8]

Excerpt from AAS statement on Hadley's Award for Distinguished Contributions

"As a woman in a profession where women are rare, as a Japan specialist in a discipline that disdained country-and-culture analysis, as a dedicated economist subjected to unfair political discrimination, you surmounted every obstacle—firmly, intelligently, and with consummate grace."

Association for Asian Studies, March 14, 1997[6]

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Central Intelligence Agency

Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency, known informally as the Agency and historically as the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, officially tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT) and performing covert actions. As a principal member of the United States Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. President Harry S. Truman had created the Central Intelligence Group under the direction of a Director of Central Intelligence by presidential directive on January 22, 1946, and this group was transformed into the Central Intelligence Agency by implementation of the National Security Act of 1947.

Smith College

Smith College

Smith College is a private liberal arts women's college in Northampton, Massachusetts. It was chartered in 1871 by Sophia Smith and opened in 1875. It is the largest member of the historic Seven Sisters colleges, a group of elite women's colleges in the Northeastern United States. Smith is also a member of the Five College Consortium, along with four other nearby institutions in the Pioneer Valley: Mount Holyoke College, Amherst College, Hampshire College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst; students of each college are allowed to attend classes at any other member institution. On campus are Smith's Museum of Art and Botanic Garden, the latter designed by Frederick Law Olmsted.

Fulbright Program

Fulbright Program

The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs with the goal of improving intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries, through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. Via the program, competitively-selected American citizens including students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists, and artists may receive scholarships or grants to study, conduct research, teach, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States. The program was founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946 and is considered to be one of the most widely recognized and prestigious scholarships in the world. The program provides approximately 8,000 grants annually – roughly 1,600 to U.S. students, 1,200 to U.S. scholars, 4,000 to foreign students, 900 to foreign visiting scholars, and several hundred to teachers and professionals.

Henry M. Jackson

Henry M. Jackson

Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson was an American lawyer and politician who served as a U.S. representative (1941–1953) and U.S. senator (1953–1983) from the state of Washington. A Cold War liberal and anti-Communist Democrat, Jackson supported higher military spending and a hard line against the Soviet Union, while also supporting social welfare programs, civil rights, and labor unions.

United States International Trade Commission

United States International Trade Commission

The United States International Trade Commission is an agency of the United States federal government that advises the legislative and executive branches on matters of trade. It is an independent, bipartisan entity that analyzes trade issues such as tariffs and competitiveness and publishes reports. As a quasi-judicial entity, the USITC investigates the impact of imports on U.S. industries, and directs actions against unfair trade practices, such as subsidies; dumping; and intellectual property infringement, including copyright infringement.

Elmer B. Staats

Elmer B. Staats

Elmer Boyd Staats was an American public servant whose career from the late 1930s to the early 1980s was primarily associated with the Bureau of the Budget (BOB) and the GAO. Staats was born to Wesley F. and Maude (Goodall) Staats. Staats received his AB from McPherson College in 1935, his MA from the University of Kansas in 1936, and his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1939.

Government Accountability Office

Government Accountability Office

The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluative, and investigative services for the United States Congress. It is the supreme audit institution of the federal government of the United States. It identifies its core "mission values" as: accountability, integrity, and reliability. It is also known as the "congressional watchdog".

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within academia and society at large.

George Washington University

George Washington University

The George Washington University is a private federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. Chartered in 1821 by the United States Congress, GWU is the largest institution of higher education in the District of Columbia.

Later life

Hadley retired from her career on the East Coast in 1984, though thereafter she lectured as a visiting scholar at the University of Washington from 1986 to 1994.[6][34]

In 1986, the Japanese government bestowed upon Hadley the Order of the Sacred Treasure, third degree. A decade later, on March 14, 1997, Hadley received an Award for Distinguished Contributions to Asian Studies from the Association for Asian Studies (AAS).[6]

Hadley died June 1, 2007, at Swedish Medical Center in Seattle. There is a scholarship in her name with Mortar Board: the Eleanor Hadley Scholarship.[1]

Discover more about Later life related topics

University of Washington

University of Washington

The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.

Order of the Sacred Treasure

Order of the Sacred Treasure

The Order of the Sacred Treasure is a Japanese order, established on 4 January 1888 by Emperor Meiji as the Order of Meiji. Originally awarded in eight classes, since 2003 it has been awarded in six classes, the lowest two medals being abolished that year. Originally a male-only decoration, the order has been made available to women since 1919.

Association for Asian Studies

Association for Asian Studies

The Association for Asian Studies (AAS) is a scholarly, non-political and non-profit professional association focusing on Asia and the study of Asia. It is based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

Swedish Health Services

Swedish Health Services

Swedish Health Services, formerly Swedish Medical Center, is the largest nonprofit health provider in the Seattle metropolitan area. It operates five hospital campuses, ambulatory care centers in the cities of Redmond and Mill Creek, and Swedish Medical Group, a network of more than 100 primary-care and specialty clinics. It is affiliated with many other health care providers across Washington state, and had 8,886 employees and 6,023 credentialed physicians as of 2013.

Mortar Board

Mortar Board

The Mortar Board is an American national honor society for college seniors. Mortar Board has 233 chartered collegiate chapters nationwide and 15 alumni chapters.

Publications

Antitrust in Japan

Published in 1970 by Princeton University Press,[33] Antitrust in Japan examines the results of the deconcentration program Hadley had participated in by comparing the prewar and postwar economies of Japan to see the impact of zaibatsu dissolution. Hadley examines zaibatsu, keiretsu, kombinato, and subsidiaries, among other structures, as well as how the Japanese government influences the economy.[35] Antitrust advocates for free market economics, and the book generally assumes that American capitalism and its institutions are superior to Japan's economy.[36] Nevertheless, Hadley organizes and productively analyzes the large amount of information on zaibatsu and deconcentration, and she offers multiple novel interpretations, such as on banking group behavior and oligopoly.[35] Amid critical assessments of the Japanese economy, in Antitrust Hadley also sympathizes with Japanese people and admires Japanese culture. Economist George Cyril Allen wrote that Antitrust was "undoubtedly the most comprehensive and authoritative" study on zaibatsu and their dissolution then available to "Western readers."[36] In a reference to Antitrust, political scientist Meredith Woo-Cumings called Hadley a "leading chronicler of the anti-trust experiment in Japan during the Occupation."[37]

Selected bibliography

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Keiretsu

Keiretsu

A keiretsu is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings. In the legal sense, it is a type of informal business group that are loosely organized alliances within the social world of Japan's business community. The keiretsu system dominated the Japanese economy for the second half of the 20th century, following the dissolution of the zaibatsu after World War II, and, to a lesser extent, continues to do so in the early 21st century.

Free market

Free market

In economics, a free market is an economic system in which the prices of goods and services are determined by supply and demand expressed by sellers and buyers. Such markets, as modeled, operate without the intervention of government or any other external authority. Proponents of the free market as a normative ideal contrast it with a regulated market, in which a government intervenes in supply and demand by means of various methods such as taxes or regulations. In an idealized free market economy, prices for goods and services are set solely by the bids and offers of the participants.

Capitalism

Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Central characteristics of capitalism include capital accumulation, competitive markets, price system, private property, property rights recognition, voluntary exchange, and wage labor. In a market economy, decision-making and investments are determined by owners of wealth, property, or ability to maneuver capital or production ability in capital and financial markets—whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.

Culture of Japan

Culture of Japan

The culture of Japan has changed greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia and other regions of the world.

George Cyril Allen

George Cyril Allen

George Cyril Allen, published as G. C. Allen, was a British economist and academic. He was Brunner Professor of Economic Science at the University of Liverpool from 1933 to 1947, and then Professor of Political Economy at University College London from 1947 to 1967. He wrote on Japanese and British industrial policy.

Harvard Business Review

Harvard Business Review

Harvard Business Review (HBR) is a general management magazine published by Harvard Business Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard University. HBR is published six times a year and is headquartered in Brighton, Massachusetts.

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within academia and society at large.

Internet Archive

Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge". It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of September 10, 2022, the Internet Archive holds over 35 million books and texts, 8.5 million movies, videos and TV shows, 894 thousand software programs, 14 million audio files, 4.4 million images, 2.4 million TV clips, 241 thousand concerts, and over 734 billion web pages in the Wayback Machine.

Toyo Keizai

Toyo Keizai

Toyo Keizai Inc. is a book and magazine publisher specializing in politics, economics and business, based in Tokyo, Japan.

Routledge

Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, and specialises in providing academic books, journals and online resources in the fields of the humanities, behavioural science, education, law, and social science. The company publishes approximately 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences.

Source: "Eleanor Hadley", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_Hadley.

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See also
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e Green, Sara Jean (June 6, 2007). "Eleanor Hadley Spent Her Life Standing up to Oppression, Dies at 90". The Seattle Times (obituary). Archived from the original on October 20, 2007. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
  2. ^ Matthews, Todd (November 16, 2012). "Fearing Its Demolition, Preservationists Nominate McMillin Bridge to Pierce County's Historic Register". Tacoma Daily Index. Archived from the original on May 23, 2021.
  3. ^ Pimentel, Benjamin (June 13, 1991). "Teacher Margaret S. Hadley, 102; Had Special Rapport With Disabled". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on November 10, 2022.
  4. ^ a b c Thiry 2007, p. 22.
  5. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, p. 19.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kuwayama, Patricia Hagan; Patrick, Hugh T. (2003). "Introduction". Memoir of a Trustbuster: A Lifelong Adventure with Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. pp. 1–15. ISBN 0-8248-2589-6.
  7. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, p. vii.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Collier, Irwin (November 24, 2021). "Radcliffe/Harvard. Economics Ph.D. alumna Eleanor Martha Hadley, 1949". Economics in the Rear-View Mirror. Archived from the original on November 25, 2021. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  9. ^ "The Great Debate". The National World War II Museum. Archived from the original on October 25, 2022. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  10. ^ a b Thiry 2007, p. 23.
  11. ^ "Charles B. (Charles Burton) Fahs". The Online Collections and Catalog of Rockefeller Archive Center. Retrieved November 8, 2022.
  12. ^ Thiry 2007, p. 22, Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, p. 50
  13. ^ Takemae 2002, p. 335.
  14. ^ Mayo, Marlene J. (1982). "American Wartime Planning for Occupied Japan: The Role of the Experts". In Wolfe, Robert (ed.). Americans as Proconsuls: United States Military Government in Germany and Japan, 1944–1952. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 3–51. ISBN 0-8093-1115-1. OL 3162932M.
  15. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, pp. 51–54, Thiry 2007, p. 23.
  16. ^ Dower 1999, pp. 19, 40, 73.
  17. ^ Thiry 2007, pp. 18–19.
  18. ^ Thiry 2007, p. 19–23.
  19. ^ Takemae 2002, p. 160.
  20. ^ a b Smith, Gretchen (May 19, 1946). "Fellowship Awards are Made by AAUW to 22 Scholars". Washingtonians Interested. Evening Star. Washington, D. C. pp. D-12 – via Chronicling America.
  21. ^ Thiry 2007, p. 23–28.
  22. ^ "An Interview with Eleanor Hadley: From the Marlene J. Mayo Oral Histories". Gordon W. Prange Collection Blog. July 17, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ Thiry 2007, pp. 37–41, Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, pp. 69–70, 78–79, 99–101.
  24. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, p. 62.
  25. ^ Hadley, Eleanor M. (1984). "From Deconcentration to Reverse Course in Japan". In Wolfe, Robert (ed.). Americans as Proconsuls: United States Military Government in Germany and Japan, 1944–1952. Carbondale: Southerin Illinois University Press. pp. 138–154. ISBN 0-8093-1115-1. OL 3162932M – via Internet Archive.
  26. ^ Takemae 2002, pp. 161–163.
  27. ^ a b c Thiry 2007, p. 56.
  28. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, p. 56.
  29. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, p. 134.
  30. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, p. 135.
  31. ^ Thiry 2007, p. 57.
  32. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, p. 148.
  33. ^ a b c Annual Report, 2003–2004 (PDF). New York: Center on Japanese Economy and Business, Columbia Business School. p. 59. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2022.
  34. ^ Hadley & Kuwayama 2003, pp. 157–158.
  35. ^ a b Yoshino, M. Y. (July 1971). "Antitrust in Japan. By Eleanor M. Hadley". Journal of Business. 44 (3): 339–341. doi:10.1086/295387. JSTOR 2351350 – via JSTOR.
  36. ^ a b Allen, G. C. (December 1970). "Antitrust in Japan. By E. M. Hadley". The Economic Journal. 80 (320): 951–953. doi:10.2307/2229917. JSTOR 2229917 – via Oxford Academic.
  37. ^ Woo-Cumings, Meredith (2003). "Economic Crisis and Corporate Reform in East Asia". In Mead, Walter Russell; Schwenninger, Scherle (eds.). The Bridge to a Global Middle Class: Development, Trade, and International Finance. Doldrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 439–512. ISBN 1-4020-7329-1. OL 19288988M.
  38. ^ Hadley, Eleanor M. (Winter 1976–77). ""Industrial Organization" by Caves and Uekusa: A Review Essay". Japanese Economic Studies. 5 (2): 64. doi:10.2753/JES1097-203X050264.
References
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