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Dwight York

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Dwight York
Dwight York arrested.jpg
York after his arrest in 2002.
Born (1945-06-26) June 26, 1945 (age 77)
Other namesMalachi Z. York, Issa al-Haadi al-Mahdi, and others[1][2][3]
OrganizationNuwaubian Nation[1][2][3]
Criminal statusIncarcerated at ADX Florence in Florence, Colorado[3]
SpouseKathy Johnson[3]
Criminal chargeChild sexual abuse, rape, racketeering, conspiracy, fraud[3]
Penalty135 years in prison[3]

Dwight D. York[1][2][4] (born June 26, 1945),[3][5][6] also known as Malachi Z. York,[1][2] Issa al-Haadi al-Mahdi,[2] et alii,[1][2][3] is an American criminal, pedophile, child molester, musician, and writer best known as the founding leader of several black Muslim groups in New York, most notably the Nuwaubian Nation, a new religious movement that has existed in some form since the 1960s.[1][2][3][7][8] He is a convicted child molester.[3]

York began founding several black Muslim groups in the late 1960s.[1][2][3] In 1967 he was preaching to the "Ansaaru Allah" (viz. African-Americans) in Brooklyn, New York, during the period of the black power movement.[1][2][3] He founded numerous religious movements under various names between the 1960s and 1980s.[1][2][3] These were at first based on pseudo-Islamic themes and Judaism (Nubian Islamic Hebrews).[1][2] Later he developed a theme derived from "Ancient Egypt", mixing ideas taken from black nationalism, cryptozoology, Christianity, UFO religions, New Age, and popular conspiracy theories.[1][2][3] He last called his group the United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors, Nuwaubian Nation, or Nuwabians.[1][3]

Around 1990, York and the Nuwaubian Nation relocated to rural Putnam County, Georgia, where they built a large complex.[3] They came under scrutiny in the early 1990s, after they built Tama-Re, an Egyptian-themed "city" for about a hundred of his followers in Putnam County.[3] Before York's trial, the community had been joined directly and in the area by hundreds of other followers from out of state, while alienating both Black and White local residents. The community was intensively investigated after numerous reports that York had molested numerous children of his followers.[3] He and his group were originally based in Brooklyn, New York and some of them relocated to Athens, Georgia after his arrest.[3] York was convicted in 2004 of child molestation and violations of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act.[3][7] He is serving a 135-year sentence.[3]

York and his wife, Kathy Johnson, were arrested in May 2002.[3] In 2004, he was convicted on federal charges of transporting minors across state lines for the purposes of child sexual molestation, as well as racketeering and financial reporting violations.[3] York's case was reported as the largest prosecution for child molestation ever directed at a single person in the history of the United States, both in terms of number of victims and number of incidents.

Discover more about Dwight York related topics

Child sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse (CSA), also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include engaging in sexual activities with a child, indecent exposure, child grooming, and child sexual exploitation, such as using a child to produce child pornography.

New York (state)

New York (state)

New York, officially the State of New York, is a state in the Northeastern United States. It is often called New York State to distinguish it from its largest city, New York City. With a total area of 54,556 square miles (141,300 km2), New York is the 27th-largest U.S. state by area. With 20.2 million people, it is the fourth-most-populous state in the United States as of 2021, with approximately 44% living in New York City, including 25% of the state's population within Brooklyn and Queens, and another 15% on the remainder of Long Island, the most populous island in the United States. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east; it has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest.

Afrocentrism

Afrocentrism

Afrocentrism is an approach to the study of world history that focuses on the history of people of recent African descent. It is in some respects a response to Eurocentric attitudes about African people and their historical contributions. It seeks to counter what it sees as mistakes and ideas perpetuated by the racist philosophical underpinnings of Western academic disciplines as they developed during and since Europe's Early Renaissance as justifying rationales for the enslavement of other peoples, in order to enable more accurate accounts of not only African but all people's contributions to world history. Afrocentricity deals primarily with self-determination and African agency and is a Pan-African point of view for the study of culture, philosophy, and history.

Black power

Black power

Black Power is a political slogan and a name which is given to various associated ideologies which aim to achieve self-determination for black people. It is primarily, but not exclusively, used by black people activists and proponents of what the slogan entails in the United States. The Black Power movement was prominent in the late 1960s and early 1970s, emphasizing racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture, promote and advance what was seen by proponents of the movement as being the collective interests and values of black Americans.

Islam

Islam

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet. It is the world's second-largest religion behind Christianity, with its followers ranging between 1-1.8 billion globally, or around a quarter of the world's population. Due to the average younger age and higher fertility rate, Islam is the world's fastest growing major religious group, and is projected by Pew Research Center to be the world's largest religion by the end of the 21st century, surpassing that of Christianity. It teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humanity through various prophets, revealed scriptures, and natural signs, with the Quran serving as the final and universal revelation and Muhammad serving as the "Seal of the Prophets". The teachings and practices of Muhammad documented in traditional collected accounts provide a secondary constitutional model for Muslims to follow after the Quran.

Judaism

Judaism

Judaism is an Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Modern Judaism evolved from Yahwism, the religion of ancient Israel and Judah, by the late 6th century BCE, and is thus considered to be one of the oldest monotheistic religions. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Israelites, their ancestors. It encompasses a wide body of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization.

Black nationalism

Black nationalism

Black nationalism is a racist variation of racial nationalism or pan-nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a race, and which seeks to develop and maintain a black racial and national identity. Black nationalist activism revolves around the social, political, and economic empowerment of black communities and people, especially to resist their assimilation into white culture, and maintain a distinct black identity.

Cryptozoology

Cryptozoology

Cryptozoology is a pseudoscience and subculture that searches for and studies unknown, legendary, or extinct animals whose present existence is disputed or unsubstantiated, particularly those popular in folklore, such as Bigfoot, the Loch Ness Monster, Yeti, the chupacabra, the Jersey Devil, or the Mokele-mbembe. Cryptozoologists refer to these entities as cryptids, a term coined by the subculture. Because it does not follow the scientific method, cryptozoology is considered a pseudoscience by mainstream science: it is neither a branch of zoology nor of folklore studies. It was originally founded in the 1950s by zoologists Bernard Heuvelmans and Ivan T. Sanderson.

Christianity

Christianity

Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest religion with roughly 2.38 billion followers representing one-third of the global population. Its adherents, known as Christians, are estimated to make up a majority of the population in 157 countries and territories and are a minority in all others.

New Age

New Age

New Age is a range of spiritual or religious practices and beliefs which rapidly grew in Western society during the early 1970s. Its highly eclectic and unsystematic structure makes a precise definition difficult. Although many scholars consider it a religious movement, its adherents typically see it as spiritual or as unifying Mind-Body-Spirit, and rarely use the term New Age themselves. Scholars often call it the New Age movement, although others contest this term and suggest it is better seen as a milieu or zeitgeist.

Athens, Georgia

Athens, Georgia

Athens, officially Athens–Clarke County, is a consolidated city-county and college town in the U.S. state of Georgia. Athens lies about 70 miles northeast of downtown Atlanta, and is a satellite city of the capital. The University of Georgia, the state's flagship public university and an R1 research institution, is in Athens and contributed to its initial growth. In 1991, after a vote the preceding year, the original City of Athens abandoned its charter to form a unified government with Clarke County, referred to jointly as Athens–Clarke County.

Fraud

Fraud

In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law or criminal law, or it may cause no loss of money, property, or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong. The purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, for example by obtaining a passport, travel document, or driver's license, or mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements.

Biography

Early life

York incorporates a "™" trade-mark suffix into his signature on a Liberian Consulate document.
York incorporates a "™" trade-mark suffix into his signature on a Liberian Consulate document.

According to a birth certificate issued in the United States, Dwight D. York was born in Boston, Massachusetts.[9] Other sources give his birthplace as New Jersey,[10] New York,[6] Baltimore,[11] or Takoradi, Ghana.[12]

York says that he was raised in Massachusetts, and at the age of seven went to Aswan, Egypt, to learn about Islam. "My grandfather, As Sayyid Abdur Rahman Al Mahdi, the Imaam of the Ansaars in the Sudan until 1959 AD, upon looking into my eyes foretold that I was the one who would possess 'the light.'"[13] He says he returned to the United States in 1957 at age 12 and continued to study Islam. As an adolescent, he moved with his family to Teaneck, New Jersey.

In the late 1960s York, calling himself "Imaam Isa", combined elements of the Moorish Science Temple of America, the Nation of Islam, the Nation of Gods and Earths and Freemasonry, and founded a quasi-Muslim black nationalist movement and community. He called it "Ansaar Pure Sufi", or the "Ansaaru Allah Community", c. 1970.[14] He instructed members to wear black and green dashikis.[6]

He later changed his name to "Imaam Isa Abdullah" and renamed his "Ansaar Pure Sufi" ministry to the "Nubians" in Brooklyn in 1967.[6] The group was considered to be part of the Black Hebrews phenomenon, under the name "Nubian Islaamic Hebrews" and "Nubian Hebrew Mission" as of 1969.[15] Unlike other groups, they were not Judeo-Christian but Judeo-Islamic.[16] This was also the period of Black Power among some African Americans.

Ansaaru Allah Community (1970)

York later traveled to Africa, to Sudan and Egypt in particular. He met and persuaded members of Mohamed Ahmed Al-Mahdi's family to finance him to set up a cell of their organization in the United States. This was to be a "west" or "American" political wing of Sudan's Ansar movement under Sadiq al-Mahdi (also see Umma Party). He began to develop the claim of his "Sudanese" roots in order to authenticate his American branch of the sect.[6]

After York returned from a pilgrimage to (Egypt and Sudan), he invited Sadiq Al-Mahdi to the US. In 1970 his group changed its name to the "Ansaaru Allah Community in the West".[17] A 1993 FBI report described this group as a "front for a wide range of criminal activity, including arson, welfare fraud and extortion."[18]

The group wrote:

The women of the Ansaaru Allah Community focus on memorizing history as their Imam sees it, learning Arabic (many of them are quite fluent), incorporating Sudanese etiquette into their mannerisms and memorizing the Qur'an. They participate in the compilation of the various texts produced by the community and also work in the recording studio owned by the community. Other than this work, the women's main source of income comes from US government public assistance and monies earned by the men in various enterprises such as food shops, jewelry and merchandise stores, and street vending.[17]

Brooklyn (1980–1993)

The New York Press reported on York:

He was based in Coney Island for a time, and operated a bookstore and a printing press on Flatbush Ave. in the 70s. In the 80s he was based in Brooklyn, on Bushwick Ave. York's students are best remembered by New Yorkers as practitioners of orthodox Islam – members of certain New York Five-Percent Nation, Nation of Islam and Arab Islamic mosques still regard the Nuwaubians as a rival faction – but at different times they followed the paths of Christianity and Judaism. Operations relocated to Liberty, near the Catskills, around 1991, then to Georgia in 1993.[19]

The community in Brooklyn, reported as identifying as the "Holy Tabernacle of the Most High" and also as the "Children of Abraham", was said to be led by Rabboni Y'shua Bar El Haady. They practiced a mixture of Judaism and Islam. They were reported as numbering about 300 persons and in 1994 the group reportedly still owned nine apartment buildings, of which five were in tax arrears. Local politicians were concerned that the abandoned buildings would become centers of uses that would damage the neighborhood. Anecdotal reports were that some of the group went to Monroe County, New York, and others to Georgia.[20]

Musical productions

In the early 1980s, York performed as vocalist with his own groups, known as Jackie and the Starlights, the Students, and Passion.

He launched his own record label, named Passion Productions, recording as the solo artist "Dr. York". His debut release was the single "Only a Dream" (later included in the album New York, Hot Melt Records UK, 1985). "Dr. York" and Passion Productions were advertised in the May 4, 1985, issue of Billboard magazine.[21]

Later York formed York Records releasing the music of several successful artists within the genre of R&B, Hip Hop, Gospel, and others.  York Records released York's single called “It’s Too Late” in 1986 featuring Sarah Dash of Patti Labelle's Labelle. In 1988 York Records released “He’s Coming” by Gospel legends Doc Mckenzie and the Hi-Lites. Also in 1988 he released Kenne & Petite's “What Is He To You?”. Petite went onto become the early 90s group Ex-Girlfriend featuring Stacy Francis from X-Factor and TV One's R&B Divas Los Angeles. Then Nubian Egyptian/Sudanese vocalist and oud player Hamza El Din “Live At The Ansaaru Allah Community In America” also in 1998.

He also released Passion on his York Records and Passion Records imprint. A group that consisted of York, Zeemo (Abdul Aziz), and Steve (Segovia) and later even featured Wendell Sawyer, Vernon Sawyer, and Ted Mills of the group Blue Magic.[22] York said he performed popular music in order to "reach a mass majority of my people through my music."[23]

His Passion Studios recorded artists like Force MD's, Fredro Starr of Onyx, and Stetsasonic.[20]

Ministry and fraternal orders

York's groups had a variety of names and functions: quasi-religious, fraternal, and tribal. They were called "Holy Tabernacle Ministries", "Egiptian [sic] Church of Karast," "Holy Seed Baptist Synagogue", "Ancient Mystic Order of Melchizedek", "Ancient Egiptian [sic] Order", "All Eyez on Egypt", "United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors", "Yamassee Native American Tribe", "Washitaw Tribe", and "Lodge 19 of the Ancient and Mystic Order of Malachizodok."[24] While drawing from various religious and historical themes, Malachi York continued to focus on Nubia. He promoted a design featuring an ankh in the middle of a six-pointed star of Judaism and Islamic crescent, a symbol used by the Ansarullah Community. The ankh is associated with pre-Islamic Sudan, Nubia.

Dwight York changed his name legally in 1990 to "Issa al Haadi al Mahdi" when he was still living in Brooklyn.[25] He changed it again in 1993 to "Malachi York",[9] but also adopted a number of titles and pseudonyms, including "The Supreme Grand Master Dr. Malachi Z. York," "Nayya Malachizodoq-El", and "Chief Black Eagle".

By 1985 York had added miracle-performance to his repertoire. He claimed to materialize sacred, healing ash in front of his followers, much in the fashion of Sathya Sai Baba.[26]

In 1988 York was convicted of obtaining a passport with a false birth certificate.[27]

Move to Georgia and construction of Tama-Re (1993–2002)

The central part of the "Tama-Re" compound, as seen from the air, 2002. Photograph by Kenneth C. Budd.
The central part of the "Tama-Re" compound, as seen from the air, 2002. Photograph by Kenneth C. Budd.

York left Brooklyn with an estimated 300 followers about 1990. Some settled in upstate New York. He later moved with numerous followers to Georgia. Others joined them from such cities as Baltimore, Philadelphia, Hartford, New York and Washington, D.C.[8] According to former follower Robert J. Rohan, who later wrote a book about the movement, York moved in order to avoid criminal investigations and other charges in New York.[28]

Perhaps to avoid scrutiny from the international Muslim community, the Nation of Islam, the Nation of Gods and Earths, legal troubles, and the negative history of his group during their New York period, he changed his own name several times, as well as the group's name, and masked different parts of their doctrine.[18] In Georgia, they changed their name to the "United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors".[14]

At York's direction, the community purchased land and built Tama-Re (originally named Kadesh), an Egyptian-themed complex built on 476 acres (1.93 km2) of land near Eatonton, Georgia. It was built over a period of years and completed in 1993.

Tensions with county authorities increased in 1998, when the county sought an injunction against construction and uses that violated zoning. At the same time, the Nuwaubian community increased its leafletting of Eatonton and surrounding areas, charging white officials with racial discrimination and striving to increase opposition to them. Threats mounted and an eviscerated dog carcass was left at the home of the county attorney.[8]

Within Putnam County, the Nuwaubians lost black support, in part by trying to take over the NAACP chapter. But outside, they appealed to activists, claiming to be persecuted in the county. During this period, the group maintained Holy Tabernacle stores "in more than a dozen cities in the U.S., the United Kingdom and Trinidad."[8] And York purchased a $557,000 mansion in Athens, Georgia, about 60 miles away, the base of the University of Georgia.[8]

In July 1999, Time magazine reported on the "40-ft. pyramids, obelisks, gods, goddesses and a giant sphinx," built by York's followers in rural Georgia in an article titled "Space Invaders".[29]

In 2005 federal government officials acquired the property of Tama-Re through asset forfeiture after York was convicted and sentenced to prison for 135 years. He owed money for violating financial laws. After the property was sold, new owners demolished the buildings and monuments.

Arrest and conviction of child molestation (2002–present)

Beginning in Brooklyn, York had established strict sexual practices within the community, reserving for himself sexual access to many women and girls, including wives and children of followers.

Theodore Gabriel wrote about these practices:

[W]hile extolling the virtues and importance of family life and the conjugal relationship, he [York] denies such relationships to his followers except at strictly controlled intervals. He urges his female followers to pattern themselves on the Islamic paradigms of the wife and the mother, apparently desiring the creation of stable family units. But in reality the husbands and wives are segregated in dormitories, separated also from their children. York permits spouses to cohabit only once every three months. They are permitted to meet in the "Green Room" by prior appointment only.[30]

Anonymous letters were sent to Putnam County officials alleging child molestation at the Nuwaubian community. The FBI, which had started investigating the group in 1993, assigned a major task force to it. In 2002 York was arrested and charged with more than 100 counts of sexually molesting dozens of children, some as young as four years old. According to Bill Osinski, who wrote a 2007 book about York and the case:

When he [York] was finally indicted, state prosecutors literally had to cut back the number of counts listed — from well beyond a thousand to slightly more than 200 — because they feared a jury simply wouldn't believe the magnitude of York's evil.… [It] is believed to be the nation's largest child molestation prosecution ever directed at a single person, in terms of number of victims and number of alleged criminal acts.[31]

In early 2003 York's lawyer had him evaluated by a forensic psychologist, who diagnosed a DSM-IV impression consisting of Axis I – Clinical Syndrome of Delusional (Paranoid) Disorder, Generalized anxiety disorder, Adjustment disorder with depressed mood, and Axis IIpersonality disorders; histrionic personality traits, self-defeating personality traits, and schizotypal personality features.[32]

In 2003, York entered into a plea bargain that was later dismissed by the judge. He was convicted by a jury on January 23, 2004. The judge rejected his plea to be returned for trial to his own "tribe", after York claimed status as an indigenous person:

Your Honor, with all due respects to your government, your nation, and your court, we the indigenous people of this land have our own rights, accepted sovereign, our own governments. We are a sovereign people, Yamassee, Native American Creeks, Seminole, Washitaw Mound Builders. And all I'm asking is that the Court recognize that I am an indigenous person. Your court does not have jurisdiction over me. I should be transferred to the Moors Cherokee Council Court in which I will get a trial by juries of my peers. I cannot get a fair trial, Your Honor, if I'm being tried by the settlers or the confederates. I have to be tried by Native Americans as a Native American. That's my inalienable rights, and it's on record.[33]

He asserted to the court that he was a "secured party", and answered questions in court with the response: "I accept that for value." This may have been a heterodox legal strategy based on patriot mythology.[34]

Early in 2004, York was convicted in federal court by a jury of multiple RICO, child molestation, and financial reporting charges. He was sentenced to 135 years in prison.[35]

His case was appealed to the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, which upheld the convictions on October 27, 2005.[36] A U.S. Supreme Court appeal was denied in June 2006.[37]

York's followers assert a number of defenses, including that their leader Malachi Z. York, who was charged and convicted, is not the same person as the Dwight D. York who is listed in court documents as the defendant. (One of York's sons is named Dwight, and sometimes the claim is made that it is York's son and not York who is or should be the real defendant.) Others say that York was "set up" by his son Jacob in coordination with al Qaeda-linked American mosques jealous of York's influence among black Muslims.

York believes that his betrayal, arrest, trial and imprisonment (and eventual release) were foretold in chapter 10 of Zecharia Sitchin's The Wars of the Gods and the Men, with York being represented by Mar-duq in that story.[38]

Imprisonment

As of 2020, Dwight York is serving his sentence at the United States Penitentiary Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX) in Florence, Colorado, as Inmate # 17911–054. His projected release date is July 12, 2120.[39]

York's followers have said that since 1999 York has been a Consul General of Monrovia, Liberia, under appointment from then-President Charles Taylor. They argue he should be given diplomatic immunity from prosecution and extradited as a persona non-grata to Liberia.[40] Officials have not accepted this claim.

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Liberia

Liberia

Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean to its south and southwest. It has a population of around 5 million and covers an area of 43,000 square miles (111,369 km2). English is the official language, but over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, reflecting the country's ethnic and cultural diversity. The country's capital and largest city is Monrovia.

Boston

Boston

Boston, officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financial center of the New England region of the United States. It is the 24th-most populous city in the country. The city boundaries encompass an area of about 48.4 sq mi (125 km2) and a population of 675,647 as of 2020. It is the seat of Suffolk County. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest MSA in the country. A broader combined statistical area (CSA), generally corresponding to the commuting area and including Providence, Rhode Island, is home to approximately 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.

Baltimore

Baltimore

Baltimore is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, fourth most populous city in the Mid-Atlantic, and the 30th most populous city in the United States with a population of 585,708 in 2020. Baltimore was designated an independent city by the Constitution of Maryland in 1851, and today is the most populous independent city in the United States. As of 2021, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be 2,838,327, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles (64 km) north northeast of Washington, D.C., making it a principal city in the Washington–Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the third-largest CSA in the nation, with a 2021 estimated population of 9,946,526.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Maine to the east, Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state's capital and most populous city, as well as its cultural and financial center, is Boston. Massachusetts is also home to the urban core of Greater Boston, the largest metropolitan area in New England and a region profoundly influential upon American history, academia, and the research economy, Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing, and trade. Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.

Aswan

Aswan

Aswan is a city in Southern Egypt, and is the capital of the Aswan Governorate.

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Islam

Islam

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet. It is the world's second-largest religion behind Christianity, with its followers ranging between 1-1.8 billion globally, or around a quarter of the world's population. Due to the average younger age and higher fertility rate, Islam is the world's fastest growing major religious group, and is projected by Pew Research Center to be the world's largest religion by the end of the 21st century, surpassing that of Christianity. It teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humanity through various prophets, revealed scriptures, and natural signs, with the Quran serving as the final and universal revelation and Muhammad serving as the "Seal of the Prophets". The teachings and practices of Muhammad documented in traditional collected accounts provide a secondary constitutional model for Muslims to follow after the Quran.

Ansar (Sudan)

Ansar (Sudan)

The Ansar is a Sufi religious movement in the Sudan whose followers are disciples of Muhammad Ahmad, a Sudanese religious leader based on Aba Island, proclaimed himself Mahdi on 29 June 1881. His followers won a series of victories against the Egyptians culminating in the capture of Khartoum in January 1885.

Moorish Science Temple of America

Moorish Science Temple of America

The Moorish Science Temple of America is an American national and religious organization founded by Noble Drew Ali in the early twentieth century. He based it on the premise that African Americans are descendants of the Moabites and thus are "Moorish" by nationality, and Islamic by faith. Ali put together elements of major traditions to develop a message of personal transformation through historical education, racial pride and spiritual uplift. His doctrine was also intended to provide African Americans with a sense of identity in the world and to promote civic involvement.

Nation of Islam

Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African diaspora, especially on African Americans. While it identifies itself as promoting a form of Islam, its beliefs differ considerably from mainstream Islamic traditions. Scholars of religion characterise it as a new religious movement. It operates as a centralized and hierarchical organization.

Freemasonry

Freemasonry

Freemasonry or Masonry refers to fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local guilds of stonemasons that, from the end of the 13th century, regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups:Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture be open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women be admitted, and that the discussion of religion and politics be banned. Continental Freemasonry consists of the jurisdictions that have removed some, or all, of these restrictions.

Dashiki

Dashiki

The dashiki is a colorful garment that covers the top half of the body, worn mostly in West Africa. It is also known as a Kitenge in East Africa and is a common item of clothing in Tanzania and Kenya. It has formal and informal versions and varies from simple draped clothing to fully tailored suits. A common form is a loose-fitting pullover garment, with an ornate V-shaped collar, and tailored and embroidered neck and sleeve lines. It is frequently worn with a brimless kufi cap and pants. It has been popularized and claimed by communities in the African diaspora, especially African Americans.

Teachings

York has taught an ever-changing and multifaceted doctrine over the years, with influences and borrowings from many sources. It has included a baroque cosmology, unconventional theories about race and human origins, cryptozoological and extraterrestrial speculations, black nationalism, conspiracy theory, and religious practices invented or borrowed from many existing religions.

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Cosmology

Cosmology

Cosmology is a branch of physics and metaphysics dealing with the nature of the universe. The term cosmology was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blount's Glossographia, and in 1731 taken up in Latin by German philosopher Christian Wolff, in Cosmologia Generalis. Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological, religious, and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology. In the science of astronomy it is concerned with the study of the chronology of the universe.

Cryptozoology

Cryptozoology

Cryptozoology is a pseudoscience and subculture that searches for and studies unknown, legendary, or extinct animals whose present existence is disputed or unsubstantiated, particularly those popular in folklore, such as Bigfoot, the Loch Ness Monster, Yeti, the chupacabra, the Jersey Devil, or the Mokele-mbembe. Cryptozoologists refer to these entities as cryptids, a term coined by the subculture. Because it does not follow the scientific method, cryptozoology is considered a pseudoscience by mainstream science: it is neither a branch of zoology nor of folklore studies. It was originally founded in the 1950s by zoologists Bernard Heuvelmans and Ivan T. Sanderson.

UFO religion

UFO religion

A UFO religion is any religion in which the existence of extraterrestrial (ET) entities operating unidentified flying objects (UFOs) is an element of belief. Typically, adherents of such religions believe the ETs to be interested in the welfare of humanity which either already is, or eventually will become, part of a pre-existing ET civilization. Other religions predate the UFO era of the mid 20th century, but incorporate ETs into a more supernatural worldview in which the UFO occupants are more akin to angels than physical aliens, but this distinction may be blurred within the overall subculture. These religions have their roots in the tropes of early science fiction and weird fiction writings, in ufology, and in the subculture of UFO sightings and alien abduction stories. Historians have considered the Aetherius Society, founded by George King, to be the first UFO religion.

Black nationalism

Black nationalism

Black nationalism is a racist variation of racial nationalism or pan-nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a race, and which seeks to develop and maintain a black racial and national identity. Black nationalist activism revolves around the social, political, and economic empowerment of black communities and people, especially to resist their assimilation into white culture, and maintain a distinct black identity.

Conspiracy theory

Conspiracy theory

A conspiracy theory is an explanation for an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy by sinister and powerful groups, often political in motivation, when other explanations are more probable. The term has a negative connotation, implying that the appeal to a conspiracy is based on prejudice or insufficient evidence. A conspiracy theory is not the same as a conspiracy; instead, it refers to a hypothesized conspiracy with specific characteristics, such as an opposition to the mainstream consensus among those people who are qualified to evaluate its accuracy.

Claim of extraterrestrial origin

York has claimed to be an extraterrestrial master teacher from the planet Rizq. He wrote, "We have been coming to this planet before it had your life form on it. ... My incarnation as an Ilah Mutajassid or Avatara was originally in the year 1945 A.D. In order to get here I travelled by one of the smaller passenger crafts called SHAM out of a Motherplane called MERKABAH or NIBIRU." This version of York came to Earth on March 16, 1970. (Comet Bennett, which was visible on that date, is said to have really been York's spacecraft.) York taught that the Motherplane/NIBIRU would launch the Crystal City or New Jerusalem (see: Book of Revelation 21:2) to our solar system from its position in Orion. A 40-year process of taking the 144,000 Chosen Few (see: Book of Revelation 14:1) — 12,000 each from the Twelve Tribes of Israel — into the Planet Craft NIBIRU began on August 12, 2003, and will end on August 12, 2043. These Chosen Few will be groomed for 1,000 years and returned to Earth for the final battle against the Luciferians and also to redeem man from the 6,000-year rulership of the Devil and his seed.[41]

Descent

York has had a variety of stories about his ancestry and birth, including that he was born in Omdurman, Sudan. This has not been documented. His parents of record are Mary C. York (née Williams), now also known as Faatimah Maryam, and her husband David Piper York.[8] York has claimed that his biological father was Al Haadi Abdur Rahman Al Mahdi, whom his mother ostensibly met while studying as a student in the Sudan.[42] This is not supported by any documentary sources.

York claims that the name he was given at birth was "Isa Al Haadi Al Mahdi" and that he was not given the name "York" (without a first name) until a month later when he and his mother returned to Boston.[43] David and Mary York had four other children together: David, Dale, Debra and Dennis.[42] York has claimed, without documentation being found, that his father was descended from "Ben" York, an enslaved African American who took part in the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806).[42]

He claims a paternal Sudanese grandfather, As Sayyid Abdur Rahman Al Mahdi, making York a descendant of the Muslim leader Muhammad Ahmad.[44] There is no documentation to support this.

On his mother's side, York described his maternal grandfather, Clarence Daniel "Bobby" Williams, as "an Egyptian Moor named Salah Hailak Al Ghala, a merchant seaman from a little village called Beluwla, in Nubia of Ancient Egypt."[45] Another genealogical tree shows Bobby Williams' father as unknown and his mother as "Madam Decontee" of the Bassa tribe of Liberia.[42] These claims have not been documented.

Discover more about Descent related topics

Omdurman

Omdurman

Omdurman is a city in Sudan. It is the most populated city in the country, and thus also in the State of Khartoum. Omdurman lies on the west bank of the River Nile, opposite and northwest of the capital city of Khartoum.

Isa (name)

Isa (name)

Isa is a classical Arabic name and a translation of Jesus. The name Isa is the name used for Jesus in the Quran. However, it is not the only translation; it is most commonly associated with Jesus as depicted in Islam, and thus, commonly used by Muslims.

Mahdi

Mahdi

The Mahdi is a messianic figure in Islamic eschatology who is believed to appear at the end of times to rid the world of evil and injustice. He is said to be a descendant of Muhammad who will appear shortly before the prophet ʿĪsā (Jesus) and lead Muslims to rule the world.

Boston

Boston

Boston, officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financial center of the New England region of the United States. It is the 24th-most populous city in the country. The city boundaries encompass an area of about 48.4 sq mi (125 km2) and a population of 675,647 as of 2020. It is the seat of Suffolk County. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest MSA in the country. A broader combined statistical area (CSA), generally corresponding to the commuting area and including Providence, Rhode Island, is home to approximately 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Lewis and Clark Expedition

The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the United States expedition to cross the newly acquired western portion of the country after the Louisiana Purchase. The Corps of Discovery was a select group of U.S. Army and civilian volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark. Clark and 30 members set out from Camp Dubois, Illinois, on May 14, 1804, met Lewis and ten other members of the group in St. Charles, Missouri, then went up the Missouri River. The expedition crossed the Continental Divide of the Americas near the Lemhi Pass, eventually coming to the Columbia River, and the Pacific Ocean in 1805. The return voyage began on March 23, 1806, at Fort Clatsop, Oregon, and ended on September 23 of the same year.

Muhammad Ahmad

Muhammad Ahmad

Muhammad Ahmad was a Nubian Sufi religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, studied Sunni Islam. In 1881, he claimed to be the Mahdi, and led a successful war against Ottoman-Egyptian military rule in Sudan and achieved a remarkable victory over the British, in the siege of Khartoum. He created a vast Islamic state extending from the Red Sea to Central Africa, and founded a movement that remained influential in Sudan a century later.

Egyptians

Egyptians

Egyptians are an ethnic group native to the Nile Valley in Egypt. Egyptian identity is closely tied to geography. The population is concentrated in the Nile Valley, a small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the east and to the west. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since antiquity.

Moors

Moors

The term Moor, derived from the ancient Mauri, is an exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages.

Nubia

Nubia

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between the first cataract of the Nile and the confluence of the Blue and White Niles, or more strictly, Al Dabbah. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, the Kerma culture, which lasted from around 2500 BC until its conquest by the New Kingdom of Egypt under Pharaoh Thutmose I around 1500 BC, whose heirs ruled most of Nubia for the next 400 years. Nubia was home to several empires, most prominently the Kingdom of Kush, which conquered Egypt in the eighth century BC during the reign of Piye and ruled the country as its 25th Dynasty.

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeast Africa situated in the Nile Valley. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Bassa people (Liberia)

Bassa people (Liberia)

The Bassa people are a West African ethnic group primarily native to Liberia. The Bassa people are a subgroup of the larger Kru people of Liberia and Ivory Coast. They form a majority or a significant minority in Liberia's Grand Bassa, Rivercess, Margibi and Montserrado counties. In Liberia's capital of Monrovia, they are the largest ethnic group. With an overall population of about 1.05 million, they are the second largest ethnic group in Liberia (18%), after the Kpelle people (26%). Small Bassa communities are also found in Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast.

Liberia

Liberia

Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean to its south and southwest. It has a population of around 5 million and covers an area of 43,000 square miles (111,369 km2). English is the official language, but over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, reflecting the country's ethnic and cultural diversity. The country's capital and largest city is Monrovia.

Aliases

York has been known by a multitude of aliases over the years, many of which he used simultaneously. They include the following:

  • Dr. York
  • Malakai Z. York
  • Dr. Malachi Z. York-El
  • H.E. Dr. Malachi Kobina Yorke™
  • Imperial Grand Potentate Noble: Rev. Dr. Malachi Z. York 33°/720°
  • Consul General: Dr. Malachi Z. York ©™
  • Grand Al Mufti "Divan" Noble Rev. Dr. Malichi Z. York-El
  • As Sayyid Al Imaam Issa Al Haadi Al Mahdi
  • Asayeed El Imaam Issa El Haaiy El Mahdi
  • Isa Abd'Allah Ibn Abu Bakr Muhammad
  • Isa al Haadi al-Mahdi
  • Al Hajj Al Imaam Isa Abd'Allah Muhammad Al Mahdi
  • Irie I Sayyid Al Mumbra Issa El Haajidi Tundi the Divine and Noble Blackthello

(Note: there is no documentation for completing formal degrees that support his use of the title Doctor or Dr.)

Source: "Dwight York", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_York.

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See also
References
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Palmer, Susan J. (2021). "The United Nuwaubian Nation". In Zeller, Ben (ed.). Handbook of UFO Religions. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. Vol. 20. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 343–353. doi:10.1163/9789004435537_017. ISBN 978-90-04-43437-0. ISSN 1874-6691. S2CID 236767801.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Palmer, Susan J. (2021). "The Ansaaru Allah Community". In Cusack, Carole M.; Upal, M. Afzal (eds.). Handbook of Islamic Sects and Movements. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. Vol. 21. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 694–723. doi:10.1163/9789004435544_037. ISBN 978-90-04-43554-4. ISSN 1874-6691.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Nuwaubian Nation of Moors". SPLCenter.org. Montgomery, Alabama: Southern Poverty Law Center. 2022 [September 2015]. Archived from the original on September 8, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2022.
  4. ^ "United States v. York, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, October 27, 2005". Findlaw.
  5. ^ Purported birth certificate of York shows birth as June 26, 1945, Archived August 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b c d e Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. The Ansar Cult in America, Tawheed Publications 1988, p. 1. Philips claims that in 1975 York's publications changed his declared birth year from 1935 to 1945, to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of the Sudanese Mahdi, who is popularly believed to have been born in 1845.
  7. ^ a b Menjor, David S. (September 28, 2018). "Mixup at U.S. Bureau of Prisons over Identity of Dr. Malachi York and Son, Dwight". Liberian Observer. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Moser, Bob. "'Savior' in a Strange Land: A black supremacist cult leader meets his match in rural Georgia", Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report 107 (Fall, 2002), as archived by the Internet Archive March 2005; Archived June 4, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ a b In the Matter of the Application of Issa Al Haadi Al Mahdi for leave to change his name to Malachi York January 15, 1993 [1] Archived December 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Osinski, Bill "Cult leader ignored his own rules," Atlanta Journal-Constitution, July 7, 2002 "Ajc.com | Metro | Cult leader ignored own rules". Archived from the original on March 3, 2003. Retrieved April 14, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  11. ^ Lewis, James (ed.) Odd Gods: New Religions and the Cult Controversy, Prometheus Books 2001 ISBN 1573928429 P.184
  12. ^ York, Mary C. "Affidavit of confirmation of true birth records of Malachi Kobina York/Yorke by myself his biological mother," April 19, 2001
  13. ^ Malachi Z. York, The Ansaar Cult, Rebuttal to the Slanderers, Factology website, archived by the Internet Archive in Feb. 2005;
  14. ^ a b Carol Brennan, "York, Dwight D.", Encyclopedia.com, 2016
  15. ^ Glossary from McKee, Susan, "A Provisional History of Muslims in the United States" (work-in-progress), as archived by the Internet Archive, Jan. 2004;
  16. ^ Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. The Ansar Cult in America Tawheed Publications, 1988, p. 3
  17. ^ a b "Ansaaru Allah Nubian Islamic Hebrews: Ourstory!", Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ a b "Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek, Index of Cults and Religions", Watchman Fellowship ministry
  19. ^ Heimlich, Adam. "Black Egypt: A Visit to Tama-Re", New York Press, 14 November 2000, Archived January 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ a b Hevesi, Dennis. "Muslims Leave Bushwick: The Neighbors Ask Why," New York Times, April 24, 1994
  21. ^ "Dr. York". Billboard. May 4, 1985. p. 41.
  22. ^ "Record News", Sounds, December 14, 1985, p. 6
  23. ^ York, Malachi Z. "El's Qur'aan 18:60–82, What It Means Today," The Truth (Bulletin), The 7 Heads and the 10 Horns (1993) p. 12
  24. ^ "Malachi York". Masonic Info. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.;
  25. ^ "In the matter of the Application of Dwight York a/k/a/ Isa Muhammad, leave to change his name to Issa al Haadi al Mahdi," N.Y. Supreme Court, Brooklyn, Kings County, November 27, 1989
  26. ^ Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. The Ansar Cult, 1988, p. 36 (referring to York's 1985 books The Man of Miracles in This Day and Time and You Are Adam's Descendants)
  27. ^ Testimony of Jalaine Ward, quoted in Peecher, Rob. "FBI: York molested dozens; grand jury indicts Nuwaubian leader on 116 state counts", The Macon Telegraph, May 14, 2002 "The Macon Telegraph | 05/14/2002 | FBI: York molested dozens; grand jury indicts Nuwaubian leader on 116 state counts". Archived from the original on June 16, 2002. Retrieved August 11, 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  28. ^ Sharon E. Crawford, "Former Nuwaubian writes book, tells how York duped followers," The Macon Telegraph, 14 March 2005, posted at New Age Fraud website; accessed May 26, 2016
  29. ^ Joe Kovac Jr., "New Book Asks Provocative Questions About Dwight York", The Macon Telegraph, May 20, 2007, accessed May 25, 2016
  30. ^ Gabriel, Theodore. "Dwight York – a religious and cultural bricoleur," in Partridge, C. UFO Religions, Routledge, 2003, p. 152
  31. ^ Osinski, Bill. Ungodly: Fact Sheet Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Ungodly: A True Story of Unprecedented Evil book website
  32. ^ Robinson, Matt. Attachments filed with the 2241 habeas corpus motion, April 27, 2006
  33. ^ U.S. v. York (Case 02-CR-27-1) 30 June 2003 transcripts
    see also: Peecher, Rob "York claims immunity as Indian: Defense raises new issues as about 200 show support," Macon Telegraph, 1 July 2003
  34. ^ Peecher, Rob. "Lawyer withdraws guilty plea for York: Nuwaubian leader likely to face new charges, including racketeering," Macon Telegraph, October 25, 2003
  35. ^ [2], Online Athens, Georgia
  36. ^ U.S. v. Dwight D. York, a.k.a. Malakai Z. York, etc. 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, D.C. Docket No. 02-00027-CR-CAR-5-1, October 27, 2005 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2005. Retrieved October 28, 2005.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ Dwight D. York, Petitioner v. United States Docket for 05-1503
  38. ^ York, Malachi Z. Compilation of Powerful Letters 27 June 2005
  39. ^ Inmate Locator, Federal Bureau of Prisons
  40. ^ "Liberian Repatriation Efforts" Nuwaubian Administration of International Affairs http://www.officialnaia.org/Without%20flash/indexa.htm. Retrieved March 20, 2006. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help); see also Johnson, Joe "Notaries play role in fake document ploy: York's sect at it again," Athens Banner-Herald 20 December 2009
  41. ^ "Man from Planet Rizq". The Holy Tabernacle Ministries. January 1996.
  42. ^ a b c d "York Genealogy Chart of African and Native Decendancy" Nuwaubian Administration of International Affairs[3] Archived April 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ "Issue #1 Who is Dwight D. York?" United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors [4] Archived April 20, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. The Ansar Cult in America, Tawheed Publications, 1988, p. 12
  45. ^ "Genealogy of Consul General Dr. Malachi Z. York and his African-Native Moorish American-Aboriginal and Indigenous Peoples of the Land Heritage," Nuwaubian Administration of International Affairs [5] Archived November 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
Further reading
  • Kossy, Donna. "Ansaaru Allah Community," in Kooks: A Guide to the Outer Limits of Human Belief, Feral House, 1994 (ISBN 0-922915-19-9)
  • Osinski, Bill. Ungodly: A True Story of Unprecedented Evil, Indigo Custom Publishing, 2007 (ISBN 1934144134)
  • Palmer, Susan J. "The Ansaaru Allah Community: United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors," in The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects and New Religions, ed. by Lewis, James R., Prometheus Books, 2001
  • Rohan, Robert J. Holding York Responsible, Robert J. Rohan, 2005
  • Atlanta Journal-Constitution, September 20, 1998, p. C1; January 24, 2004, p. D1.
  • Fulton County Daily Report, July 27, 2007.
  • Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA) - articles on York dated June 10, 2005; May 20, 2007.
  • New York Press, November 8, 2000.
  • Orange County Register (Santa Ana, CA), April 22, 2004.
  • Time, July 12, 1999, p. 32.
  • Washington Times, June 2, 2002, p. A5.
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